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Evidence on the impact of the pandemic on healthcare presentations for self-harm has accumulated rapidly. However, existing reviews do not include studies published beyond 2020.
To systematically review evidence on presentations to health services following self-harm during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A comprehensive search of databases (WHO COVID-19 database; Medline; medRxiv; Scopus; PsyRxiv; SocArXiv; bioRxiv; COVID-19 Open Research Dataset, PubMed) was conducted. Studies published from 1 January 2020 to 7 September 2021 were included. Study quality was assessed with a critical appraisal tool.
Fifty-one studies were included: 57% (29/51) were rated as ‘low’ quality, 31% (16/51) as ‘moderate’ and 12% (6/51) as ‘high-moderate’. Most evidence (84%, 43/51) was from high-income countries. A total of 47% (24/51) of studies reported reductions in presentation frequency, including all six rated as high-moderate quality, which reported reductions of 17–56%. Settings treating higher lethality self-harm were overrepresented among studies reporting increased demand. Two of the three higher-quality studies including study observation months from 2021 reported reductions in self-harm presentations. Evidence from 2021 suggests increased numbers of presentations among adolescents, particularly girls.
Sustained reductions in numbers of self-harm presentations were seen into the first half of 2021, although this evidence is based on a relatively small number of higher-quality studies. Evidence from low- and middle-income countries is lacking. Increased numbers of presentations among adolescents, particularly girls, into 2021 is concerning. Findings may reflect changes in thresholds for help-seeking, use of alternative sources of support and variable effects of the pandemic across groups.
Scrub typhus is a common bacterial infection in Asia caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. This serological cohort study estimated the incidence of infection in a rural population in South India. Participants were enrolled through systematic sampling in 46 villages at baseline, and revisited the following year. Blood samples were tested for IgG antibodies using ELISA, followed by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) in those positive for ELISA at both rounds. A case was defined as sero-conversion (ELISA), or at least a 4-fold titre increase (IFA), between the two time points. In addition to crude incidence rate estimates, we used piecewise linear rates across calendar months, with rates proportional to the monthly incidence of local hospital cases to address seasonality and unequal follow-up times. Of 402 participants, 61.7% were female. The mean age was 46.7 years, (range 13–88). 21 participants showed evidence for serological infection. The estimated incidence was 4.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI 2.8–6.7). The piecewise linear rates approach resulted in a similar estimate of 4.6 per 100 person years (95% CI 2.9–6.9). Considering previous estimates of symptomatic scrub typhus incidence in the same study population, only about 2–5% of infections may result in clinically relevant disease.
Although associations among borderline personality disorder (BPD), social rejection, and frontal EEG alpha asymmetry scores (FAA, a neural correlate of emotion regulation and approach-withdrawal motivations) have been explored in different studies, relatively little work has examined these relations during adolescence in the same study. We examined whether FAA moderated the relation between BPD features and rejection sensitivity following a validated social exclusion paradigm, Cyberball. A mixed, clinical-community sample of 64 adolescents (females = 62.5%; Mage = 14.45 years; SD = 1.6; range = 11-17 years) completed psychodiagnostic interviews and a self-report measure of BPD (Time 1). Approximately two weeks later (Time 2), participants completed a resting EEG recording followed by Cyberball. FAA moderated the relation between BPD features and overall feelings of rejection following Cyberball: individuals with greater relative left FAA had the highest and lowest feelings of social rejection depending on whether they had high and low BPD feature scores, respectively. Results remained after controlling for age, sex, gender, depression, and BPD diagnosis. These results suggest that FAA may moderate the relation between BPD features and social rejection, and that left frontal brain activity at rest may be differentially associated with those feelings in BPD. Findings are discussed in terms of the link between left frontal brain activity in the regulation and dysregulation of social approach behaviors, characteristic of BPD.
In the present paper, as part of an interdisciplinary research project (Priority Programme SPP2045), we propose a possible way to design an open access archive for particle-discrete tomographic datasets: the PARROT database (https://parrot.tu-freiberg.de). This archive is the result of a pilot study in the field of particle technology and three use cases are presented for illustrative purposes. Instead of providing a detailed instruction manual, we focus on the methodologies of such an archive. The presented use cases stem from our working group and are intended to demonstrate the advantage of using such an archive with concise and consistent data for potential and ongoing studies. Data and metadata merely serve as examples and need to be adapted for disciplines not concerned here. Since all datasets within the PARROT database and its source code are freely accessible, this study represents a starting point for similar projects.
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, with its impact on our way of life, is affecting our experiences and mental health. Notably, individuals with mental disorders have been reported to have a higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2. Personality traits could represent an important determinant of preventative health behaviour and, therefore, the risk of contracting the virus.
We examined overlapping genetic underpinnings between major psychiatric disorders, personality traits and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to explore the genetic correlations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility with psychiatric disorders and personality traits based on data from the largest available respective genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In two cohorts (the PsyCourse (n = 1346) and the HeiDE (n = 3266) study), polygenic risk scores were used to analyse if a genetic association between, psychiatric disorders, personality traits and COVID-19 susceptibility exists in individual-level data.
We observed no significant genetic correlations of COVID-19 susceptibility with psychiatric disorders. For personality traits, there was a significant genetic correlation for COVID-19 susceptibility with extraversion (P = 1.47 × 10−5; genetic correlation 0.284). Yet, this was not reflected in individual-level data from the PsyCourse and HeiDE studies.
We identified no significant correlation between genetic risk factors for severe psychiatric disorders and genetic risk for COVID-19 susceptibility. Among the personality traits, extraversion showed evidence for a positive genetic association with COVID-19 susceptibility, in one but not in another setting. Overall, these findings highlight a complex contribution of genetic and non-genetic components in the interaction between COVID-19 susceptibility and personality traits or mental disorders.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
For the measurement of flow-induced microrotations in flows utilizing the depolarization of phosphorescence anisotropy, suitable luminophores are crucial. The present work examines dyes of the xanthene family, namely Rhodamine B, Eosin Y and Erythrosine B. Both in solution and incorporated in particles, the dyes are examined regarding their luminescent lifetimes and their quantum yield. In an oxygen-rich environment at room temperature, all dyes exhibit lifetimes in the sub-microsecond range and a low intensity signal, making them suitable for sensing fast rotations with sensitive acquisition systems.
Landing gear are exposed to cyclic loads from the ground manoeuvres that aircraft perform in-service. Variability is observed in the loading magnitude associated with ground manoeuvres, along with the per-flight variability in ground manoeuvre occurrence and sequencing. Whilst loading magnitude variability has been widely characterised, significant assumptions are required regarding manoeuvre occurrence and sequencing when constructing landing gear load spectra for fatigue design. These assumptions are required due to the limited availability of data concerning ground manoeuvre occurrence and sequencing relating to aircraft in-service and require validation to facilitate the design of more efficient components. ‘Big-Data’ approaches, employing Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) transponder data, enable aircraft ground tracks to be identified. This paper presents a methodology to characterise the variability in ground manoeuvre occurrence and sequencing using ADS-B data sourced from Flightradar24® for a wide-body aircraft fleet. Using statistics generated for the fleet, it was identified that significant variability exists in the occurrence and sequencing of turning and braking manoeuvres. The statistics also validate existing assumptions, including that the proportional share of left and right turning manoeuvres is equal. Finally, this paper discusses the utility of ADS-B datasets for constructing landing gear load spectra and monitoring of landing gear in-service.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Human exhaled breath is rich in metabolomic content that represents pulmonary function and gas exchange with blood, which can provide insights into an individual’s state of health. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Human exhaled breath is rich in metabolomic content that represents pulmonary function and gas exchange with blood. It contains a mixture of compounds that offer insight into an individual’s state of health. Here, we present two novel non-invasive breath sampling devices for use in basic medical practice. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The two breath samplers have a disposable mouthpiece, a set of inhale and exhale one-way flap valves to allow condensation of exhaled breath only, and a saliva filter. The housing is constructed out of Teflon®, a chemically inert material to reduce chemical absorbance. The first device condenses exhaled breath into a frozen condensate using dry ice pellets and the other is a miniaturized design that liquifies exhaled breath on a condenser surface with micropatterned features on a cooling plate. Both designs have individual strategic and analytical advantages: frozen exhaled breath condensate (EBC) has high retention of analytes and sample volume; EBC collected in liquid phase offers facilitated sample collection and device portability. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We investigated if breath aerosol size distribution affects the types or abundances of metabolites. We modified the geometry of the first device to redirect aerosol trajectories based on size. The trapping of larger aerosols increases with filter length, thus altering the aerosol size distribution although no significant changes in the metabolite profiles were found. With the miniaturized device, metabolite abundances were measured in a small cohort of healthy control and mild asthmatic subjects. Differences among subjects were found, as well as main differences between control and asthmatic groups. All analyses of EBC were performed with liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry. Inflammatory suppression found in asthmatic subjects can be explained by prescribed daily use of inhaled corticosteroids. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Breath collection devices can be used in intensive care units, outpatient clinics, workplaces, and at home. EBC analysis has been used to monitor asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It can be applied to infectious respiratory diseases (e.g. influenza, COVID-19) and for monitoring environmental and occupational chemical exposures.
Epilepsy surgery has progressed significantly in the last 150 years. Functional brain maps allowed for the localization of epileptogenic lesions based on seizure patterns, allowing surgeons like McEwan and Horsely to treat epilepsy surgically. Berger’s electroencephalogram marked the first modality directly identifying epileptic abnormalities. Penfield and Jasper collaborated, as neurosurgeon and neurologist, to use EEG for surgery. Meanwhile, Wada developed the amobarbital test, improving the protection of language and memory. Talairach and Bancaud pioneered invasive monitoring of deep brain activity with stereoelectroencephalography before the computer age made CT and MRI possible. Looking forward, AI and robotics hold promise for further improving outcomes.
The mechanics of extreme intensity events in the buffer and logarithmic layers of a turbulent channel at $Re_\tau =2000$ is investigated. The 99.9th percentile of the most intense events in the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy is analysed by means of conditional space–time proper orthogonal decomposition. The computed spatio-temporal modes are coherent in space and over the considered time frame, and optimally capture the energy of the ensemble. The most energetic mode with transverse symmetric structure describes a turbulent burst event. The underlying mechanism is a varicose instability which generates localized extrema in the dissipation and production of turbulent kinetic energy and drives the formation of a hairpin vortex. The most energetic anti-symmetric mode is related to a sinuous-type instability that is situated in the shear layer between two very-large-scale streaks. Statistical results show the energy in the symmetric mode to exceed that in the anti-symmetric mode by a near constant factor for the considered wall distances. Both mechanisms occur throughout the range of wall distances in an effectively self-similar manner that is consistent with the attached-eddy hypothesis. By analogy with transitional flows, the results suggest that the events are induced by an exponential growth mechanism.
Studies have long observed the bidirectional nature of mother–infant relationships. While behavioral studies have shown that mothers high in social avoidance tendencies can influence the development of these traits in their offspring, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, and the role that the infants play, are not well understood. Here we acquired frontal electroencephalogram asymmetry (FA) data simultaneously in 40 mother–infant dyads (Mage mother = 31.6 years; Mage infant = 9 months). Using an actor–partner interdependence model, we examined whether mother (or infant) resting-state FA predicted infant (or mother) FA during two subsequent emotion-eliciting conditions (happy and fear). Maternal social approach versus avoidance traits were assessed as moderators to examine the impact of maternal characteristics on these mother–infant FA relations. In dyads led by mothers with high social avoidance/low social approach characteristics, maternal resting-state FA predicted infant FA during both emotion-eliciting conditions. We did not observe any effects of infant FA on mothers. Therefore, we speculate that individual differences in FA patterns might be a putative brain mechanism through which socially avoidant mothers transfer affective/behavioral information to their infants.
Effects of stresses associated with extremely preterm birth may be biologically “recorded” in the genomes of individuals born preterm via changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns. Genome-wide DNAm profiles were examined in buccal epithelial cells from 45 adults born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; ≤1000 g) in the oldest known cohort of prospectively followed ELBW survivors (Mage = 32.35 years, 17 male), and 47 normal birth weight (NBW; ≥2500 g) control adults (Mage = 32.43 years, 20 male). Sex differences in DNAm profiles were found in both birth weight groups, but they were greatly enhanced in the ELBW group (77,895 loci) versus the NBW group (3,424 loci), suggesting synergistic effects of extreme prenatal adversity and sex on adult DNAm profiles. In men, DNAm profiles differed by birth weight group at 1,354 loci on 694 unique genes. Only two loci on two genes distinguished between ELBW and NBW women. Gene ontology (GO) and network analyses indicated that loci differentiating between ELBW and NBW men were abundant in genes within biological pathways related to neuronal development, synaptic transportation, metabolic regulation, and cellular regulation. Findings suggest increased sensitivity of males to long-term epigenetic effects of extremely preterm birth. Group differences are discussed in relation to particular gene functions.
The impact of a collapsing gas bubble above rigid, notched walls is considered. Such surface crevices and imperfections often function as bubble nucleation sites, and thus have a direct relation to cavitation-induced erosion and damage structures. A generic configuration is investigated numerically using a second-order accurate compressible multi-component flow solver in a two-dimensional axisymmetric coordinate system. Results show that the crevice geometry has a significant effect on the collapse dynamics, jet formation, subsequent wave dynamics and interactions. The wall-pressure distribution associated with erosion potential is a direct consequence of development and intensity of these flow phenomena.
This study examined the link between two biological markers of stress vulnerability at 22–26 years of age and telomere length at 30–35 among extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) survivors and normal birth weight (NBW; >2500 g) control participants. Sixteen ELBW and 22 NBW participants provided baseline afternoon salivary cortisol samples and resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry data at 22–26 years. Buccal cells were assayed for telomere length at 30–35 years. Analyses controlled for sex, postnatal steroid exposure, childhood socioeconomic status, time of cortisol sample collection, and body mass index at 22–26 years. Salivary cortisol and frontal asymmetry at age 22–26 independently predicted telomere length at age 30–35, such that relatively higher cortisol and greater relative right frontal asymmetry at rest predicted telomere shortening among NBW controls, but not among ELBW survivors. However, similar associations were not noted in ELBW survivors, suggesting that ELBW survivors may have different mechanisms of stress coping as a result of their early-life exposures. These findings offer preliminary evidence in support of the role of stress in the genesis of cellular senescence at least among those born at NBW, but that these links may differ in those born preterm.
People with eating disorders (ED) are at high risk for suicidal behavior. Among different ED, anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN). Attempted suicide is a key predictor of completed suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an ED.
Case-control study in cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563). Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity.
AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4–7.9), with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.1–13.5), and an increased risk of lethality (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.2–9.6). BN patients did not differ from the control group.
There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Deaths from suicide in AN may not be the result simply of their greater physical frailty.
Even though most than a hundred years have passed since we know Alzheimer's disease today it's considered as the human's frightful flagellum. While most of mental disease seem to be losing its evilness, the neurocognitives disorders caused by Alzheimer's disease, far from attenuating has duplicated it's appearance every each five years. And its symptoms are still being more depriving.
So, in opposition to the rest of the illness that affect the nervous system and the psychic apparatus, which due to the new treatment has been attenuated the clinical forms’ Alzheimer. With its severe pronostic and the illness evolution, haven’t been soften.
Our intention is firstly, share some concepts to consider Alzheimer's disease as a cruel illness that can reache all the elderly people around the world.
Secondly, to analyze the different forms of presentation than can mask a clinical state. Which many times could end-up in dementia. And will soon destroy the whole psychic apparatus of a person.
Present our study group in the three institutional medical centers, with ambulatory patients, who consult about a cognitive disease. We describe the evolution trough time, taking into account the pharmacological treatments.
The importance of the early detection of memory disorder, as one of the first signs of alarm which give us the opportunity to intervene therapeutically in on time.
We can recognize the Mild Cognitive Disorder as a clue which reveal a first therapeutic instance probably in efficacy in this cruel evolution towards dementia.