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Patients with Fontan failure are high-risk candidates for heart transplantation and other advanced therapies. Understanding the outcomes following initial heart failure consultation can help define appropriate timing of referral for advanced heart failure care.
This is a survey study of heart failure providers seeing any Fontan patient for initial heart failure care. Part 1 of the survey captured data on clinical characteristics at the time of heart failure consultation, and Part 2, completed 30 days later, captured outcomes (death, transplant evaluation outcome, and other interventions). Patients were classified as “too late” (death or declined for transplant due to being too sick) and/or “care escalation” (ventricular assist device implanted, inotrope initiated, and/or listed for transplant), within 30 days. “Late referral” was defined as those referred too late and/or had care escalation.
Between 7/2020 and 7/2022, 77 Fontan patients (52% inpatient) had an initial heart failure consultation. Ten per cent were referred too late (6 were too sick for heart transplantation with one subsequent death, and two others died without heart transplantation evaluation, within 30 days), and 36% had care escalation (21 listed ± 5 ventricular assist device implanted ± 6 inotrope initiated). Overall, 42% were late referrals. Heart failure consultation < 1 year after Fontan surgery was strongly associated with late referral (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.8–21.5, p=0.004).
Over 40% of Fontan patients seen for an initial heart failure consultation were late referrals, with 10% dying or being declined for transplant within a month of consultation. Earlier referral, particularly for those with heart failure soon after Fontan surgery, should be encouraged.
Appropriateness of transmission-based precautions after positive result for a non-SARS-CoV-2 virus was evaluated. Most patients (77.2%) lacked appropriate precautions within 3 hours of virus detection; 36.9% remained without appropriate precautions during their stay. With recent cessation of universal masking, adherence to infection control best practices is needed to optimize safety.
This article uses water to examine how the relationships of ethics to science are modified through the pursuit of Earth stewardship. Earth stewardship is often defined as the use of science to actively shape social–ecological relations by enhancing resilience. The changing relations of science to values are explored by considering how ideas of resilience operate to translate different ways of knowing water into the framework of Earth stewardship. This is not a neutral process, and Earth stewardship requires careful appraisal to ensure other ways of knowing water are not oppressed.
Scientific disclosures of anthropogenic impacts on the Earth system – the Anthropocene – increasingly come with ethical diagnoses for value transformation and, often, Earth stewardship. This article examines the changing relationship of science to values in calls for Earth stewardship with special attention to water resilience. The article begins by situating recent efforts to reconceptualize human–water relations in view of anthropogenic impacts on the global water system. It then traces some of the ways that Earth stewardship has been articulated, especially as a framework supporting the use of science to actively shape social–ecological relations by enhancing resilience. The shift in relations of ethics and science entailed by Earth stewardship is placed in historical context before the issues of water resilience are examined. Resilience, and critiques of it, are then discussed for how they operate to translate different ways of knowing water into the framework of Earth stewardship. The ethical stakes of such translations are a core concern of the conclusion. Rather than reducing different ways of knowing water to those amendable to the framework of Earth stewardship, the article advances a pluralized approach as needed to respect multiple practices for knowing and relating to water – and resilience.
Social media summary
Water resilience is key to Earth stewardship; Jeremy Schmidt examines how it changes relations of science and ethics.
This Element explores multi-faceted linkages between feeding and relationship formation based on ethnographic case studies in Morocco, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Costa Rica. Research demonstrates that there are many culturally valued ways of feeding children, contradicting the idea of a single universally optimal feeding standard. It demonstrates further that in many parts of the world, feeding plays a central role in bonding and relationship formation, something largely overlooked in current developmental theories. Analysis shows that feeding contributes to relationship formation through what we call proximal, transactional, and distal dimensions. This Element argues that feeding practices can lead to qualitatively distinct forms of relationships. It has important theoretical and practical implications, calling for the expansion of attachment theory to include feeding and body-centered caregiving and significant changes to global interventions currently based on 'responsive feeding.' This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
Experimental data on the effects of lifestyle interventions on fetal neurodevelopment in humans remain scarce. This study assessed the impact of a pregnancy nutrition+exercise intervention on offspring neurodevelopment at 12 months of age. The Be Healthy in Pregnancy (BHIP) randomized controlled trial (RCT) randomly assigned pregnant persons with stratification by site and body mass index (BMI) to bi-weekly nutrition counselling and high dairy protein diet, walking goal of 10,000 steps/day plus usual prenatal care (UPC; intervention group) or UPC alone (control group). This study examined a subset of these mothers (> 18 years, singleton pregnancy, BMI <40 kg/m2, and enrolled by ≤12 weeks gestation) and their infants (intervention = 42, control = 32), assessing cognition, language, motor, social-emotional, and adaptive functioning at 12 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development third edition (BSID-III) as the outcome measure. We also examined if maternal factors (prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG)) moderated associations. Expressive language (MD = 9.62, 95% CI = (9.05–10.18), p = 0.03, ƞ2p = 0.07) and general adaptive composite (GAC) scores (MD = 103.97, 95% CI = (100.31–107.63), p = 0.04, ƞ2p = 0.06) were higher in infants of mothers in the intervention group. Effect sizes were medium. However, mean cognitive, receptive language, motor, and social-emotional scale scores did not differ between groups. A structured and monitored nutrition+exercise intervention during pregnancy led to improved expressive language and general adaptive behavior in 12-month-olds, but not cognitive, receptive language, motor, or socioemotional functioning. While these experimental data are promising, further research is needed to determine the clinical utility of nutrition+exercise interventions for optimizing infant neurodevelopment.
Studies investigating cognitive impairments in psychosis and depression have typically compared the average performance of the clinical group against healthy controls (HC), and do not report on the actual prevalence of cognitive impairments or strengths within these clinical groups. This information is essential so that clinical services can provide adequate resources to supporting cognitive functioning. Thus, we investigated this prevalence in individuals in the early course of psychosis or depression.
A comprehensive cognitive test battery comprising 12 tests was completed by 1286 individuals aged 15–41 (mean age 25.07, s.d. 5.88) from the PRONIA study at baseline: HC (N = 454), clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR; N = 270), recent-onset depression (ROD; N = 267), and recent-onset psychosis (ROP; N = 295). Z-scores were calculated to estimate the prevalence of moderate or severe deficits or strengths (>2 s.d. or 1–2 s.d. below or above HC, respectively) for each cognitive test.
Impairment in at least two cognitive tests was as follows: ROP (88.3% moderately, 45.1% severely impaired), CHR (71.2% moderately, 22.4% severely impaired), ROD (61.6% moderately, 16.2% severely impaired). Across clinical groups, impairments were most prevalent in tests of working memory, processing speed, and verbal learning. Above average performance (>1 s.d.) in at least two tests was present for 40.5% ROD, 36.1% CHR, 16.1% ROP, and was >2 SDs in 1.8% ROD, 1.4% CHR, and 0% ROP.
These findings suggest that interventions should be tailored to the individual, with working memory, processing speed, and verbal learning likely to be important transdiagnostic targets.
Although individuals born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; ≤1000 g) are known to be at greater risk for mental health problems than individuals born at normal birth weight (NBW; ≥2500 g), contributions of postnatal growth to these relations have not been fully explored. We compared individual differences in the Ponderal Index [(PI; weight(kg)/height(m3)] and head circumference (HC) in predicting internalizing and externalizing behaviors in childhood and adolescence in a cohort of ELBW survivors (N = 137) prospectively followed since birth. Baseline models indicated that infants who were born thinner or with smaller HC showed greater PI or HC growth in the first 3 years. Latent difference score (LDS) models showed that compensatory HC growth in the first year (ΔHC = 20.72 cm), controlled for birth HC, predicted ADHD behaviors in adolescence in those born with smaller HC. LDS models also indicated that the PI increased within the first year (ΔPI = 1.568) but decreased overall between birth and age 3 years (net ΔPI = −4.597). Modeling further showed that larger increases in the PI in the first year and smaller net decreases over 3 years predicted more internalizing behaviors in adolescence. These findings suggest early growth patterns prioritizing weight over height may have negative effects on later mental health in ELBW survivors, consistent with developmental programming theories.
Agritourism and direct-to-consumer sales are increasingly used as diversification strategies to generate additional farm revenue streams. Yet despite their growing importance, the impacts, interactions, and adoption of these strategies remain poorly understood. Here we use univariate and bivariate local Moran’s I statistics to identify agritourism and direct-to-consumer sales hotspots in the United States and a Seemingly-Unrelated-Regression Spatial Durbin Model to examine the association between agritourism and direct farm sales to consumers. We find that agritourism and direct sales reinforce each other within the same county but not consistently across neighboring counties.
The acoustic pulse emitted from the Bragg peak of a laser-accelerated proton bunch focused into water has recently enabled the reconstruction of the bunch energy distribution. By adding three ultrasonic transducers and implementing a fast data analysis of the filtered raw signals, I-BEAT (Ion-Bunch Energy Acoustic Tracing) 3D now provides the mean bunch energy and absolute lateral bunch position in real-time and for individual bunches. Relative changes in energy spread and lateral bunch size can also be monitored. Our experiments at DRACO with proton bunch energies between 10 and 30 MeV reveal sub-MeV and sub-mm resolution. In addition to this 3D bunch information, the signal strength correlates also with the absolute bunch particle number.
In this study, an appropriate visual scoring system for foot-pad dermatitis was validated, considering the histologically measured depth of the inflammation zone and the histopathological grade (no lesion, mild lesion, ulcer). The aim being to evaluate whether the visual, macroscopic scoring of foot-pad dermatitis can represent the histological, microscopic findings. Two hundred Ross 308 broiler chicken feet (birds aged 39-42 fattening days) were collected at a slaughterhouse and scored macroscopically according to a modified version of the Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocol for Poultry. Afterwards, 200 histological slides (one per foot) were prepared, the extent of the inflammation measured and all slides scored by veterinarian pathologists using Michel et al's modified scheme. The statistical relationship between microscopic and macroscopic score and depth of inflammation were estimated via regression models. Increasing macroscopic score was found to be linked with an increase in microscopic score and the depth of inflammation. In particular, feet without lesions and feet with ulcers were identifiable using the macroscopic score. Macroscopic scoring of foot-pad dermatitis can mirror histological findings once certain limitations are taken into account (superficial lesions were not clearly identifiable). Foot-pad dermatitis is considered a useful indicator of animal welfare and our findings suggest that visual, macroscopic scoring could be a practicable assessment tool.
There is a growing demand for civet coffee (also known as ‘Kopi Luwak’ in Indonesia), a luxury coffee produced from coffee cherries that have been eaten and partially digested by civets. Traditionally made using scat collected from the wild, the trend for ‘caged’ civet coffee, where live civets are taken from the wild and housed in captive conditions, is increasing. There is a rapidly expanding civet coffee tourist industry that has emerged within the last five years in Indonesia. The present paper is based on observations of the housing conditions of 48 wild-caught common palm civets (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) at 16 of these tourist-orientated coffee plantations in Bali. A score between 0-4 indicating welfare concerns was given for eight husbandry factors at each plantation, including: mobility, hygiene, surfaces, shelter, noise, food, water, and social interactions. In addition, interviews were conducted with senior tour guides at each of the plantations to gather information regarding tourist activities and the civet coffee production taking place therein. The data allowed for a welfare assessment to be made, which highlights the inadequate conditions and negative impact on common palm civets associated with the caged commercial production of this luxury product, which are not associated with traditional collection of scat from wild-living civets. We hope that our findings will inform tourists and tour operators about the ethical implications of visiting these attractions.
Patients with severe psychotic disorders exhibit a severely reduced quality of life (QoL) at all stages of the disease. Integrated care often led to an improvement in QoL. However, the specific mediators of QoL change are not yet well understood.
The ACCESS II study is a prospective, long-term study investigating the effectiveness of an integrated care program for people with severe psychotic disorders (IC-TACT) that includes Therapeutic Assertive Community Treatment within a care network of in- and outpatient services at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany. We examined longitudinal associations between QoL and the hypothesized mediators of change (i.e., negative symptoms, depression, and anxiety), using cross-lagged panel models.
The sample includes 418 severely ill patients treated in IC-TACT for at least 1 year. QoL increased, whereas symptom severity decreased significantly from baseline to 6-month follow-up (p-values ≤ 0.001), and remained stable until 12-month follow-up. QoL and symptom severity demonstrated significant auto-correlated effects and significant cross-lagged effects from QoL at baseline to negative symptoms (6 months, β = −0.20, p < 0.001) to QoL (12 months, β = −0.19, p < 0.01) resulting in a significant indirect, mediated effect. Additionally, negative symptoms after 6 months had a significant effect on the severity of depression after 12 months (β = 0.13, p < 0.05).
Negative symptoms appear to represent an important mechanism of change in IC-TACT indicating that improvement of QoL could potentially be achieved through optimized intervention on negative symptoms. Moreover, this may lead to a reduction in the severity of depression after 12 months.
Recent estimates suggest that 40% of dementia cases could be avoided by treating recognised cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity. Whether diet is associated with dementia remains largely unknown. We tested if low adherence to established dietary guidelines is associated with elevated lipids and lipoproteins and with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementia – a dementia subtype with a high frequency of cardiovascular risk factors.
We used the prospective Copenhagen General Population Study including 94 184 individuals with dietary information and free of dementia at baseline. Mean age at study entry was 58 years, and 55% (N = 51 720) were women and 45% (N = 42 464) were men. Adherence to dietary guidelines was grouped into low, intermediate and high adherence based on food frequency questionnaires. Main outcomes were non-Alzheimer's dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and plasma triglyceride levels were higher in individuals with intermediate and low adherence to dietary guidelines compared with individuals with high adherence (all p for trends <0.001). Age and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for non-Alzheimer's dementia v. individuals with high adherence were 1.19 (95% confidence interval 0.97–1.46) for intermediate adherence, and 1.54 (1.18–2.00) for low adherence. Corresponding HRs in multivariable-adjusted models including APOE genotype were 1.14 (0.92–1.40) and 1.35 (1.03–1.79). These relationships were not observed in individuals on lipid-lowering therapy.
Low adherence to national dietary guidelines is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile and with increased risk of non-Alzheimer's dementia – the subtype of dementia with a high frequency of vascular risk factors. This study suggests that implementation of dietary guidelines associated with an anti-atherogenic lipid profile could be important for prevention of non-Alzheimer's dementia.
The purpose of this scoping review is two-fold: to assess the literature that quantitatively measures outcomes of mentorship programs designed to support research-focused junior faculty and to identify mentoring strategies that promote diversity within academic medicine mentoring programs.
Studies were identified by searching Medline using MESH terms for mentoring and academic medicine. Eligibility criteria included studies focused on junior faculty in research-focused positions, receiving mentorship, in an academic medical center in the USA, with outcomes collected to measure career success (career trajectory, career satisfaction, quality of life, research productivity, leadership positions). Data were abstracted using a standardized data collection form, and best practices were summarized.
Search terms resulted in 1,842 articles for title and abstract review, with 27 manuscripts meeting inclusion criteria. Two studies focused specifically on women, and four studies focused on junior faculty from racial/ethnic backgrounds underrepresented in medicine. From the initial search, few studies were designed to specifically increase diversity or capture outcomes relevant to promotion within academic medicine. Of those which did, most studies captured the impact on research productivity and career satisfaction. Traditional one-on-one mentorship, structured peer mentorship facilitated by a senior mentor, and peer mentorship in combination with one-on-one mentorship were found to be effective strategies to facilitate research productivity.
Efforts are needed at the mentee, mentor, and institutional level to provide mentorship to diverse junior faculty on research competencies and career trajectory, create a sense of belonging, and connect junior faculty with institutional resources to support career success.
Volume reductions in brain structures of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) have repeatedly been found in voxel-based morphometry MRI studies. Hence, an underlying neurodegenerative etiological component of SSD is currently being discussed. In recent years, the imaging method of optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown its potential in evaluating structural changes in the retina in patients with confirmed neurodegenerative disorders, providing a window into the brain.
To evaluate potential differences in measurements of retinal layers between patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and healthy controls with OCT.
Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were examined with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT system to derive a single-layer analysis of both retinas. The segmentation of retinal layers was manually corrected to minimize artifacts and software imprecisions.
Compared to the control group, SSD patients showed reduced thickness and volume measurements for nearly all retinal layers, and these differences reached significance for macular volume, macular thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and inner nucleiform layer (INL). Furthermore, a significant correlation between the duration of illness and the total volume of the RNFL was found.
Our OCT measurements demonstrate reduced single retinal layer thickness in patients with SSD. In the context of the MRI volume changes, our results provide further evidence that structural changes seen in the brain of patients are also observable in the retina, potentially allowing further insights into the different components of the nervous system that are altered in this highly etiologically complex disorder.
We will present experience developing a system for monitoring training placements in psychiatry and community paediatrics, and how this was expanded to provide an automated anonymised MSF for trainers for annual appraisal and will identify trainers in need of additional support and other post/training programme issues. The session will be of interest to educators and medical education leads with practical tips and lessons learnt over the last 8 years since the system was first developed.
The system was also used to identify trainers in need of additional support and other post/training programme issues.
We used an electronic system to gain the infromation as stated in the introduction.
Over the last 8 years we have collected data using this system. the results for our trust will be displayed annoymously but the system is the ficus of this presenation.
The advantages of the system are that it runs throughout the year (so covers each post and placement), has high trainee response rates, has no selection bias (compared with some other MSF systems) and the results are embedded within local quality systems and individual consultant appraisals. The data that the system collects can help provide robust evidence when investigating concerns that might only arise periodically (for example through the annual GMC trainee survey in the UK). We believe that this system will be applicable for doctors providing training in other countries and empowers the improvement of psychiatric training for the profession.
Enhancing diversity in the scientific workforce is a long-standing issue. This study uses mixed methods to understand the feasibility, impact, and priority of six key strategies to promote diverse and inclusive training and contextualize the six key strategies across Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) Program Institutions.
Four breakout sessions were held at the NCATS 2020 CTSA Program annual meeting focused on diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) efforts. This paper focuses on the breakout session for Enhancing DEI in Translational Science Training Programs. Data were analyzed using a mixed methods convergent approach. The quantitative strand includes the online polling results. The qualitative strand includes the breakout session and the chat box in response to the training presentation.
Across feasibility, impact, and priority questions, prioritizing representation ranked number 1. Building partnerships ranked number 2 in feasibility and priority, while making it personal ranked number 2 for impact. Across each strategy, rankings supported the qualitative data findings in feasibility through shared experiences, impact in the ability to increase DEI, and priority rankings in comparison to the other strategies. No divergence was found across quantitative and qualitative data findings.
Findings provide robust support for prioritizing representation as a number one strategy to focus on in training programs. Specifically, this strategy can be operationalized through integration of community representation, diversity advocates, and adopting a holistic approach to recruiting a diverse cadre of scholars into translational science training programs at the national level across CTSAs.
Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) in clinical and translational science (CTS) are paramount to driving innovation and increasing health equity. One important area for improving diversity is among trainees in CTS programs. This paper reports on findings from a special session at the November 2020 Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) national program meeting that focused on advancing diversity and inclusion within CTS training programs.
Using qualitative content analysis, we identified approaches brought forth to increase DEI in KL2 career development and other training programs aimed at early-stage CTS investigators, beyond the six strategies put forth to guide the breakout session (prioritizing representation, building partnerships, making it personal, designing program structure, improving through feedback, and winning endorsement). We used an inductive qualitative content analysis approach to identify themes from a transcript of the panel of KL2 program leaders centered on DEI in training programs.
We identified four themes for advancing DEI within CTS training programs: 1) institutional buy-in; 2) proactive recruitment efforts; 3) an equitable application process; and 4) high-quality, diverse mentorship.
Implementing these strategies in CTS and other training programs will be an important step for advancing DEI. However, processes need to be established to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of these strategies through continuous quality improvement, a key component of the CTSA program. Training programs within the CTSA are well-positioned to be leaders in this critical effort to increase the diversity of the scientific workforce.
The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mental health is still being unravelled. It is important to identify which individuals are at greatest risk of worsening symptoms. This study aimed to examine changes in depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using prospective and retrospective symptom change assessments, and to find and examine the effect of key risk factors.
Online questionnaires were administered to 34 465 individuals (aged 16 years or above) in April/May 2020 in the UK, recruited from existing cohorts or via social media. Around one-third (n = 12 718) of included participants had prior diagnoses of depression or anxiety and had completed pre-pandemic mental health assessments (between September 2018 and February 2020), allowing prospective investigation of symptom change.
Prospective symptom analyses showed small decreases in depression (PHQ-9: −0.43 points) and anxiety [generalised anxiety disorder scale – 7 items (GAD)-7: −0.33 points] and increases in PTSD (PCL-6: 0.22 points). Conversely, retrospective symptom analyses demonstrated significant large increases (PHQ-9: 2.40; GAD-7 = 1.97), with 55% reported worsening mental health since the beginning of the pandemic on a global change rating. Across both prospective and retrospective measures of symptom change, worsening depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms were associated with prior mental health diagnoses, female gender, young age and unemployed/student status.
We highlight the effect of prior mental health diagnoses on worsening mental health during the pandemic and confirm previously reported sociodemographic risk factors. Discrepancies between prospective and retrospective measures of changes in mental health may be related to recall bias-related underestimation of prior symptom severity.