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By sophisticated application of particle-in-cell simulations, we demonstrate the ultimate role of non-linear pulse evolutions in accelerating electrons during the entrance of an intense laser pulse into a preformed density profile. As a key point in our discussions, the non-linear pulse evolutions are found to be very fast even at very low plasma densities, provided that the pulse length exceeds the local plasma wavelength. Therefore, these evolutions are sufficiently developed during the propagation of typical short density scale lengths occurred at high contrast ratios of the pulse, and lead to plasma heating via stochastic acceleration in multi-waves. Further analysis of simulation data at different physical parameters indicates that the rate of evolutions increases with the plasma density leading to higher plasma heating and overgrown energetic electrons. In the same way, shortening the density scale length results into increase in the evolution rate and, simultaneously, decrease in the interaction time. This behavior can describe the observed optimum value of pre-plasma scale length for the maximum electron heating.
An unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus diseases (EVD) occurred in West Africa from March 2014 to January 2016. The French Institute for Public Health implemented strengthened surveillance to early identify any imported case and avoid secondary cases.
Febrile travellers returning from an affected country had to report to the national emergency healthcare hotline. Patients reporting at-risk exposures and fever during the 21st following day from the last at-risk exposure were defined as possible cases, hospitalised in isolation and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Asymptomatic travellers reporting at-risk exposures were considered as contact and included in a follow-up protocol until the 21st day after the last at-risk exposure.
From March 2014 to January 2016, 1087 patients were notified: 1053 were immediately excluded because they did not match the notification criteria or did not have at-risk exposures; 34 possible cases were tested and excluded following a reliable negative result. Two confirmed cases diagnosed in West Africa were evacuated to France under stringent isolation conditions. Patients returning from Guinea (n = 531; 49%) and Mali (n = 113; 10%) accounted for the highest number of notifications.
No imported case of EVD was detected in France. We are confident that our surveillance system was able to classify patients properly during the outbreak period.
In this paper, the electrons energy spectrum produced by stochastic acceleration in the interaction of an intense laser pulse with the underdense plasma is described by employing the fully kinetic 1D-3 V particle-in-cell simulation. In this way, two finite laser pulses with the same length 200 fs and with two different rise times 30 and 60 fs are typically selected. It is shown that the maximum energy of electrons in the laser pulse with the short rise time (30 fs) is about eight times greater than the maximum energy of the electrons with the long rise time (60 fs). Furthermore, unlike the pulse with the short rise time, the shape of energy spectrum and the electrons temperature in the long rise time laser pulse are approximately unchanged over the time. These results originated from the fact that in the case of long rise time laser pulse, all electrons are accelerated by the one chaotic mechanism because of the scattered fields generated in the plasma, but in the case of short rise time laser pulse, three different mechanisms accelerate the electrons: first, the stochastic acceleration because of the nonlinear wave breaking via plasma-vacuum boundary effect; second, the stochastic acceleration initiated by the wave breaking; and third, the direct laser acceleration of the released electrons.
In this paper, a heuristic algorithm based on particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is introduced to investigate the harmonic generation during the ionization and formation of plasma by a non-relativistic laser field when it propagates through hydrogen atoms. The harmonic generation is considered for the radiative recombination of an ionized electron with its nearest ion. The ionization algorithm is improved by considering the Stark effect and nonzero velocity for ionized electrons. Energy conservation is evaluated during the recombination process. In our code, for the first time, Maxwell's equations are integrated for harmonic fields in a separate mesh using the artificial recombination current as a source term. The simulation results are then used to illustrate the intensity spectrum of generated fields. It is shown that the initial momentum of ionized electrons affects the harmonic spectrum because the energy of radiated photons varies with the electron energy.
This paper focuses on the trajectory planning for a UAV on a low altitude terrain following/threat avoidance (TF/TA) mission. Using a grid-based approximated discretisation scheme, the continuous constrained optimisation problem into a search problem is transformed over a finite network. A variant of the Minimum Cost Network Flow (MCNF) to this problem is then applied. Based on using the Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) and discrete dynamic equations of motion, the four-dimensional (4D) trajectory (three spatial and one time dimensions) from a starting point to an end point is obtained by minimising a cost function subject to dynamic and mission constraints of the UAV. For each arc in the grid, a cost function is considered as the combination of the arc length, fuel consumption and flight time. The proposed algorithm which considers dynamic and altitude constraints of the UAV explicitly is then used to obtain the feasible trajectory. The resultant trajectory can increase the survivability of the UAV using the threat region avoidance and the terrain masking effect. After obtaining the feasible trajectory, an improved algorithm is proposed to smooth the trajectory. The numeric results are presented to verify the capability of the proposed approach to generate admissible trajectory in minimum possible time in comparison to the previous works.
Interaction of a linearly polarized Gaussian laser pulse (at relativistic intensity of 2.0 × 1020 Wcm−2) with a multi-layer foam (as a near critical density target) attached to a solid layer is investigated by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is found that electrons with longitudinal momentum exceeding the free electrons limit of meca02/2 so-called super-hot electrons can be produced when the direct laser acceleration regime is fulfilled and benefited from self-focusing inside of the subcritical plasma. These electrons penetrate easily through the target and can enhance greatly the sheath field at the rear, resulting in a significant increase in the maximum energy of protons in target normal sheath acceleration regime. The results indicate that the maximum proton energy is enhanced by 2.7 times via using an assembled target arrangement compared to a bare solid target. Furthermore, by demonstration of this assembly, the maximum proton energy is improved beyond the optimum amount achieved by a two-layer target proposed by Sgattoni et al. (2012).
In this paper, a control methodology is proposed for dual-user teleoperation system in the presence of unknown constant communication time delay. To satisfy dual-user system-desired objectives, three impedance characteristics are defined as the desired closed-loop system. In order to satisfy the desired impedance characteristics, a sliding-mode-based impedance controller is applied. The proposed controller affords unknown communication delay, an issue that is disregarded in the previous studies performed on dual-user systems. The nonlinear gain of the controller is achieved independent of time delay caused by communication channels. Therefore, the necessity of measurement or estimation of the time delay is relaxed. In addition, the stability analysis is presented for the closed-loop system using the passivity theory. The validity of the proposed controller scheme is demonstrated via experimental results performed on a dual-user system in the presence of unknown communication delay. In addition, due to lack of availability of forces corresponding to the operators’ hand that are required in the proposed controller, a Kalman Filter-based Force Observer (KFFO) is proposed.
Optimal antiretroviral strategies for HIV-infected patients still need to be established. To this end a decision tree including different antiretroviral strategies that could be adopted for HIV-infected patients was built. A 10-year follow-up was simulated by using transitional probabilities estimated from a large cohort using a time-homogeneous Markov model. The desired outcome was for patients to maintain a CD4 cell count of >500 cells/mm3 without experiencing AIDS or death. For patients with a baseline HIV viral load ⩾5 log10 copies/ml, boosted protease inhibitor-based immediate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) allowed them to spend 12% more time with CD4 ⩾500/mm3 than did delayed HAART (6·40 vs. 5·69 and 5·57 vs. 4·90 years for baseline CD4 ⩾500 and 350–499/mm3, respectively). In patients with a baseline HIV viral load ⩽3·5 log10 copies/ml, delayed HAART performed better than immediate HAART (6·43 vs. 6·26 and 5·95 vs. 5·18 for baseline CD4 ⩾500 and 350–499/mm3, respectively). Immediate HAART is beneficial in patients with a baseline HIV viral load ⩾5 log10 copies/ml, whereas deferred HAART appears to be the best option for patients with CD4 ⩾350/mm3 and baseline HIV viral load <3·5 log10 copies/ml.
The aim was to investigate the impact of the main prognostic factors on HIV evolution. A multi-state Markov model was applied in a cohort of 2126 patients to estimate impact of these factors on patients' clinical and immunological evolutions. Clinical progression and immunological deterioration shared most of their prognostic factors: male gender, intravenous drug use, weight loss, low haemoglobin level (<110 g/l), CD8 cell count (<500/mm3) and HIV viral load (>5 log10 copies/ml). Highly active retroviral therapy reduced the risks of clinical progression and immune deterioration whatever patients' CD4 cell count. Risk reductions were 41–60% for protease inhibitor-based and 27–68% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens. Three-year transition probabilities showed that only patients with a CD4 cell count ⩾350 CD4/mm3 could in most cases maintain their immunity. This model provides ‘real life’ transition probabilities from one immunological stage to another, allowing decision analyses that could help determine the beneficial therapeutic strategies for HIV-infected patients.
The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for acute diarrhoea (AD) during the summer
in France. A matched case-control study was conducted at a national level among patients of
500 general practitioners (GPs). From July to September 1996, 468 case-control pairs were
included. Cases were more likely than controls (i) to live away from their main residence (OR
3·0; 95% CI 1·6–5·7), (ii) to have returned from a country at high risk of AD (OR 4·6; CI
0·9–23·1), and (iii) to have been in contact with a case of AD (OR 2·0; CI 1·3–3·1). A
significantly decreased risk of AD was found for consumption of well-cooked chicken (OR 0·5;
CI 0·3–0·8) and raw or undercooked home-made egg-containing products (OR 0·6; CI 0·4–0·8).
These findings suggest that travel to high-risk areas, or travel within France, and being in
contact with a case of AD, are risk factors for the occurrence of AD in summer in France.
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