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The purpose of this article is to define the distinguishing characteristics of food-borne streptococcal pharyngitis by reviewing the literature. The main cause of this infection lies in poor handling and preservation of cold salads, usually those which contain eggs and are prepared some hours before serving. A shorter incubation period and a higher attack rate (51–90%) than in transmission by droplets was noted. The epidemics tend to occur in warm climates and in the hottest months of the year. Streptococcus pyogenes seems to originate from the pharynx or hand lesions of a food handler. In comparison to airborne transmission symptoms such as sore throat, pharyngeal erythema, and enlarged tonsils, submandibular lymphadenopathy are more frequent than coughing and coryza. Seven out of 17 reports revealed an M-untypeable serotype, which may possess virulent characteristics. Penicillin prophylaxis was shown to limit additional spread of the infection. There were no non-suppurative sequels, and suppurative sequels were very rare. We assume that the guidelines for the prevention of food poisoning would apply to food-borne streptococcal pharyngitis. Food handlers should be supervised to ensure they comply with strict rules of preparation and storage of food. Cold salads, especially those containing eggs, should not be left overnight before serving.
This study sought to determine whether the decline in prevalence
of hepatitis A virus (HAV)
antibodies detected in Israel in 1977, 1984, and 1987 has continued. The
prevalence of a systematic sample of 578 male and female recruits inducted
into the Israel
Defence Force in 1996 was 38·4%. The reduction in antibody
prevalence from 1977 (64%) was
highly significant (P<0·001). There was a smaller
decrease rate in recruits of European, North
American, Australian and South African origin than from elsewhere.
A ‘strategy’ that uses
active immunization against hepatitis A (inactivated vaccine, instead of
should be considered, particularly in high risk groups such as field units
during military service.
An outbreak of trichinosis occurred during January 1995 in a south
Lebanese village with a
population of 800–1000 persons. The estimated number of persons treated
for a Trichinella-like
illness was 200. Sixty-three persons sought medical attention at a local
infirmary: 44 of them
were diagnosed as having trichinosis or suspected trichinosis according
their clinical symptoms, signs and laboratory tests. An environmental investigation
indicated that the source
of infection was pork obtained from a single butcher in the village and
consumed uncooked, as
an ingredient of ‘kubeniye’ (a local dish), during
Christmas and New Year's meals. Sera of
patients, suspected patients, and asymptomatic controls were tested for
the presence of anti-Trichinella antibodies. Eight (89%) of the
tested patients were positive, 1 (11%) was
negative. Among the 7 suspected patients, 2 (28·5%) were
positive, 3 (42·9%) had equivocal
results, and 2 (28·5%) were negative. Among the 20 asymptomatic
3 (15%) were
positive, 12 (60%) negative and 5 (25%) had equivocal results. Specimens
from the implicated
pork meat were examined by microscopy and were found to contain encysted
Trichinella spiralis. This outbreak of trichinosis is one of the
largest reported. Previous
outbreaks in Lebanon occurred under very similar circumstances, indicating
a need to control
and prevent the trading of pork meat that is not under veterinary control,
and to increase the awareness of the population for this problem.
During the latter part of 1979, hundreds of thousands Kampuchean refugees fled from all parts of their war- and hunger-ridden country to the Thai-Cambodian border, thousands perishing from hunger, disease and stepping on mine fields on the way. The majority of those who survived settled in several large villages straddling the border in relative security from the advancing Vietnamese army, receiving food and medical supplies from many international welfare organizations.
Widespread public interest in the plight of these refugees arose in Israel after a television program late in October 1979, and a public campaign initiated by Mr. Abie Nathan, an Israeli citizen. The ensuing fund-raising efforts resulted in 1.2 million dollars, most of which originated from private donations. These contributions enabled the Israeli government to equip 5 medical teams and send them to Thailand, covering the last two months of 1979 and the first 4 months of 1980.
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