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The repeated circulation of anti-welfare discourses has served to encourage limited and often incorrect public understandings of issues pertaining to welfare. Central to these processes is the social construction of notions of ‘deservedness’ and ‘undeservedness.’ In this article we examine the 2017 ‘Welfare Cheats, Cheat Us All’ (original emphasis) campaign initiated by the Department of Social Protection in the Republic of Ireland. We present our analysis of the dominant discourses evident in the campaign itself and the in-house discussions in the lead up to the campaign. Our article shows that this Irish campaign rehearses a familiar international discourse which follows distinct patterns or rules, and we evidence, in keeping with other moral panics, the spurious nature of the data being used to exaggerate the scale and extent of welfare ‘fraud’.
Antineuronal antibodies are associated with psychosis, although their clinical significance in first episode of psychosis (FEP) is undetermined.
To examine all patients admitted for treatment of FEP for antineuronal antibodies and describe clinical presentations and treatment outcomes in those who were antibody positive.
Individuals admitted for FEP to six mental health units in Queensland, Australia, were prospectively tested for serum antineuronal antibodies. Antibody-positive patients were referred for neurological and immunological assessment and therapy.
Of 113 consenting participants, six had antineuronal antibodies (anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies [n = 4], voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies [n = 1] and antibodies against uncharacterised antigen [n = 1]). Five received immunotherapy, which prompted resolution of psychosis in four.
A small subgroup of patients admitted to hospital with FEP have antineuronal antibodies detectable in serum and are responsive to immunotherapy. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical to optimise recovery.
Elemental, chemical, and structural analysis of polycrystalline materials at the micron scale is frequently carried out using microfocused synchrotron X-ray beams, sometimes on multiple instruments. The Maia pixelated energy-dispersive X-ray area detector enables the simultaneous collection of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and diffraction because of the relatively large solid angle and number of pixels when compared with other systems. The large solid angle also permits extraction of surface topography because of changes in self-absorption. This work demonstrates the capability of the Maia detector for simultaneous measurement of XRF and diffraction for mapping the short- and long-range order across the grain structure in a Ni polycrystalline foil.
We assess ice loss and velocity changes between 1985 and 2014 of three tidewater and five-land terminating glaciers in Godthåbsfjord (Nuup Kangerlua), Greenland. Glacier thinning accounted for 43.8 ± 0.2 km3 of ice loss, equivalent to 0.10 mm eustatic sea-level rise. An additional 3.5 ± 0.3 km3 was lost to the calving retreats of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (KNS) and Narsap Sermia (NS), two tidewater glaciers that exhibited asynchronous behavior over the study period. KNS has retreated 22 km from its Little Ice Age (LIA) maximum (1761 AD), of which 0.8 km since 1985. KNS has stabilized in shallow water, but seasonally advects a 2 km long floating tongue. In contrast, NS began retreating from its LIA moraine in 2004–06 (0.6 km), re-stabilized, then retreated 3.3 km during 2010–14 into an over-deepened basin. Velocities at KNS ranged 5–6 km a−1, while at NS they increased from 1.5 to 5.5 km a−1 between 2004 and 2014. We present comprehensive analyses of glacier thinning, runoff, surface mass balance, ocean conditions, submarine melting, bed topography, ice mélange and conclude that the 2010–14 NS retreat was triggered by a combination of factors but primarily by an increase in submarine melting.
Field studies were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to evaluate corn yield-loss predictions generated by WeedSOFT, a computerized weed management decision aid. Conventional tillage practices were used to produce corn in 76-cm rows in Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wisconsin. A total of 21 site-years from these seven states were evaluated in this study. At 4 wk after planting, weed densities and size, crop-growth stage, estimated weed-free yield, and environmental conditions at the time of application were entered into WeedSOFT to generate POST treatments ranked by percent maximum yield (PMY). POST treatments were chosen with yield losses ranging from 0 to 20%. Data were subjected to linear regression analysis by state and pooled over all states to determine the relationship between actual and predicted yield loss. A slope value equal to one implies perfect agreement between actual and predicted yield loss. Slope value estimates for Illinois and Missouri were equal to one. Actual yield losses were higher than the software predicted in Kansas and lower than predicted in Michigan, Nebraska, and Wisconsin. Slope value estimate from a data set containing all site years was equal to one. This research demonstrated that variability in yield-loss predictions occurred at sites that contained a high density of a single weed specie (>100/m2) regardless of its competitive index (CI); at sites with a predominant broadleaf weed with a CI greater than five, such as Palmer amaranth, giant ragweed, common sunflower, and common cocklebur; and at sites that experience moderate to severe drought stress.
In summer, 2011, we investigated suspected glyphosate-resistant (GR) kochia
in three chem-fallow fields (designated F1, F2, F3, each farmed by a
different grower) in southern Alberta. This study characterizes glyphosate
resistance in those populations, based on data from dose–response
experiments. In a greenhouse experiment, the three populations exhibited a
resistance factor ranging from 4 to 6 based on shoot biomass response
(GR50 ratios), or 5 to 7 based on survival response
(LD50 ratios). Similar results were found in a field
dose–response experiment at Lethbridge, AB, in spring 2012 using the F2
kochia population. In fall 2011, we surveyed 46 fields within a 20-km radius
of the three chem-fallow fields for GR kochia. In the greenhouse,
populations were screened with glyphosate at 900 g ae ha−1. Seven
populations were confirmed as GR, the farthest site located about 13 km from
the three originally confirmed populations. An additional GR population more
than 100 km away was later confirmed. Populations were screened for
acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibitor (thifensulfuron : tribenuron) and
dicamba resistance in the greenhouse, with molecular characterization of
ALS-inhibitor resistance in the F1, F2, and F3 populations. All GR
populations were resistant to the ALS-inhibiting herbicide, but susceptible
to dicamba. ALS-inhibitor resistance in kochia was conferred by
Pro197, Asp376, or Trp574 amino acid
substitutions. Based upon a simple empirical model with a parameter for
selection pressure, calculated from weed relative abundance and glyphosate
efficacy, and a parameter for seedbank longevity, kochia, wild oat, and
green foxtail were the top three weeds, respectively, predicted at risk of
selection for glyphosate resistance in the semiarid Grassland region of the
Canadian prairies; wild oat, green foxtail, and cleavers species were
predicted at greatest risk in the subhumid Parkland region. This study
confirms the first occurrence of a GR weed in western Canada. Future
research on GR kochia will include monitoring, biology and ecology, fitness,
mechanism of resistance, and best management practices.
Adults with tetralogy of Fallot experience atrial tachyarrhythmias; however, there are a few data on the outcomes of radiofrequency ablation. We examined the characteristics, outcome, and predictors of recurrence of atrial tachyarrhythmias after radiofrequency ablation in tetralogy of Fallot patients.
Retrospective data were collected from 2004 to 2013. In total, 56 ablations were performed on 37 patients. We identified two matched controls per case: patients with tetralogy of Fallot but no radiofrequency ablation and not known to have atrial tachyarrhythmias. Acute success was 98%. Left atrial arrhythmias increased in frequency over time. The mean follow-up was 41 months; 78% were arrhythmia-free. Number of cardiac surgeries, age, and presence of atrial fibrillation were predictors of recurrence. Lone cavo-tricuspid isthmus-dependent flutter reduced the likelihood of atrial fibrillation. Right and left atria in patients with tetralogy of Fallot were larger in ablated cases than controls. NYHA class was worse in cases and improved after ablation; baseline status predicted death. Of matched non-ablated controls, a number of them had atrial fibrillation. These patients were excluded from the case–control study but analysed separately. Most of them had died during follow-up, whereas of the matched ablated cases all were alive and the majority in sinus rhythm.
Patients with tetralogy of Fallot and atrial tachyarrhythmias have more dilated atria than those without atrial tachyarrhythmias. Radiofrequency ablation improves functional status. Left atrial ablation is more commonly required with repeat procedures. There is a high prevalence of atrial tachyarrhythmias, particularly atrial fibrillation, in patients with tetralogy of Fallot; early radiofrequency ablation may have a protective effect against this.
We report here six families with Parkinson's disease in whom the onset of symptoms tended to occur at approximately the same time irrespective of the age of the patient. The mean difference in the time of onset in different generations was 4.6 years while the mean difference in age of onset in children and parents was 25.2 years. We construe this pattern of age separation within families as suggestive of an environmental rather than genetic cause. Support for this view derives from the lack of correlation between occurrence of the disease and the degree of consanguinity. We conclude that our findings are in accord with the hypothesis which attributes the cause of some cases of Parkinson's disease to early, subclinical environmental damage followed by age-related attrition of neurons within the central nervous system.
Sea ice microalgae actively contribute to the pool of dissolved organic matter (DOM) available for bacterial metabolism, but this link has historically relied on bulk correlations between chlorophyll a (a surrogate for algal biomass) and bacterial abundance. We incubated microbes from both the bottom (congelation layer) and surface brine region of Antarctic fast ice for nine days. Algal-derived DOM was manipulated by varying the duration of irradiance, restricting photosynthesis with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or incubating in the dark. The bacterial response to changes in DOM availability was examined by performing cell counts, quantifying bacterial metabolic activity and examining community composition with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The percentage of metabolically active bacteria was relatively low in the surface brine microcosm (10–20% of the bacterial community), the treatment with DCMU indirectly restricted bacterial growth and there was some evidence for changes in community structure. Metabolic activity was higher (35–69%) in the bottom ice microcosm, and while there was no variation in community structure, bacterial growth was restricted in the treatment with DCMU compared to the light/dark treatment. These results are considered preliminary, but provide a useful illustration of sea ice microbial dynamics beyond the use of ‘snapshot’ biomass correlations.
Fortis hic, ille pius; hic strenuus, ille benignus,
germanae pacis servantes iura vicissim,
ex alio frater felix adiutus uterque.
Rexit hic ecclesiam triginta et quatuor annis,
ille annis tenuit ter septem sceptra parentum;
ambo felices meritis in pace sepulti.
SO Alcuin assessed the central years of the episcopate of Ecgberht of York (bishop c. 732–5, archbishop 735–66) in his Versus de patribus, regibus et sanctis Euboricensis ecclesiae. For all Alcuin's praise of him, Ecgberht remains a little-studied figure. He fits into an obscure and seemingly undistinguished interlude between the Venerable Bede and Alcuin himself and, indeed, Ecgberht is most often explored by scholars only as an adjunct to these two giants of the Anglo-Saxon church; rarely is he considered in his own right. Yet Ecgberht's episcopate was one of the longest of the Anglo-Saxon period and one that saw the re-elevation of York to metropolitan status more than a century after it had first lapsed. Ecgberht himself was a correspondent of Bede and St Boniface and was remembered in England and on the Continent as an expert on canon law and ecclesiastical legislation. Moreover, he was responsible for the early education of Alcuin at York and if he was not the founder of the cathedral school there then at the very least he made it into the kind of institution capable of producing an Alcuin.