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The target backsheath field acceleration mechanism is one of the main mechanisms of laser-driven proton acceleration (LDPA) and strongly depends on the comprehensive performance of the ultrashort ultra-intense lasers used as the driving sources. The successful use of the SG-II Peta-watt (SG-II PW) laser facility for LDPA and its applications in radiographic diagnoses have been manifested by the good performance of the SG-II PW facility. Recently, the SG-II PW laser facility has undergone extensive maintenance and a comprehensive technical upgrade in terms of the seed source, laser contrast and terminal focus. LDPA experiments were performed using the maintained SG-II PW laser beam, and the highest cutoff energy of the proton beam was obviously increased. Accordingly, a double-film target structure was used, and the maximum cutoff energy of the proton beam was up to 70 MeV. These results demonstrate that the comprehensive performance of the SG-II PW laser facility was improved significantly.
Smartphones have the potential for capturing subtle changes in cognition that characterize preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in older adults. The Ambulatory Research in Cognition (ARC) smartphone application is based on principles from ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and administers brief tests of associative memory, processing speed, and working memory up to 4 times per day over 7 consecutive days. ARC was designed to be administered unsupervised using participants’ personal devices in their everyday environments.
We evaluated the reliability and validity of ARC in a sample of 268 cognitively normal older adults (ages 65–97 years) and 22 individuals with very mild dementia (ages 61–88 years). Participants completed at least one 7-day cycle of ARC testing and conventional cognitive assessments; most also completed cerebrospinal fluid, amyloid and tau positron emission tomography, and structural magnetic resonance imaging studies.
First, ARC tasks were reliable as between-person reliability across the 7-day cycle and test-retest reliabilities at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups all exceeded 0.85. Second, ARC demonstrated construct validity as evidenced by correlations with conventional cognitive measures (r = 0.53 between composite scores). Third, ARC measures correlated with AD biomarker burden at baseline to a similar degree as conventional cognitive measures. Finally, the intensive 7-day cycle indicated that ARC was feasible (86.50% approached chose to enroll), well tolerated (80.42% adherence, 4.83% dropout), and was rated favorably by older adult participants.
Overall, the results suggest that ARC is reliable and valid and represents a feasible tool for assessing cognitive changes associated with the earliest stages of AD.
The incidence of scarlet fever has increased dramatically in recent years in Chongqing, China, but there has no effective method to forecast it. This study aimed to develop a forecasting model of the incidence of scarlet fever using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Monthly scarlet fever data between 2011 and 2019 in Chongqing, China were retrieved from the Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System. From 2011 to 2019, a total of 5073 scarlet fever cases were reported in Chongqing, the male-to-female ratio was 1.44:1, children aged 3–9 years old accounted for 81.86% of the cases, while 42.70 and 42.58% of the reported cases were students and kindergarten children, respectively. The data from 2011 to 2018 were used to fit a SARIMA model and data in 2019 were used to validate the model. The normalised Bayesian information criterion (BIC), the coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the fitted model. The optimal SARIMA model was identified as (3, 1, 3) (3, 1, 0)12. The RMSE and mean absolute per cent error (MAPE) were used to assess the accuracy of the model. The RMSE and MAPE of the predicted values were 19.40 and 0.25 respectively, indicating that the predicted values matched the observed values reasonably well. Taken together, the SARIMA model could be employed to forecast scarlet fever incidence trend, providing support for scarlet fever control and prevention.
Describe a severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hospital outbreak and the role of serial testing of patients and healthcare personnel (HCP) in interrupting SARS-CoV-2 transmission.
Medical floor of a tertiary-care center in Minnesota.
Serial testing for SARS-CoV-2 and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of positive specimens from HCP and patients were used. An outbreak-associated case was defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test in an HCP who worked on the floor prior to testing positive or in a patient who was hospitalized on the medical floor bewteen October 27 and December 1, 2020. WGS was used to determine potential routes of transmission.
The outbreak was detected after a patient hospitalized for 12 days tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Serial testing of patients and HCP was conducted in response. Overall, 247 HCP and 41 patients participated in serial SARS-CoV-2 testing; 52 HCP (21%) and 19 hospitalized patients (46%) tested positive. One additional HCP tested positive outside serial testing. The WGS of specimens from 27 (51%) HCP and 15 (79%) patients identified 3 distinct transmission clusters. WGS and epidemiologic evidence suggested intrafacility transmission. The proportions of asymptomatic and presymptomatic patients who tested positive (63%) and HCP who worked during their infectious period (75%) highlight the need for serial testing of asymptomatic patients and HCP during outbreaks.
Coupled with preventive measures such as personal protective equipment use and physical distancing, serial testing of HCP and patients could help detect and prevent transmission within healthcare facilities during outbreaks and when nosocomial transmission is suspected.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The knowledge acquired from my research can inform the development of early diagnostic methods for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high but the neural mechanisms are unclear. We examined whether older people with HIV (PWH) with minimal cognitive impairment have reduced functional connectivity in frontostriatal circuits compared to controls. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 99 PWH (mean age 56.6 years, 75% male, 62% Black, mean duration of HIV-infection 26.2 years ±9.3, 90% viral load <50 copies, 98% on stable cART) and 38 demographically-comparable controls (mean age 54.5 years, 71% male, 58% Black) participated in a cross-sectional study. A 7-domain neuropsychological battery and an Activities of Daily Living index were used to determine HAND diagnoses: 32 PWH met criteria for asymptomatic to mild HAND. Motor skill was assessed using the Grooved Pegboard Test by measuring performance speed. Structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI were collected. Seed-to-voxel analyses were conducted using 4 distinct regions in the striatum as seed regions. We used a voxel threshold of p<0.001 and cluster threshold of p<0.05 (FDR-corrected) after controlling for demographic variables. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Compared to controls, PWH had lower resting state functional connectivity between the default mode region of the striatum (i.e., medial caudate) and bilateral superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor cortex and paracingulate gyrus (p<0.05; cluster size: 567 voxels). Also, compared to controls, PWH had reduced resting state functional connectivity between the motor division of the striatum (i.e., posterior putamen) and anterior cingulate cortex and left supplementary motor cortex (p<0.05, cluster size: 405 voxels). Performance speed on the Grooved Pegboard motor test negatively correlated with functional connectivity between the motor region of the striatum and supplementary motor frontal regions in all participants (Spearman’s rho=-0.18, p=0.04). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Our results support the hypothesis that frontostriatal abnormalities are widely present in PWH and might play a key role in HAND development. Our data suggest that dysfunction within the frontostriatal circuits may be involved in motor impairment in PWH, and ongoing inflammation may contribute to motor impairment and frontostriatal injury.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The history of immune suppression, especially CD4 nadir, has been shown to be a strong predictor of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, the potential mechanism of this association is not well understood. This study examined the relationship between CD4 nadir and brain atrophy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Fifty-nine people with HIV participated in the cross-sectional study (mean age, 56.5 ± 5.8; age range, 41-69; 15 females; 46 African-Americans). High resolution structural MRI images were obtained using a 3T Siemens scanner. From a comprehensive 7-domain neuropsychological test battery, a global deficit score (GDS) and HAND diagnoses were determined for each participant. The correlation between CD4 nadir (the lowest ever lymphocyte CD4 count) and cortical thickness was investigated using a vertex-wise non-parametric approach with a conservative statistical threshold of p < 0.05 (FWE-corrected). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Out of the 59 participants, 12 met standard Frascati criteria for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and two met the criteria for mild neurocognitive disorder (MND). Across all participants, low CD4 nadir was associated with widespread cortical thinning, especially in the frontal and temporal regions. Higher GDS (indicating worse global neurocognitive function) was associated with bilateral frontal cortical thinning, and the association largely persisted in the subset of participants who did not meet HAND criteria. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results suggest that the low CD4 nadir may be associated with widespread neural injury in the brain, especially in the frontal and temporal regions. This spatial profile might contribute to the prevalence/phenotypes of HAND in the cART era, such as the frequently observed deficits in the executive domain.
This report is on the synthesis by electrospinning of multiferroic core-shell nanofibers of strontium hexaferrite and lead zirconate titanate or barium titanate and studies on magneto-electric (ME) coupling. Fibers with well-defined core–shell structures showed the order parameters in agreement with values for nanostructures. The strength of ME coupling measured by the magnetic field-induced polarization showed the fractional change in the remnant polarization as high as 21%. The ME voltage coefficient in H-assembled films showed the strong ME response for the zero magnetic bias field. Follow-up studies and potential avenues for enhancing the strength of ME coupling in the core–shell nanofibers are discussed.
Small intestinal epithelium homeostasis involves four principal cell types: enterocytes, goblet, enteroendocrine and Paneth cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to affect enterocyte differentiation. This study determined the effect of dietary EGF on goblet, enteroendocrine and Paneth cell differentiation in piglet small intestine and potential mechanisms. Forty-two weaned piglets were used in a 2 × 3 factorial design; the major factors were time post-weaning (days 7 and 14) and dietary treatment (0, 200 or 400 µg/kg EGF supplementation). The numbers of goblet and enteroendocrine cells were generally greater with the increase in time post-weaning. Moreover, the supplementation of 200 µg/kg EGF increased (P < 0.01) the number of goblet and enteroendocrine cells in villus and crypt of the piglet small intestine as compared with the control. Dietary supplementation with 200 µg/kg EGF enhanced (P < 0.05) abundances of differentiation-related genes atonal homologue 1, mucin 2 and intestinal trefoil factor 3 messenger RNA (mRNA) as compared with the control. Piglets fed 200 or 400 µg/kg EGF diet had increased (P < 0.05) abundances of growth factor-independent 1, SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 mRNA, but decreased the abundance (P < 0.01) of E74 like ETS transcription factor 3 mRNA as compared with the control. Animals receiving 400 µg/kg EGF diets had enhanced (P < 0.05) abundances of neurogenin3 and SRY-box containing gene 9 mRNA as compared with the control. The mRNA abundance and protein expression of lysozyme, a marker of Paneth cell, were also increased (P < 0.05) in those animals. As compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 200 µg/kg EGF increased the abundance of EGF receptor mRNA and the ratio of non-phospho(p)-β-catenin/β-catenin (P < 0.05) in villus epithelial cells at days 7 and 14. This ratio in crypt epithelial cells was higher (P < 0.05) on the both 200 and 400 µg/kg EGF groups during the same period. Our results demonstrated that dietary EGF stimulated goblet, enteroendocrine and Paneth cell differentiation in piglets during the post-weaning period, partly through EGFR and Wnt/β-catenin signalling.
Latrophilin (LPH) is known as an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor which involved in multiple physiological processes in organisms. Previous studies showed that lph not only involved the susceptibility to anticholinesterase insecticides but also affected fecundity in Tribolium castaneum. However, its regulatory mechanisms in these biological processes are still not clear. Here, we identified two potential downstream carboxylesterase (cce) genes of Tclph, esterase4 and esterase6, and further characterized their interactions with Tclph. After treatment of T. castaneum larvae with carbofuran or dichlorvos insecticides, the transcript levels of Tcest4 and Tcest6 were significantly induced from 12 to 72 h. RNAi against Tcest4 or Tcest6 led to the higher mortality compared with the controls after the insecticides treatment, suggesting that these two genes play a vital role in detoxification of insecticides in T. castaneum. Furthermore, with insecticides exposure to Tclph knockdown beetles, the expression of Tcest4 was upregulated but Tcest6 was downregulated, indicating that beetles existed a compensatory response against the insecticides. Additionally, RNAi of Tcest6 resulted in 43% reductions in female egg laying and completely inhibited egg hatching, which showed the similar phenotype as that of Tclph knockdown. These results indicated that Tclph affected fecundity by positively regulating Tcest6 expression. Our findings will provide a new insight into the molecular mechanisms of Tclph involved in physiological functions in T. castaneum.
The Endangered snow leopard Panthera uncia is a flagship species of mountainous central Asia, and a conservation concern. China has the largest extent of potential snow leopard habitat and is thus crucial for snow leopard conservation. There are many challenges to snow leopard conservation in China, however, and there is still little information on the species for many geographical locations, including the Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang province, which are important because they potentially connect snow leopard populations in Krygyzstan and Kazakhstan with those in Mongolia. We used camera traps in four areas across eastern, central and western Tianshan, with a total survey effort of 3,216 camera-trapping days. We confirmed the presence of snow leopards and an abundance of potential snow leopard prey, including the Siberian ibex Capra sibirica, in all areas. We found 2–3 individual adult snow leopards at each site, with relatively limited survey effort, and more study is needed to fully investigate the importance of the Tianshan Mountains for the species. Establishing more protected areas is essential for snow leopard conservation, and we have used data from this study to apply for protected area status for several areas.
Annual bluegrass is a pervasive weed on golf courses in the Transition Zone of the United States and is difficult to selectively remove. For years, superintendents have applied glyphosate on dormant zoysiagrass to remove cool-season weeds. In 2007, a population of annual bluegrass in Columbia, MO, was not controlled with glyphosate after more than 10 yr of continuous applications. Greenhouse studies were established to compare the response of suspect glyphosate-resistant (CCMO1) and -susceptible annual bluegrass to glyphosate. Seedling plants were treated with glyphosate from 0 to 6.27 kg ae ha−1. At 21 d after treatment, reductions in biomass for susceptible annual bluegrass reached a maximum at glyphosate rates of 0.78 kg ha−1 or higher. Comparatively, the biomass of CCMO1 plants was only reduced by 50% at 0.78 kg ha−1, and reductions did not exceed 60% at rates up to 6.27 kg ha−1, which is eight times the labeled rate. At rates necessary to reduce plant dry weights by 50%, the resistance factor (RF) for CCMO1 was 5.2. Twenty-one days following biomass assessment, regrowth of plants was non-existent on susceptible plants at 0.78 kg ha−1 glyphosate or above, but CCMO1 plants reached 1.7 cm regrowth at the 6.27 kg ha−1 rate. Based on the regrowth, the RF for CCMO1 was 5.2. Results indicate a new species has been identified with resistance to glyphosate, and this represents the first report of glyphosate resistance in turfgrass.
Oriental mustard seed meal (MSM), a byproduct generated by pressing the seed for oil, exhibits herbicidal properties. In turfgrass, soil fumigants such as methyl bromide are used to control weeds prior to renovation of turf. Environmental concerns have resulted in deregistration of methyl bromide, prompting the need for alternatives. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of MSM on the establishment of selected turfgrass weeds as well as inhibitory effects on establishment of desirable turfgrasses. Greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2006 and 2007 at the University of Missouri. MSM was amended in soil at 0, 1,350 (low), 2,350 (medium), and 3,360 kg ha−1 (high) concentrations. Weed species included annual bluegrass, large crabgrass, buckhorn plantain, white clover, and common chickweed. Turfgrass species included: Rembrandt tall fescue, Evening Shade perennial rye, and Riviera bermudagrass. All species were seeded into soil amended with MSM and either tarped or left untarped. All treatments were compared to dazomet (392 kg ha−1), a synthetic standard. Plant counts and biomass of all species were recorded 4 wk after seeding. Overall, tarped treatments suppressed weed emergence 27 to 50% more compared to untarped treatments, except for large crabgrass. High rates of MSM suppressed emergence of all weeds ≥ 63%. Compared to the untreated control, the density of buckhorn plantain, white clover, and common chickweed was reduced by ≥ 42% at low rates of MSM. Biomass of buckhorn plantain, annual bluegrass, common chickweed, white clover, and large crabgrass was reduced from 37 to 99% at high rates of MSM. MSM at high rates reduced stand counts of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass up to 81% and 77% respectively, compared to the untreated control. Regardless of MSM rates or tarping, suppression of common bermudagrass emergence did not exceed 30%; tarped treatments actually increased bermudagrass emergence by 22%. The biomass for tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, and bermudagrass was reduced by 85, 68, and 10%, respectively, at high rates of MSM. For tall fescue, MSM at all rates strongly suppressed seed germination by 7 d after planting (DAP) (up to 100%), with additional germination observed through 14 DAP, but not thereafter. In both trials, dazomet completely suppressed emergence of all weeds. MSM appears to suppress emergence and growth of a number of weeds common in turf, with potential selectivity for bermudagrass.
Hypersonic projectiles are sometimes launched using a castellated sabot which links with matching cavities in the missile. After launch and the removal of the sabot the boundary layer over the vehicle flows past these cavities which act as a kind of roughness. Experiments were made to discover the effect of this ‘roughness’ on the flow over a flap or flare placed downstream of the cavities. Tests were made with both laminar and turbulent boundary layers, the turbulent flow being induced by vortex generators placed near the nose of the models.
An adaptive sliding mode guidance law guiding the line-of-sight angular rate to converge to zero was highly appraised. However, compared with the conventional proportional navigation law, adaptive sliding mode guidance law leads to large acceleration demand of the interceptor before the line-of-sight angular rate converging to zero, especially in a situation where the target has strong manoeuvrability as well as high velocity. In this paper, a strategy making the coefficients of the guidance law vary according to a fuzzy rule is proposed. Smaller guidance coefficients are selected at the beginning of the terminal guidance. Therefore, the guidance command is reduced and a smaller acceleration of the interceptor is incurred. As the coefficients grow to the fixed and desired values, the line-of-sight angular rate converges to zero rapidly, so that the convergence to the sliding surface is guaranteed. It is concluded that the fuzzy variable coefficients strategy is highly effective for tail-chase, head-on interception and head pursuit engagements as shown in the simulations.
Based on large-signal theory, a one-dimensional theoretical model of a coaxial vircator is developed to give the microwave gain of the nonlinear beam–wave interaction, and the effect of injected current premodulation on the microwave gain is analysed theoretically. In addition, a coaxial vircator with improved dual-cavity modulation structure, which has the advantage of enhancing the effect of the modulation cavity on the injected electron beam by way of feedback microwaves, is presented. The simulation results are presented to test the validity of the proposed theory, and it can be seen that the system power efficiency can become further strengthened by adjusting the parameters of the microwave feedback channel until the feedback electric field is at the proper phase. Finally, through optimization, a structure capable of generating 7.05 GW average output power and 19.5 % power conversion efficiency at 2.95 GHz operating frequency is obtained.