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This review assesses regenerative medicine of the upper aerodigestive tract during the first two decades of the twenty-first century, focusing on end-stage fibrosis and tissue loss in the upper airways, salivary system, oropharynx and tongue.
PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, Medline and clinicaltrials.org were searched from 2000 to 2019. The keywords used were: bioengineering, regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, cell therapy, regenerative surgery, upper aerodigestive tract, pharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, vocal cord, tongue and salivary glands. Original studies were subcategorised by anatomical region. Original human reports were further analysed. Articles on periodontology, ear, nose and maxillofacial disorders, and cancer immunotherapy were excluded.
Of 716 relevant publications, 471 were original studies. There were 18 human studies included, within which 8 reported airway replacements, 5 concerned vocal fold regeneration and 3 concerned salivary gland regeneration. Techniques included cell transplantation, injection of biofactors, bioscaffolding and bioengineered laryngeal structures.
Moderate experimental success was identified in the restoration of upper airway, vocal fold and salivary gland function. This review suggests that a shift in regenerative medicine research focus is required toward pathology with a higher disease burden.
The researches show a rapid growth of mental disorders among adolescents and young adults that often cooccurs with risk behaviours, such as suicide, which is one of the leading cause of death among young ages 15-34. Therefore it's necessary to use some tools that can promote mental health getting to young lives such as Internet and media.
SUPREME (Suicide Prevention by Internet and Media Based Mental Health Promotion) is aimed to increasing the prevention of risk behaviours and mental health promotion through the use of mass media and Internet.
The main expected outcome is to improve mental health among European adolescents.
In each European countries a sample of 300 students (average age of 15 years) will be selected. The prevention program will be a highly interactive website that which will address topics such as raising awareness about mental health and suicide, combating stigma, and stimulate peer help. The program will use different means of referral to the intervention website: “Adolescent related” and “Professional related”. A questionnaire will be administered to the pupils for require the data on lifestyles, values and attitudes, psychological well-being, familiar relationship and friendship.
Some web-sites, managed by mental health professionals, produced encouraging results about their use in prevention of risk behaviours and in increase well-being, especially in youth with low self-esteem and low life-satisfaction. With the implementation of the SUPREME project we will be able to identify best practices for promoting mental health through the Internet and the media.
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and the third leading cause of death among people aged below 25. Mental health promotion is a central aspect of the battle against suicide and mental ill-health. The internet and the media are effective tools for disseminating information and education to adolescents and improving their mental health and well-being. in 2011 there were 2.1 billion Internet users world-wide. in a random sample of over 3000 American adults, it was found that 58% of the Internet users reported searching for health information for themselves (Atkinson et al. 2009).
The main objective of the SUPREME project is to develop a website aimed at mental health promotion and to investigate its efficacy. A secondary goal is to compare two different strategies for promoting the use of the website: one where peers are the main promoters and another with mental health professionals. The study is partly funded by the EACH and comprises 7 European countries: Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, Lithuania and Sweden.
Adolescents in this study approached in a random sample of schools, in each participating country, yielding a total of 2100 participants. The schools were randomized into control (minimal intervention), and intervention conditions (minimal intervention + website access). Pre-, post- and follow-up measures are used to test the efficacy of the intervention. Each intervention school is also randomized into peer and pro dissemination groups for comparison of recruitment efficiency. Preliminary results are presented.
The importance of timely identification and treatment of psychosis are increasingly the focus of early interventions, with research targeting the initial high-risk period in the months following first-episode hospitalization. However, ongoing psychiatric treatment and service utilization after the symptoms have been stabilized over the initial years following first-episode has received less research attention.
To model the variables predicting continued service utilization with psychiatrists for adolescents following their first-episode psychosis; examine associated temporal patterns in continued psychiatric service utilization.
This study utilized a cohort design to assess adolescents (age 14.4 ± 2.5 years) discharged following their index hospitalization for first-episode psychosis. Bivariate analyses were conducted on predictor variables associated with psychiatric service utilization. All significant predictor variables were included in a logistic regression model.
Variables that were significantly associated with psychiatric service utilization included: diagnosis with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder rather than major mood disorder with psychotic features (OR = 24.0; P = 0.02), a first degree relative with depression (OR = 0.12; P = 0.05), and months since last psychiatric inpatient discharge (OR = 0.92; P = 0.02). Further examination of time since last hospitalization found that all adolescents continued service utilization up to 18 months post-discharge.
Key findings highlight the importance of early diagnosis, that a first degree relative with depression may negatively influence the adolescent's ongoing service utilization, and that 18 months post-discharge may a critical time to review current treatment strategies and collaborate with youth and families to ensure that services continue to meet their needs.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
I. De Pater, University of California, Berkeley Berkeley, California, USA,
D. P. Hamilton, University of Maryland College Park, Maryland, USA,
M. R. Showalter, SETI Institute Mountain View, California, USA,
H. B. Throop, Planetary Science Institute Tucson, Arizona, USA,
J. A. Burns, Cornell University Ithaca, New York, USA
We conducted a retrospective study of the appropriateness of antimicrobial agents prescribed on discharge from an acute care hospital. Seventy percent of discharge antibiotics were inappropriate in antibiotic drug choice, dose, or duration. Our findings suggest there is a significant need for antimicrobial stewardship at transitions in care.
The Llanherne telescope is a meridian transit instrument with an instantaneous bandwidth of two octaves in the range 35 to 150 MHz, and was constructed primarily for studying the low frequency properties of pulsars. The antenna is a 78 × 156 metre filled aperture phased array comprising 4096 wire dipole elements arranged in a 64 × 64 matrix. Uniform illumination of the elements produces a single pencil beam response which is scanned electronically along the meridian from Declination -90° to +30°. The beamwidth at 100 MHz is 1 degree in right ascension and two degrees sec(Dec.) in declination and varies proportionally with wavelength, giving a transit time of 4 sec(Dec) × 100/f(MHz) minutes between half power points.
Many patients treated for head and neck cancer require nutritional support, which is often delivered using a gastrostomy tube. It is difficult to predict which patients will retain their gastrostomy tube in the long term. This study aimed to identify the factors which affect the duration of gastrostomy tube retention.
In this retrospective study, 151 consecutive patients from one centre were audited. All patients had a mucosal tumour of the head and neck, and underwent gastrostomy tube insertion between 2003 and 2007.
There were near-complete data sets for 132 patients. The gastrostomy tube was retained in survivors (n = 66) for a mean of 21.3 months and in non-survivors (n = 66) for 11.9 months. Univariate analysis showed that co-morbidity was the only factor which significantly increased duration of gastrostomy tube retention in survivors (p = 0.041).
Co-morbidity alone was associated with a significant increase in gastrostomy tube retention. It is suggested that co-morbidity be included as a variable in future relevant research. Co-morbidity should also be considered when counselling patients about their long-term function following cancer treatment. Gastrostomy tube retention is likely to be affected by many factors, with few single variables having importance independently.
Silicon carbide power devices are purported to be capable of operating at very high temperatures. Current commercially available SiC MOSFETs from a number of manufacturers have been evaluated to understand and quantify the aging processes and temperature dependencies that occur when operated up to 350°C. High temperature constant positive bias stress tests demonstrated a two times increase in threshold voltage from the original value for some device types, which was maintained indefinitely but could be corrected with a long negative gate bias. The threshold voltages were found to decrease close to zero and the on-state resistances increased quite linearly to approximately five or six times their room temperature values. Long term thermal aging of the dies appears to demonstrate possible degradation of the ohmic contacts. This appears as a rectifying response in the I-V curves at low drain-source bias. The high temperature capability of the latest generations of these devices has been proven independently; provided that threshold voltage management is implemented, the devices are capable of being operated and are free from the effects of thermal aging for at least 70 hours cumulative at 300°C.
Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical manifestation of primary Epstein–Barr virus infection. It is unknown whether genetic factors contribute to risk. To assess heritability, we compared disease concordance in monozygotic to dizygotic twin pairs from the population-based California Twin Program and assessed the risk to initially unaffected co-twins. One member of 611 and both members of 58 twin pairs reported a history of infectious mononucleosis. Pairwise concordance in monozygotic and dizygotic pairs was respectively 12·1% [standard error (s.e.)=1·9%] and 6·1% (s.e.=1·2%). The relative risk (hazard ratio) of monozygotic compared to dizygotic unaffected co-twins of cases was 1·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1–3·4, P=0·03], over the follow-up period. When the analysis was restricted to same-sex twin pairs, that estimate was 2·5 (95% CI 1·2–5·3, P=0·02). The results are compatible with a heritable contribution to the risk of infectious mononucleosis.
Renewable energy can provide a host of benefits to society. In addition to the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, governments have enacted renewable energy (RE) policies to meet a number of objectives including the creation of local environmental and health benefits; facilitation of energy access, particularly for rural areas; advancement of energy security goals by diversifying the portfolio of energy technologies and resources; and improving social and economic development through potential employment opportunities. Energy access and social and economic development have been the primary drivers in developing countries whereas ensuring a secure energy supply and environmental concerns have been most important in developed countries.
An increasing number and variety of RE policies–motivated by a variety of factors–have driven substantial growth of RE technologies in recent years. Government policies have played a crucial role in accelerating the deployment of RE technologies. At the same time, not all RE policies have proven effective and efficient in rapidly or substantially increasing RE deployment. The focus of policies is broadening from a concentration almost entirely on RE electricity to include RE heating and cooling and transportation.
RE policies have promoted an increase in RE capacity installations by helping to overcome various barriers. Barriers specific to RE policymaking (e.g., a lack of information and awareness), to implementation (e.g., a lack of an educated and trained workforce to match developing RE technologies) and to financing (e.g., market failures) may further impede deployment of RE.
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of infections in deployed service members. Based on a molecular epidemiological study of 182 MRSA isolates from patients in three U.S. Army combat support hospitals in separate regions in Iraq, USA300 clone was the most predominant (80%) pulsotype. This finding suggested that strain carriage from the home country by military personnel is epidemiologically more important than local acquisition.
The quest for the B-modes in the CMB polarization is one of the main challenges of modern cosmology as it would allow to give sharp constraints on the inflationary period.
One of the main challenges of B modes detection is the treatment of systematic errors. Comparison of observations subject to different systematics is crucial. Interferometers offer such an alternative to imagers. However, to obtain the required sensitivity, a very large number of baselines is needed, which is extremely difficult to achieve with heterodyne interferometry. Bolometric interferometry copes with this problem using a new technique: the interference pattern produced by a few hundred horns is imaged on a bolometer array, and a time modulation of phase shifts insures the separation of visibilities while coherently adding redundant ones. The QUBIC collaboration proposes to build such an instrument.
We have obtained high resolution spectra of the pre-main sequence binary system KH 15D (V582 Mon) while the star is fully visible, fully occulted, and during several ingress and egress events over the course of five contiguous observing seasons. The Hα line profile is a standard probe of the magnetospheric accretion flows on young stars such as KH 15D. We use these time series data to map out the size of the magnetosphere and find that it changes size from one observing season to the next.