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Applications of aminocyclopyrachlor in 2011 to turf resulted in brown and twisted shoots, leaves, and needles; shoot dieback; and in some cases, death of trees and ornamental plants adjacent to treated turf areas. Our research objective was to determine if a sensitive plant could be injured from wood chips (mulch) obtained from aminocyclopyrachlor-damaged trees, and to quantify movement of aminocyclopyrachlor from contaminated wood chips into soil and its subsequent uptake by roots into landscape plant tissues. Tomatoes were grown under greenhouse conditions and mulched with chipped tree branches collected from honey locust and Norway spruce damaged 12 mo previously by aminocyclopyrachlor. Analysis of tomato tissue for aminocyclopyrachlor residues 32 d after mulching found aminocyclopyrachlor in all mulched tomato plants, which was consistent with observations of epinasty on tomato leaflets. Aminocyclopyrachlor residues ranged from 0.5 to 8.0 ppb in tomato plants while chipped tree branches contained 1.7 to 14.7 ppb. Aminocyclopyrachlor residues in the potting soil below the mulch ranged from below the quantifiable limit to 0.63 ppb, indicating that aminocyclopyrachlor can leach from wood chips into soil, causing plant injury. These results indicate that trees damaged by aminocyclopyrachlor should not be chipped and used for mulch or as an ingredient in compost.
Analysts agree that political corruption is an obstacle to democratic consolidation but disagree about how to measure the extent of corruption in individual nations. This analysis of the Central American countries demonstrates that the most important competing quantitative measures of political corruption produce strikingly different rankings. These contradictory results are caused less by poor measurement techniques than by the existence of two different dimensions of corruption that do not always coincide. Statistical indicators based on expert perceptions of corruption and alternative indicators based on ordinary citizens' firsthand experiences with bribery measure, respectively, grand corruption by senior officials and petty corruption by lower-level functionaries. This study attempts to explain why several Central American nations suffer primarily from one or the other rather than both. It advances recommendations for future research and future anticorruption policies that may be applied to Latin America as a whole.
Dietary fatty acids have been shown to influence allergic sensitisation. Both n-3 and n-6 PUFA are involved in targeted mediation of inflammatory responses during allergic sensitisation and manifestation of atopic diseases. In the present experiments we investigated whether supplementation of DHA-enriched fish oil partly substituting dietary sunflower-seed oil, in comparison with sunflower-seed oil, supplemented to mice influences fatty acid composition of serum lipid classes. The effects of the two different diets were also investigated depending on allergic sensitisation. Supplementation of DHA and EPA in doses of 2 and 0·12 % (w/w) to non-sensitised and sensitised mice resulted in significantly increased percentile contributions of DHA to all lipid classes. In contrast, serum values of the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) were significantly lower, both in non-sensitised and sensitised mice fed the DHA-enriched diet. The fatty acid composition of serum lipids also reflected allergic sensitisation: the EPA:AA ratio in TAG, cholesteryl esters and phospholipids in non-supplemented animals fell to 23, 29 and 29 % respectively of the original value after allergic sensitisation, whereas it decreased to 70, 80 and 76 % respectively only in the animals supplemented with DHA. In summary, allergic sensitisation alone decreased significantly the EPA:AA ratios in serum TAG, while concomitant supplementation of DHA-enriched fish oil ameliorated this decrease. We postulate from the present results that the amelioration of the severity of allergic sensitisation after DHA supplementation may be linked to altered ratios of the eicosanoid precursors EPA and AA as well as DHA needed for further metabolic activation to pro- or anti-inflammatory bioactive lipids.
Amorphous 1–2-nm-wide intergranular films in ceramics dictate
many of their properties. The detailed investigation of structure and
chemistry of these films pushes the limits of today's transmission
electron microscopy. We report on the reconstruction of the
one-dimensional potential profile across the film from an experimentally
acquired tilt series of energy-filtered electron diffraction patterns.
Along with the potential profile, the specimen thickness, film orientation
with respect to the grain lattice and specimen surface, and the absolute
specimen orientation with respect to the laboratory frame of reference are
The Guatemalan military dominated the country's politics for nearly half a century, but its political power declined during the 1990s. Democratically elected presidents Alvaro Arzú (1996–2000) and Alfonso Portillo (2000–2004) subordinated the armed forces to their authority and thereby gained an unprecedented opportunity to reduce the role of the military and institutionalize democratic civil-military relations. Unfortunately, neither of these tasks was accomplished. An analysis of the level of democratic control, combining Alfred Stepan's military prerogatives indicators with a newer system of measurement and classification designed by Samuel Fitch, shows that the armed forces retained substantial institutional autonomy and de facto legal immunity when Portillo left office in 2004. The role of the military in Guatemalan society, moreover, expanded again under Portillo after declining under Arzú. This study finds that the lack of sufficient civilian commitment to reform, rather than resistance from the armed forces, was the principal cause of these disappointing outcomes.
Since their discovery, laser accelerated ion beams have been the
subject of great interest. The ion beam peak power and beam emittance is
unmatched by any conventionally accelerated ion beam. Due to the unique
quality, a wealth of applications has been proposed, and the first
experiments confirmed their prospects. Laser ion acceleration is strongly
linked to the generation and transport of hot electrons by the interaction
of ultra-intense laser light with matter. Comparing ion acceleration
experiments at laser systems with different beam parameters and using
targets of varying thickness, material and temperature, some insight on
the underlying physics can be obtained. The paper will present
experimental results obtained at different laser systems, first beam
quality measurement on laser accelerated heavy ions, and ion beam source
size measurements at different laser parameters. Using structured targets,
we compare information obtained from micro patterned ion beams about the
accelerating electron sheath, and the influence of magnetic fields on the
electron transport inside conducting targets.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.
The Arcminute Cosmology Bolometer Array Receiver (Acbar) is a multifrequency millimeter-wave receiver optimized for observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in clusters of galaxies. Acbar was installed on the 2.1 m Viper telescope at the South Pole in January 2001 and the results presented here incorporate data through July 2002. The power spectrum of the CMB at 150 GHz over the range ℓ = 150 — 3000 measured by Acbar is presented along with estimates for the values of the cosmological parameters within the context of ΛCDM models. The inclusion of ΩΛ greatly improves the fit to the power spectrum. Three-frequency images of the SZ decrement/increment are also presented for the galaxy cluster 1E0657–67.
We show how estimates of parameters characterizing inflation-based theories of structure formation localized over the past year when large scale structure (LSS) information from galaxy and cluster surveys was combined with the rapidly developing cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, especially from the recent Boomerang and Maxima balloon experiments. All current CMB data plus a relatively weak prior probability on the Hubble constant, age and LSS points to little mean curvature (Ωtot = 1.08±0.06) and nearly scale invariant initial fluctuations (ns = 1.03±0.08), both predictions of (non-baroque) inflation theory. We emphasize the role that degeneracy among parameters in the Lpk = 212 ± 7 position of the (first acoustic) peak plays in defining the Ωtot range upon marginalization over other variables. Though the CDM density is in the expected range (Ωcdmh2 = 0.17 ± 0.02), the baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.030 ± 0.005 is somewhat above the independent 0.019 ± 0.002 nucleosynthesis estimates. CMB+LSS gives independent evidence for dark energy (ΩΛ = 0.66 ± 0.06) at the same level as from supernova (SN1) observations, with a phenomenological quintessence equation of state limited by SN1+CMB+LSS to wQ < −0.7 cf. the wQ=−1 cosmological constant case.
Low lake levels, due to drought in spring and summer 2000, revealed the decayed remnants of over 100 dugout canoes buried in the sediments of Newnans Lake near Gainesville, Florida. Radiocarbon assays revealed that 41 of 55 canoes studied were from the Late Archaic period, dating between 2300 and 5000 B.P. Analysis of canoe form and comparison to the small number of other known Florida Archaic period canoes correct previous ideas about early canoes. Patterns of wood choice and manufacturing techniques known from younger canoes were in place during the Late Archaic. The Archaic period canoes from Newnans Lake are indistinguishable from canoes produced in later periods and are not the crude, short, blunt-ended type thought to represent the earliest dugout canoes. Thwarts or low partitions on almost half of the Archaic canoes studied confirm a long temporal span to the canoe-making tradition of peninsular Florida. Middle and Late Archaic groups had boat-building and related technologies in place 7,000 years ago and were expanding into areas with newly emerging freshwater resources created by higher water tables.
Gas-atomized Ni powders were mechanically milled under liquid nitrogen and subsequently sprayed using a high-velocity oxygen-fuel thermal spraying system. The resultant coatings were evaluated using various analytical methods, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM). The results indicated that the majority of the grains in nanocrystalline Ni coating were equiaxed with an average grain size of 50 ± 23 nm. SEM elemental dot mapping analysis suggested that oxide particles were distributed along the prior droplet boundaries and interpass boundaries in the coatings. The APFIM analysis indicated that the distribution of oxygen was very inhomogeneous in the nanocrystalline coating samples studied. Mostly small NiO precipitates with a size range of 1–7 nm were found throughout the grains, and the average size of these precipitates was approximately 4 nm. However, large oxide precipitates with a size up to 55 nm were also observed. In addition, increased amounts of oxygen were found at the grain boundaries and at structural defects.
Collective absorption, so far determined by numerical
simulations, is explained in physical terms for cold and
warm plasma. After deducing a few general relations for
flat targets, interface phase mixing and nonadiabatic electron
acceleration in the skin layer are identified as the main
physical processes leading to irreversibility, that is,
Oxidic zirconium films prepared by chemical deposition from aqueous medium on sulfonic acid terminated self-assembled monolayers attached to an oxidized silicon surface were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Bulk precipitate forms in the 4 mM Zr(SO4)2 · 4H2O, 0.4 N HCl deposition medium at 343 K after approximately 30 min. Precipitate particles (200 nm and larger) were found embedded in the oxidic zirconium film and adsorbed on top of the film; they could be washed off, but patches of the film were removed. Working with unstable deposition solutions, in which homogeneous nucleation occurs, leads to preparation-inherent flaws in the film.
The surface morphology of TiO2- and ZrO2-based thin films, deposited from aqueous solution at 70–80 °C onto functionalized organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on silicon has been examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The films have been previously shown to consist, respectively, of nanocrystalline TiO2 (anatase) and of nanocrystalline tetragonal ZrO2 with amorphous basic zirconium sulfate. The films exhibit characteristic surface roughnesses on two length scales. Roughness on the nanometer scale appears to be dictated by the size of the crystallites in the film. Roughness on the micron scale is postulated to be related to several factors, including the topography of the SAM and the effects of larger, physisorbed particles or agglomerates. The topographies of the oxide thin films, on both the nanometer and micron scales, are consistent with a particle-attachment mechanism of film growth.
Measurements of x-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles have been performed on commercially pure Fe and Al powders, cryomilled Fe–3 wt.% Al powders, cold pressed (CP) pure Fe and Al, hot pressed (HP) and hot isostatically pressed (HIP) Fe–3 wt.% Al. Scherrer equation (SE), integral breadth analysis (IBA), and single-line approximation (SLA) methods have been employed to extract grain size and microstrain. The results demonstrate that, in the case of the cryomilled nanocrystalline Fe–3 wt.% Al powders, all these XRD techniques yielded reasonable, consistent grain size results. However, discrepancies were found in cold pressed (CP-Fe), hot pressed (HP-Fe–3 wt.% Al), and hot isostatically pressed (HIP-Fe–3 wt.% Al) samples. TEM imaging revealed the presence of a certain density of dislocations inside the grains in the HP-Fe–3 wt.% Al and HIP-Fe–3 wt.% Al, which is thought to be partly or fully responsible for the observed discrepancies.