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To nutritionally analyse lunches provided for 3–4-year-old children attending school nurseries. Energy and nutrient content are compared with nutrient frameworks underpinning voluntary guidelines for early years settings (EYS) and mandatory standards for infant schools (4–7-year-olds).
A cross-sectional study, recording all main meals, vegetarian meals, jacket potato options, sandwich options and all desserts and accompaniments provided over 5 consecutive days in each school. Two portions of each meal were collected each day and weighed. Recipe and portion weight data were entered into nutrient analysis software.
School nurseries where lunch was provided by the school.
Nine schools, providing a total of 161 meals.
Lunches contained more energy (1881 kJ/450 kcal), fat (15·5 g), free sugars (10·5 g) and Na (424 mg) than suggested by the nutrient framework for EYS. Carbohydrate (60·6 g), protein (16·8 g), fibre (6·7 g), Fe (2·4 mg), Zn (2·0 mg), Ca (202 mg), vitamin A (304 µg) and vitamin C (19 mg) also exceeded minimum recommendations. Compared with a revised nutrient framework for infant schools, energy was within range, whilst saturated fat, free sugars and Na were above maximum recommendations for this age group, and Zn was below. Sandwich meals were lower in vitamin C (P < 0·001–P = 0·05) and Fe (P = 0·012–P = 0·017) and higher in Na (P < 0·001–P = 0·003) and Ca (P < 0·001–P = 0·05).
Lunches provided for children attending school nurseries are more in line with the framework for 4–7-year-olds. Free sugars, saturated fat and Na are areas of concern consistent with previous studies. Protein is three times more than recommended. Large portions of cakes and biscuits contribute to excess energy provision.
Mycoprotein is a well-established and sustainably produced, protein-rich, high-fibre, whole food source derived from the fermentation of fungus. The present publication is based on a symposium held during the Nutrition Society Summer Conference 2022 in Sheffield that explored ‘Food for our Future: The Science Behind Sustainable Fungal Proteins’. A growing body of science links mycoprotein consumption with muscle/myofibrillar protein synthesis and improved cardiometabolic (principally lipid) markers. As described at this event, given the accumulating health and sustainability credentials of mycoprotein, there is great scope for fungal-derived mycoprotein to sit more prominently within future, updated food-based dietary guidelines.
Research on proactive and reactive aggression has identified covariates unique to each function of aggression, but hypothesized correlates have often not been tested with consideration of developmental changes in or the overlap between the types of aggression. The present study examines the unique developmental trajectories of proactive and reactive aggression over adolescence and young adulthood and tests these trajectories’ associations with key covariates: callous–unemotional (CU) traits, impulsivity, and internalizing emotions. In a sample of 1,211 justice-involved males (ages 15–22), quadratic growth models (i.e., intercepts, linear slopes, and quadratic slopes) of each type of aggression were regressed onto quadratic growth models of the covariates while controlling for the other type of aggression. After accounting for the level of reactive aggression, the level of proactive aggression was predicted by the level of CU traits. However, change in proactive aggression over time was not related to the change in any covariates. After accounting for proactive aggression, reactive aggression was predicted by impulsivity, both at the initial level and in change over time. Results support that proactive and reactive aggression are unique constructs with separate developmental trajectories and distinct covariates.
Primary surgical resection remains the mainstay of management in locally advanced differentiated thyroid cancer. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have recently shown promising results in patients with recurrent locally advanced differentiated thyroid cancer. This study discussed four patients with locally advanced differentiated thyroid cancer managed with tyrosine kinase inhibitors used prior to surgery in the ‘neoadjuvant’ setting.
Prospective data collection through a local thyroid database from February 2016 identified four patients with locally advanced differentiated thyroid cancer unsuitable for primary surgical resection commenced on neoadjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.
All cases had T4a disease at presentation. Three cases tolerated tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy for more than 14 months while the last case failed to tolerate treatment at 1 month. All patients subsequently underwent total thyroidectomy to facilitate adjuvant radioactive iodine treatment. Disease-specific survival remains at 100 per cent currently (range, 29–75 months).
Neoadjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitors in locally advanced differentiated thyroid cancer can be effective in reducing primary tumour extent to potentially facilitate a more limited surgical resection for local disease control.
Optimum nutrition plays a major role in the achievement and maintenance of good health. The Nutrition Society of the UK and Ireland and the Sabri Ülker Foundation, a charity based in Türkiye and focused on improving public health, combined forces to highlight this important subject. A hybrid conference was held in Istanbul, with over 4000 delegates from sixty-two countries joining the proceedings live online in addition to those attending in person. The primary purpose was to inspire healthcare professionals and nutrition policy makers to better consider the role of nutrition in their interactions with patients and the public at large to reduce the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The event provided an opportunity to share and learn from different approaches in the UK, Türkiye and Finland, highlighting initiatives to strengthen research in the nutritional sciences and translation of that research into nutrition policy. The presenters provided evidence of the links between nutrition and disease risk and emphasised the importance of minimising risk and implementing early treatment of diet-related disease. Suggestions were made including improving health literacy and strengthening policies to improve the quality of food production and dietary behaviour. A multidisciplinary approach is needed whereby Governments, the food industry, non-governmental groups and consumer groups collaborate to develop evidence-based recommendations and appropriate joined-up policies that do not widen inequalities. This summary of the proceedings will serve as a gateway for those seeking to access additional information on nutrition and health across the globe.
We examine a Query Theory account of risky choice framing effects — when risky choices are framed as a gain, people are generally risky averse but, when an equivalent choice is framed as a loss, people are risk seeking. Consistent with Query Theory, frames affected the structure of participants’ arguments: gain frame participants listed arguments favoring the certain option earlier and more often than loss frame participants. These argumentative shifts mediated framing effects; manipulating participants initial arguments attenuated them. While emotions, as measured by PANAS, were related to frames but not related to choices, an exploratory text analysis of the affective valence of arguments was related to both. Compared to loss-frame participants, gain-frame participants expressed more positive sentiment towards the certain option than the risky option. This relative-sentiment index predicted choices by itself but not when included with structure of arguments. Further, manipulated initial arguments did not significantly affect participant’s relative sentiment. Prior to changing choices, risky choice frames alter both the structure and emotional valence of participants’ internal arguments.
Ingestion of mycoprotein stimulates skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) rates to a greater extent than concentrated milk protein when matched for leucine content, potentially attributable to the wholefood nature of mycoprotein. We hypothesised that bolus ingestion of mycoprotein as part of its wholefood matrix would stimulate MPS rates to a greater extent compared with a leucine-matched bolus of protein concentrated from mycoprotein. Twenty-four healthy young (age, 21 ± 2 years; BMI, 24 ± 3 kg.m2) males received primed, continuous infusions of L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and completed a bout of unilateral resistance leg exercise before ingesting either 70 g mycoprotein (MYC; 31·4 g protein, 2·5 g leucine; n 12) or 38·2 g of a protein concentrate obtained from mycoprotein (PCM; 28·0 g protein, 2·5 g leucine; n 12). Blood and muscle samples (vastus lateralis) were taken pre- and (4 h) post-exercise/protein ingestion to assess postabsorptive and postprandial myofibrillar protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR) in resting and exercised muscle. Protein ingestion increased plasma essential amino acid and leucine concentrations (P < 0·0001), but more rapidly (both 60 v. 90 min; P < 0·0001) and to greater magnitudes (1367 v. 1346 μmol·l–1 and 298 v. 283 μmol·l–1, respectively; P < 0·0001) in PCM compared with MYC. Protein ingestion increased myofibrillar FSR (P < 0·0001) in both rested (MYC, Δ0·031 ± 0·007 %·h–1 and PCM, Δ0·020 ± 0·008 %·h–1) and exercised (MYC, Δ0·057 ± 0·011 %·h–1 and PCM, Δ0·058 ± 0·012 %·h–1) muscle, with no differences between conditions (P > 0·05). Mycoprotein ingestion results in equivalent postprandial stimulation of resting and post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis rates irrespective of whether it is consumed within or without its wholefood matrix.
In porcine in vitro production (IVP) systems, the use of oocytes derived from prepubertal gilts, whilst being commercially attractive, remains challenging due to their poor developmental competence following in vitro maturation (IVM). Follicular fluid contains important growth factors and plays a key role during oocyte maturation; therefore, it is a common supplementation for porcine IVM medium. However, follicular fluid contains many poorly characterized components, is batch variable, and its use raises biosecurity concerns. In an effort to design a defined IVM system, growth factors such as cytokines have been previously tested. These include leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), the combination of which is termed ‘FLI’. Here, using abattoir-derived oocytes in a well established porcine IVP system, we compared follicular fluid and FLI supplementation during both IVM and embryo culture to test the hypothesis that FLI can substitute for follicular fluid without compromising oocyte nuclear and cytoplasmic maturation. We demonstrate that in oocytes derived from prepubertal gilts, FLI supplementation enhances oocyte meiotic maturation and has a positive effect on the quality and developmental competence of embryos. Moreover, for the first time, we studied the effects of follicular fluid and FLI combined showing no synergistic effects.
In vitro maturation of oocytes (IVM) describes a process whereby immature oocytes that have been collected as part of an assisted reproductive treatment cycle are matured in a laboratory. After maturation, they are usually fertilized with sperm, via intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and the resulting embryos cultured. The perceived benefits of this technology are that it involves a shorter duration of time between the commencement of a treatment cycle and oocyte collection, and it avoids the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). OHSS is a very serious medical condition that women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are particularly susceptible to developing. IVM technology has been used for several decades, but in the last ten years there has been a resurgence of interest in its use with the development of enhanced maturation media to assist the IVM process and the initiation of several randomized trials to compare potential benefits and drawbacks in comparison to the standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) approach.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: #NAME? METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Cell culture & protein identification: human T cells were purified from healthy blood, then activated & cultured for 5d. CAR-T cells were collected from infusion bags of cancer patients undergoing CAR-T. Silver staining of naive & activated healthy T-cell lysates was compared; B-II spectrin was upregulated and confirmed by Western blot. Migration assays: naive & activated T-cells were imaged during migration on ICAM-1 and ICAM-1 + CXCL12 coated plates. T-cells were transfected with BII-spectrin cDNA & the chemokine dependence of migration was compared with controls. In-vivo studies: in a melanoma mouse model, BII-spectrin transfected or control T-cells were injected; tumors were followed with serial imaging. Human patient records were examined to correlate endogenous BII-spectrin levels and CAR-T response. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Activated T-cells downregulate the cytoskeletal protein B-II spectrin compared to naive cells, leading to chemokine-independent migration in in vitro assays and off-target trafficking when CAR-T cells are given in vivo. Restoration of B-II spectrin levels via transfection restores chemokine-dependence of activated T-cells. In a mouse melanoma model, control mice injected with standard activated T-cells showed fewer cells in the tumor site and more cells in the off-target organs (spleen, lungs) when compared to mice injected with B-II spectrin transfected cells. Furthermore, among 3 human patients undergoing CAR-T therapy, those with higher endogenous B-II spectrin levels experienced fewer side-effects, measured by the neurotoxicity and cytokine release syndrome grades. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: A major hurdle to widespread CAR-T therapy for cancer is significant, often fatal side-effects. Our work shows that the protein B-II spectrin is downregulated during CAR-T production, and that restoring B-II spectrin levels decreases side-effects while increasing tumor clearance--hopefully translating to better CAR-T regimens for the future.
The randomized, controlled, phase 3b ALPINE study evaluated efficacy and safety of a 2-month formulation of aripiprazole lauroxil (AL) initiated with a 1-day regimen during hospitalization for an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia; paliperidone palmitate (PP) was included as an active control. The primary efficacy outcome, within-group change from baseline in PANSS total score at 4 weeks, was previously reported. Here we report additional exploratory PANSS subscale endpoints and patient-reported outcomes (PROs).
Adults aged 18–65 years were enrolled as inpatients and randomized to AL 1064 mg q8wk or PP 156 mg q4wk and discharged after 2 weeks of study treatment if clinically stable. Patients were followed as outpatients through week 25. Exploratory efficacy endpoints were PANSS subscale (Positive, Negative, and General) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores. The Burden Assessment Scale was administered to patients’ nonprofessional caregivers (family member or friend). Exploratory PROs (Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form [Q-LES-Q-SF] and Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire) were assessed during the outpatient period. Within-group changes in PANSS subscales and CGI-S scores from baseline through week 25 were analyzed for AL and PP using mixed models with repeated measures. PROs were summarized based on observed data.
In total, 200 patients were randomized (AL, n=99; PP, n=101); 99 (AL, n=56; PP, n=43) completed the 25-week study. PANSS Positive, Negative, and General subscale scores improved with AL treatment as measured by change from baseline to week 25 (least squares [LS] mean [95% CI]: Positive, −7.0 [−8.1, −6.0]; Negative, −3.7 [−4.7, −2.8]; General, −11.1 [−12.7, −9.5]), as did CGI-S scores (LS mean [95% CI] change at week 25: –1.2 [–1.4 –1.0]). Caregiver burden decreased over the treatment period, with the largest decline noted at week 9 for AL patients’ caregivers (mean change from baseline at week 9: −8.4; week 25: −8.9). Over weeks 5, 9, and 17, 70.8%−74.7% of AL-treated patients were somewhat or very satisfied with treatment. Mean Q-LES-Q-SF total scores were stable. With PP, PANSS subscale and CGI-S scores improved from baseline to study end (LS mean [95% CI] changes at week 25: Positive, −7.1 [−8.2, −5.9]; Negative, −3.5 [−4.6, −2.5]; General, −10.4 [−12.1, −8.6]; CGI-S, −1.2 [−1.5, −1.0]). Mean caregiver burden decreased (week 9: −8.8; week 25: −9.2). Most PP patients were satisfied or very satisfied with treatment (64.7%−69.3% at weeks 5, 9, and 17), and mean Q-LES-Q-SF total scores were stable.
In ALPINE, patients who initiated AL or PP in the hospital and continued treatment during outpatient care experienced improvement in schizophrenia symptoms and reported satisfaction with medication, decreased caregiver burden, and stable quality of life.
The novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide threatening human health. To reduce transmission, a ‘lockdown’ was introduced in Ireland between March and May 2020. The aim of this study is to capture the experiences of consultant psychiatrists during lockdown and their perception of it’s impact on mental health services.
A questionnaire designed by the Royal College of Psychiatrists was adapted and circulated to consultant members of the College of Psychiatrists of Ireland following the easing of restrictions. The questionnaire assessed the perceived impact on referral rates, mental health act provision, availability of information technology (IT), consultant well-being and availability of personal protective equipment (PPE). Thematic analysis was employed to analyse free-text sections.
Response rate was 32% (n = 197/623). Consultants reported an initial decrease/significant decrease in referrals in the first month of lockdown (68%, n = 95/140) followed by an increase/significant increase in the second month for both new (83%, n = 100/137) and previously attending patients (65%, n = 88/136). Social isolation and reduced face-to-face mental health supports were among the main reasons identified. The needs of children and older adults were highlighted. Most consultants (76%, n = 98/129) felt their working day was affected and their well-being reduced (52%, n = 61/119). The majority felt IT equipment availability was inadequate (67%, n = 88/132). Main themes identified from free-text sections were service management, relationship between patients and healthcare service and effects on consultants’ lives.
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed increased pressure on service provision and consultant wellness. This further supports the longstanding need to increase mental health service investment.
To assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with mental and physical health issues among college students.
An online survey was administered. Food insecurity was assessed using the ten-item Adult Food Security Survey Module. Sleep was measured using the nineteen-item Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Mental health and physical health were measured using three items from the Healthy Days Core Module. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with poor mental and physical health.
Twenty-two higher education institutions.
College students (n 17 686) enrolled at one of twenty-two participating universities.
Compared with food-secure students, those classified as food insecure (43·4 %) had higher PSQI scores indicating poorer sleep quality (P < 0·0001) and reported more days with poor mental (P < 0·0001) and physical (P < 0·0001) health as well as days when mental and physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (P < 0·0001). Food-insecure students had higher adjusted odds of having poor sleep quality (adjusted OR (AOR): 1·13; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·14), days with poor physical health (AOR: 1·01; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), days with poor mental health (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·03) and days when poor mental or physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·04).
College students report high food insecurity which is associated with poor mental and physical health, and sleep quality. Multi-level policy changes and campus wellness programmes are needed to prevent food insecurity and improve student health-related outcomes.
Animal-derived dietary protein ingestion and physical activity stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in older adults. We determined whether a non-animal-derived diet can support daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates to the same extent as an omnivorous diet. Nineteen healthy older adults (aged 66 (sem 1) years; BMI 24 (sem 1) kg/m2; twelve males, seven females) participated in a randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial during which they consumed a 3-d isoenergetic high-protein (1·8 g/kg body mass per d) diet, where the protein was provided from predominantly (71 %) animal (OMNI; n 9; six males, three females) or exclusively vegan (VEG; n 10; six males, four females; mycoprotein providing 57 % of daily protein intake) sources. During the dietary control period, participants conducted a daily bout of unilateral resistance-type leg extension exercise. Before the dietary control period, participants ingested 400 ml of deuterated water, with 50-ml doses consumed daily thereafter. Saliva samples were collected throughout to determine body water 2H enrichments, and muscle samples were collected from rested and exercised muscle to determine daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. Deuterated water dosing resulted in body water 2H enrichments of approximately 0·78 (sem 0·03) %. Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were 13 (sem 8) (P = 0·169) and 12 (sem 4) % (P = 0·016) greater in the exercised compared with rested leg (1·59 (sem 0·12) v. 1·77 (sem 0·12) and 1·76 (sem 0·14) v. 1·93 (sem 0·12) %/d) in OMNI and VEG groups, respectively. Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates did not differ between OMNI and VEG in either rested or exercised muscle (P > 0·05). Over the course of a 3-d intervention, omnivorous- or vegan-derived dietary protein sources can support equivalent rested and exercised daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in healthy older adults consuming a high-protein diet.
The Eating Assessment in Toddlers FFQ (EAT FFQ) has been shown to have good reliability and comparative validity for ranking nutrient intakes in young children. With the addition of food items (n 4), we aimed to re-assess the validity of the EAT FFQ and estimate calibration factors in a sub-sample of children (n 97) participating in the Growing Up Milk – Lite (GUMLi) randomised control trial (2015–2017). Participants completed the ninety-nine-item GUMLi EAT FFQ and record-assisted 24-h recalls (24HR) on two occasions. Energy and nutrient intakes were assessed at months 9 and 12 post-randomisation and calibration factors calculated to determine predicted estimates from the GUMLi EAT FFQ. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients, weighted kappa (κ) and exact quartile categorisation. Calibration was calculated using linear regression models on 24HR, adjusted for sex and treatment group. Nutrient intakes were significantly correlated between the GUMLi EAT FFQ and 24HR at both time points. Energy-adjusted, de-attenuated Pearson correlations ranged from 0·3 (fibre) to 0·8 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·3 (Ca) to 0·7 (Fe) at 12 months. Weighted κ for the quartiles ranged from 0·2 (Zn) to 0·6 (Fe) at 9 months and from 0·1 (total fat) to 0·5 (Fe) at 12 months. Exact agreement ranged from 30 to 74 %. Calibration factors predicted up to 56 % of the variation in the 24HR at 9 months and 44 % at 12 months. The GUMLi EAT FFQ remained a useful tool for ranking nutrient intakes with similar estimated validity compared with other FFQ used in children under 2 years.
Mycoprotein consumption has been shown to improve acute postprandial glycaemic control and decrease circulating cholesterol concentrations. We investigated the impact of incorporating mycoprotein into the diet on insulin sensitivity (IS), glycaemic control and plasma lipoprotein composition. Twenty healthy adults participated in a randomised, parallel-group trial in which they consumed a 7 d fully controlled diet where lunch and dinner contained either meat/fish (control group, CON) or mycoprotein (MYC) as the primary source of dietary protein. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed pre- and post-intervention, and 24 h continuous blood glucose monitoring was applied throughout. Fasting plasma samples were obtained pre- and post-intervention and were analysed using quantitative, targeted NMR-based metabonomics. There were no changes within or between groups in blood glucose or serum insulin responses, nor in IS or 24 h glycaemic profiles. No differences between groups were found for 171 of the 224 metabonomic targets. Forty-five lipid concentrations of different lipoprotein fractions (VLDL, LDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein and HDL) remained unchanged in CON but showed a coordinated decrease (7–27 %; all P < 0·05) in MYC. Total plasma cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL2-cholesterol, DHA and n-3 fatty acids decreased to a larger degree in MYC (14–19 %) compared with CON (3–11 %; P < 0·05). Substituting meat/fish for mycoprotein twice daily for 1 week did not modulate whole-body IS or glycaemic control but resulted in changes to plasma lipid composition, the latter primarily consisting of a coordinated reduction in circulating cholesterol-containing lipoproteins.
A data analysis method aiming to support cause and effect analysis in design exploration studies is presented. The method clusters and aggregates effects of multiple design variables based on the structural hierarchy of the evaluated system. The resulting dataset is intended as input to a visualization construct based on colour-coding CAD models. The proposed method is exemplified in a case study showing that the predictive capability of the created, clustered, dataset is comparable to the original, unmodified, one.
Acute cannabis administration can produce transient psychotic-like effects in healthy individuals. However, the mechanisms through which this occurs and which factors predict vulnerability remain unclear. We investigate whether cannabis inhalation leads to psychotic-like symptoms and speech illusion; and whether cannabidiol (CBD) blunts such effects (study 1) and adolescence heightens such effects (study 2).
Two double-blind placebo-controlled studies, assessing speech illusion in a white noise task, and psychotic-like symptoms on the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI). Study 1 compared effects of Cann-CBD (cannabis containing Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and negligible levels of CBD) with Cann+CBD (cannabis containing THC and CBD) in 17 adults. Study 2 compared effects of Cann-CBD in 20 adolescents and 20 adults. All participants were healthy individuals who currently used cannabis.
In study 1, relative to placebo, both Cann-CBD and Cann+CBD increased PSI scores but not speech illusion. No differences between Cann-CBD and Cann+CBD emerged. In study 2, relative to placebo, Cann-CBD increased PSI scores and incidence of speech illusion, with the odds of experiencing speech illusion 3.1 (95% CIs 1.3–7.2) times higher after Cann-CBD. No age group differences were found for speech illusion, but adults showed heightened effects on the PSI.
Inhalation of cannabis reliably increases psychotic-like symptoms in healthy cannabis users and may increase the incidence of speech illusion. CBD did not influence psychotic-like effects of cannabis. Adolescents may be less vulnerable to acute psychotic-like effects of cannabis than adults.