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ABSTRACT IMPACT: This research study will provide evidence for public policy, systemic changes, and other interventions to address the adverse impacts of prolonged stress exposure experienced by young Black men. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Previous studies have demonstrated a strong association between allostatic load (i.e., stress-induced cumulative biological risk) and mortality in the Black American population. The aim of this study is to examine the association between allostatic load and mortality in Black men and to determine if the relation varies by age. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the third National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994), linked to the 2015 National Death Index Public Release File, will be used for Black male adults 18 years or older. Allostatic load score includes nine biomarkers: albumin, C-reactive protein, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin A1C, waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse rate. The number of variables for which the participant’s scores fall in the quartile of highest clinical risk are added together to create a summary score. Cox proportional-hazard analyses is employed to estimate the associations between allostatic load and all-cause mortality for the total sample and stratified by age, adjusting for selected characteristics. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that the association of allostatic load with mortality will be greater among younger, compared to older, Black men. Young Black men (ages 25-44) are at particular risk of adverse impacts of chronic stress and allostatic load, due to their experience of chronic discrimination, systemic racism, racial battle fatigue, and mundane, extreme, environmental stress. Furthermore, the allostatic load-mortality association may be attenuated for older Black men due to a survival effect. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: If the association between allostatic load score and mortality is stronger in young Black men, it would provide evidence for early identification of a group with high risk of premature mortality, and for public policy, systemic changes, and other interventions to address the adverse impacts of prolonged stress exposure experienced by young Black men.
IFRS 17 Insurance Contracts is a new accounting standard currently expected to come into force on 1 January 2023. It supersedes IFRS 4 Insurance Contracts. IFRS 17 establishes key principles that entities must apply in all aspects of the accounting of insurance contracts. In doing so, the Standard aims to increase the usefulness, comparability, transparency and quality of financial statements.
A fundamental concept introduced by IFRS 17 is the contractual service margin (CSM). This represents the unearned profit that an entity expects to earn as it provides services. However, as a principles-based standard, IFRS 17 results in entities having to apply significant judgement when determining the inputs, assumptions and techniques it uses to determine the CSM at each reporting period.
In general, the Standard resolves broad categories of mismatches which arise under IFRS 4. Notable examples include mismatches between assets recorded at current market value and liabilities calculated using fixed discount rates as well as inconsistencies in the timing of profit recognition over the duration of an insurance contract. However, there are requirements of IFRS 17 that may create economic or accounting mismatches of its own. For example, new mismatches could arise between the measurement of underlying contracts and the corresponding reinsurance held. Additionally, mismatches can still arise between the measurement of liabilities and the assets that support the liabilities.
This paper explores the technical, operational and commercial issues that arise across these and other areas focusing on the CSM. As a standard that is still very much in its infancy, and for which wider consensus on topics is yet to be achieved, this paper aims to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the issues and opportunities that accompany it.
The scarcity of Romano-British human remains from north-west England has hindered understanding of burial practice in this region. Here, we report on the excavation of human and non-human animal remains1 and material culture from Dog Hole Cave, Haverbrack. Foetal and neonatal infants had been interred alongside a horse burial and puppies, lambs, calves and piglets in the very latest Iron Age to early Romano-British period, while the mid- to late Roman period is characterised by burials of older individuals with copper-alloy jewellery and beads. This material culture is more characteristic of urban sites, while isotope analysis indicates that the later individuals were largely from the local area. We discuss these results in terms of burial ritual in Cumbria and rural acculturation. Supplementary material is available online (https://doi.org/10.1017/S0068113X20000136), and contains further information about the site and excavations, small finds, zooarchaeology, human osteology, site taphonomy, the palaeoenvironment, isotope methods and analysis, and finds listed in Benson and Bland 1963.
To identify genetic risk loci for major depressive disorder (MDD), two broad study design approaches have been applied: (1) to maximize sample size by combining data from different phenotype assessment modalities (e.g. clinical interview, self-report questionnaires) and (2) to reduce phenotypic heterogeneity through selecting more homogenous MDD subtypes. The value of these strategies has been debated. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings of large genomic studies that applied these approaches, and we highlight the merits and pitfalls of both approaches with particular attention to methodological and psychometric issues. We also discuss the results of analyses that investigated the heterogeneity of MDD. We conclude that both study designs are essential for further research. So far, increasing sample size has led to the identification of a relatively high number of genomic loci linked to depression. However, part of the identified variants may be related to a phenotype common to internalizing disorders and related traits. As such, samples containing detailed clinical information are needed to dissect depression heterogeneity and enable the potential identification of variants specific to a more restricted MDD phenotype. A balanced portfolio reconciling both study design approaches is the optimal approach to progress further in unraveling the genetic architecture of depression.
Studies have examined the association between depressive symptoms and dietary patterns; however, only few studies focused on older adults. The present study examines the association between current and past dietary patterns and depression in a community-dwelling adult population aged 55 years and over. Adults (n 4082) were recruited into the Wellbeing, Eating and Exercise for a Long Life study in Victoria, Australia. In 2010 and 2014, data were collected using self-administered questionnaires including a 111-item FFQ, the RAND thirty-six-item Short Form Health Survey of health-related quality of life and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale in 2014. Current (2014) and past (2010) dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis. Association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms was assessed using a mixed model analysis with adjustment for covariates. Two similar dietary patterns were identified in men and women (n 2142). In women, a healthy dietary pattern (characterised by frequent intake of vegetables, fruits and fish) was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms (current diet: β = −0·260, 95 % CI −0·451, −0·070; past diet: β = −0·201, 95 % CI −0·390, −0·013). A current unhealthy dietary pattern in women (characterised by frequent intake of red and processed meat, potatoes, hot chips, cakes, deserts and ice cream) was associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = 1·367, 95 % CI 0·679, 2·056). No associations were identified in men. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to understand the differences that may occur by sex.
‘Eurafrica’, the continental-scale fusion of Europe and Africa into one political entity, was first developed as a political concept in the 1920s by the Pan-European Union, and named as such in a 1929 article by its founder and leader Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi. Within five years, this neologism had become a commonplace, as Eurafrica exploded across public political discourse. This paper unpacks what Eurafrica entailed in its original expression, what made it a useful concept for the Pan-European Union to employ, and what made it so appealing to a wider (European) public. It does so with particular reference to the way in which Eurafrica was presented as a means of opening up colonialism to those European states that lacked their own colonies. Partly, this meant appealing to German colonialists resentful at the stripping of Germany’s colonies at Versailles. Crucially, however, it also meant appealing to the broader ‘historical injustices’ that meant that Central European countries did not have access to colonies, and promising a future in which these intra-European ‘injustices’ could be transcended and Central Europeans could thus become equal partners in Europe’s mission civilisatrice in Africa.
Background: There is no available estimate of the incidence and mortality of epilepsy in all age groups in the Canadian population. This study aimed to measure the incidence, prevalence, mortality and the secular trends for epilepsy in Saskatchewan between 2005 and 2010. Methods: A population-based cohort study was established from Saskatchewan’s provincial health administrative data. The population was followed until termination of coverage, death, or 31 December 2010. Individuals with epilepsy were identified based on ICD codes algorithms from 2005 to 2010. Results: The age-standardized incidence of epilepsy was 62 per 100,000 person-year. The age-standardized incidence rate of epilepsy in self-declared Registered Indians was 122 per 100,000 person-year. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of epilepsy for all groups over the study period. The age-standardized prevalence of epilepsy was 9 per 1,000 people. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of epilepsy over this time period. The adjusted mortality rate was 0.023 per 1000 person-year, and the all-cause Standardized Mortality Ration for epilepsy was 2.45. The SMR remained constant over the six-year period of the study. Conclusions: This study is the first in Canada to measure the incidence and all-cause mortality of epilepsy in all age groups.
A model devised by Thorpe & Li (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 758, 2014, pp. 94–120) that predicts the conditions in which stationary turbulent hydraulic jumps can occur in the flow of a continuously stratified layer over a horizontal rigid bottom is applied to, and its results compared with, observations made at several locations in the ocean. The model identifies two positions in the Samoan Passage at which hydraulic jumps should occur and where changes in the structure of the flow are indeed observed. The model predicts the amplitude of changes and the observed mode 2 form of the transitions. The predicted dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy is also consistent with observations. One location provides a particularly well-defined example of a persistent hydraulic jump. It takes the form of a 390 m thick and 3.7 km long mixing layer with frequent density inversions separated from the seabed by some 200 m of relatively rapidly moving dense water, thus revealing the previously unknown structure of an internal hydraulic jump in the deep ocean. Predictions in the Red Sea Outflow in the Gulf of Aden are relatively uncertain. Available data, and the model predictions, do not provide strong support for the existence of hydraulic jumps. In the Mediterranean Outflow, however, both model and data indicate the presence of a hydraulic jump.
Race, psychiatric history, and adverse life events have all been independently associated with postpartum depression (PPD). However, the role these play together in Black and Latina women remains inadequately studied. Therefore, we performed a case–control study of PPD, including comprehensive assessments of symptoms and biomarkers, while examining the effects of genetic ancestry.
We recruited our sample (549 cases, 968 controls) at 6 weeks postpartum from obstetrical clinics in North Carolina. PPD status was determined using the MINI-plus. Psychiatric history was extracted from medical records. Participants were administered self-report instruments to assess depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and adverse life events. Levels of estradiol, progesterone, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, oxytocin, and allopregnanalone were assayed. Principal components from genotype data were used to estimate genetic ancestry and logistic regression was used to identify predictors of PPD.
This population was racially diverse (68% Black, 13% Latina, 18% European). Genetic ancestry was not a predictor of PPD. Case status was predicted by a history of major depression (p = 4.01E-14), lifetime anxiety disorder diagnosis (p = 1.25E-34), and adverse life events (p = 6.06E-06). There were no significant differences between groups in any hormones or neurosteroids.
Psychiatric history and multiple exposures to adverse life events were significant predictors of PPD in a population of minority and low-income women. Genetic ancestry and hormone levels were not predictive of case status. Increased genetic vulnerability in conjunction with risk factors may predict the onset of PPD, whereas genetic ancestry does not appear predictive.
This study investigates the use of ‘simple’ glasses, comprising six components, to represent the structure of complex LAW glasses proposed for Immobilized Low Activity Wastes from the Hanford site in the USA. The 18 elements present in ILAW glasses LAW A44, ORP LB2, and LAW A23 were represented by Al2O3, B2O3, CaO, Na2O, SiO2, and ZrO2 according to their coordination chemistry and their roles as network formers and modifiers. The dissolution behavior of each ‘simple’ glass was compared to its corresponding candidate “complex” LAW glass through PCT-B tests. Significant differences were observed; the durability of complex glasses was concluded to be LAW A44 > ORP LB2 ≥ LAW A23 whereas in their simplified versions the order was LAW A44 > LAW A23 > ORP LB2. These results are discussed in relation to compositional differences and highlight the importance of minor glass components in controlling glass durability. The implications of these results for the use of simplified glass compositions are discussed.
We provide an overview of the characteristics of those who have gained insurance coverage due to the ACA as well as the characteristics of the remaining uninsured. We also describe the implications for the broader sharing of health care risks required under the law, and how they vary by individuals' health status. Finally, we assess the implications of state decisions to expand or not expand Medicaid eligibility under the law, how those decisions affect state finances, health care providers, residents, and how the effects may vary for those states using waivers to expand eligibility using strategies designed to be more broadly politically acceptable.
The ability of patients to trust physicians to act in their best interests is a critical aspect of a welfare-maximizing relationship. This commentary discusses physician trustworthiness within the framework of the Affordable Care Act and considers steps to reinforce trustworthy behavior.
Health is an important aspect of individuals’ lives as they age. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of sociodemographic factors, diagnosed chronic health conditions, and current depression with attitudes to aging in midlife.
A cross-sectional baseline analysis was conducted on the first 300 participants from the Canterbury Health, Ageing and Life Course study in New Zealand, a stratified randomized community longitudinal study of adults recruited between 49 and 51 years. Attitudes were measured using the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire (AAQ) and analyzed with a range of prevalent diagnosed chronic conditions, current depression, and sociodemographic variables.
Individuals perceived their physical aging more negatively after a diagnosis of hypertension, arthritis or asthma. Diagnosed lifetime depression and anxiety, and current depression, showed strong relationships with attitudes to aging across domains. After controlling for sociodemographic factors and current depression, individuals with diagnosed hypertension, arthritis, asthma, lifetime depression or anxiety continued to report significantly more negative attitudes to aging. Current depression showed the strongest associations with attitudes to aging and mediated relationships of health on attitudes to aging.
Physical and mental health are related to attitudes to aging. Most chronic conditions examined are significantly associated with attitudes toward aging in the physical change domain. Diagnosed lifetime depression and anxiety, and current depression, are negatively related across attitudinal domains. Individuals can feel positive about aging while experiencing poorer health, but this is more difficult in the presence of low mood.
Background: Recent work on cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive-compulsive disorder has focused on the roles played by various aspects of self-perception. In particular, moral self-ambivalence has been found to be associated with obsessive-compulsive phenomena. Aims: In this study we used an experimental task to investigate whether artificially priming moral self-ambivalence would increase participants’ deliberation on ethical problems, an index that might be analogous to obsessive-compulsive behaviour. Method: Non-clinical participants completed two online tasks designed to prime either moral self-ambivalence, general uncertainty, or neither. All participants then completed a task requiring them to consider solutions to moral dilemmas. We recorded the time participants took to respond to the dilemmas and the length of their responses; we then combined these variables to create a measure of deliberation. Results: Priming moral self-ambivalence led to increases in deliberation, but this was only significant among those participants who scored highly on a baseline measure of moral self-ambivalence. Priming general uncertainty had no significant effect upon deliberation. Conclusions: The results suggest that moral self-ambivalence may play a role in the maintenance of obsessive-compulsive behaviour. We propose that individuals who are morally self-ambivalent might respond to situations in which this ambivalence is made salient by exhibiting behaviour with obsessive-compulsive characteristics. These findings have implications for the incorporation of ideas about self-concept into theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
To determine the diet quality of a group of young adults and explore its associations with two food-related behaviours (involvement in meal preparation and consumption of commercially prepared meals).
Cross-sectional study of young adults. Sample characteristics, food-related behaviours and dietary intake were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire including an FFQ. Diet quality was measured using the fifteen-item Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) designed to assess adherence to Australian dietary guidelines. One-way ANOVA, t tests and multiple linear regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between DGI scores, sample characteristics and food-related behaviours.
University students enrolled in an undergraduate nutrition class, Melbourne, Australia.
Students (n 309) aged 18–36 years.
The DGI score was normally distributed, with a mean score of 93·4 (sd 17·1) points (range 51·9–127·4 points), out of a possible score of 150 points. In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, nationality, BMI and maternal education, cooking meals for oneself was positively associated with DGI score (β = 0·15; 95 % CI 1·15, 10·03; P = 0·01); frequency of takeaway and frequency of convenience meal consumption were inversely associated with DGI score (β = −0·21; 95 % CI −9·96, −2·32; P = 0·002 and β = −0·16; 95 % CI −7·40, −0·97; P < 0·01, respectively).
Cooking meals for oneself was linked to higher diet quality among young adults, while consumption of commercially prepared meals was associated with poorer diet quality. Maintaining education programmes that promote cooking skills within young adults has the potential to improve DGI scores.
Some data suggest that older adults with anxiety disorders do not respond as well to treatment as do younger adults.
We examined age differences in outcomes from the Coordinated Anxiety Learning and Management (CALM) study, an effectiveness trial comparing usual care to a computer-assisted collaborative care intervention for primary care patients with panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and/or social anxiety disorder. This is the first study to examine the efficacy of a collaborative care intervention in a sample that included both younger and older adults with anxiety disorders. We hypothesised that older adults would show a poorer response to the intervention than younger adults.
We examined findings for the overall sample, as well as within each diagnostic category (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00347269).
The CALM intervention was more effective than usual care among younger adults overall and for those with generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder. Among older adults, the intervention was effective overall and for those with social anxiety disorder and PTSD but not for those with panic disorder or generalised anxiety disorder. The effects of the intervention also appeared to erode by the 18-month follow-up, and there were no significant effects on remission among the older adults.
These results are consistent with the findings of other investigators suggesting that medications and psychotherapy for anxiety disorders may not be as effective for older individuals as they are for younger people.
A progress report of the MASTER project is presented here. MASTER is a system of three heterodyne receivers based on SIS (superconductor–insulator–superconductor) tunnel junction mixers. In our instrument these mixers will allow direct down-conversion from 94, 225, and 345 to 1.5 GHz, the IF where the signal will be detected. This instrument, coupled to a 2–4 m telescope like the one proposed for the DOME C base in Antarctica and in conjunction with an Acusto Optical Spectrometer, can be used to detect emission lines associated with molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. The current status of a 94 GHz receiver, the prototype of MASTER, will be presented too. The study of the optical coupling between the receiver and MITO telescope in the Italian Alps will also be described.
The X-linked telomeric P elements (TPs) TP5 and TP6 regulate the activity of the entire P element family because they are inserted in a major locus for the production of Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). The potential for this cytotype regulation is significantly strengthened when either TP5 or TP6 is combined with a non-telomeric X-linked or autosomal transgene that contains a P element. By themselves, none of the transgenic P elements have any regulatory ability. Synergism between the telomeric and transgenic P elements is much greater when the TP is derived from a female. Once an enhanced regulatory state is established in a female, it is transmitted to her offspring independently of either the telomeric or transgenic P elements – that is, it works through a strictly maternal effect. Synergistic regulation collapses when either the telomeric or the transgenic P element is removed from the maternal genotype, and it is significantly impaired when the TPs come from stocks heterozygous for mutations in the genes aubergine, piwi or Su(var)205. The synergism between telomeric and transgenic P elements is consistent with a model in which P piRNAs are amplified by alternating, or ping-pong, targeting of primary piRNAs to sense and antisense P transcripts, with the sense transcripts being derived from the transgenic P element and the antisense transcripts being derived from the TP.