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Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) exhibit maternally driven fidelity to feeding grounds, and yet occasionally occupy new areas. Humpback whale sightings and mortalities in the New York Bight apex (NYBA) have been increasing over the last decade, providing an opportunity to study this phenomenon in an urban habitat. Whales in this area overlap with human activities, including busy shipping traffic leading into the Port of New York and New Jersey. The site fidelity, population composition and demographics of individual whales were analysed to better inform management in this high-risk area. Whale watching and other opportunistic data collections were used to identify 101 individual humpback whales in the NYBA from spring through autumn, 2012–2018. Although mean occurrence was low (2.5 days), mean occupancy was 37.6 days, and 31.3% of whales returned from one year to the next. Individuals compared with other regional and ocean-basin-wide photo-identification catalogues (N = 52) were primarily resighted at other sites along the US East Coast, including the Gulf of Maine feeding ground. Sightings of mother-calf pairs were rare in the NYBA, suggesting that maternally directed fidelity may not be responsible for the presence of young whales in this area. Other factors including shifts in prey species distribution or changes in population structure more broadly should be investigated.
We analyzed blood-culture practices to characterize the utilization of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommendations related to catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) blood cultures. Most patients with a central line had only peripheral blood cultures. Increasing the utilization of CRBSI guidelines may improve clinical care, but may also affect other quality metrics.
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted a need for engaging online resources to enrich psychiatry training for undergraduate medical students. Podcasting is a well-established digital communication platform utilised daily in a myriad of capacities, including education. A group of medical students were tasked with creating their own educational podcasts covering specific aspects of psychiatry.
Each pair was set a sub-topic of psychiatry and utilised software to produce educational resources. The objective of this project was to reflect upon production as well as explore the efficacy of podcasting as a tool within undergraduate training.
The medical students conducted research and contacted experts within the field to contribute to their podcasts. The majority of the students then conducted reviews of the literature surrounding podcasting within medical education, which informed the production of their own podcasts. From this, it was discussed how this project could impact future practice, and indicated that podcasts may become crucial asynchronous learning tools in medical education.
Literature review and first-hand experience of podcast production enabled the students to appreciate the advantages of podcasting and the potential for its widespread future applications. Their wider reading revealed that podcast-using study participants outperformed or matched their peers in assessments, and overwhelmingly enjoyed using podcasts over traditional teaching methods.
The use of podcasting can complement traditional psychiatry training and appeal to a generation of digital natives that prefer this learning style. Podcast production is also an excellent revision method, highlighting the advantages of peer-to-peer education in both learning and increasing engagement with psychiatry.
Atypical neurocognitive responses to emotional stimuli are core features of unipolar depression (UD) and bipolar disorder (BD). For mothers with these mood disorders, this may influence interactions with their infants and consequently infant development. The study aimed to investigate psychophysiological and cognitive responses to infant emotional stimuli, and their relation to mother–infant interaction and infant development, in mothers with BD or UD in full or partial remission.
Four months after birth, mothers' cognitive responses to emotional infant stimuli were assessed with computerized tasks, while their facial expressions, galvanic skin responses (GSR), gazes, and fixations were recorded. Infant development and mother–infant interactions were also assessed.
We included 76 mothers: 27 with BD, 13 with UD, and 36 without known psychiatric disorders, and their infants. Mothers with BD and UD were in full or partial remission and showed blunted GSR and spent less time looking at infant stimuli (unadjusted p values < 0.03). Mothers with BD showed subtle positive neurocognitive biases (unadjusted p values<0.04) and mothers with UD showed negative biases (unadjusted p values < 0.02). Across all mothers, some measures of atypical infant emotion processing correlated with some measures of delays in infant development and suboptimal mother–infant interaction (unadjusted p values<0.04).
Mothers with mood disorders in full or partial remission showed atypical cognitive and psychophysiological response to emotional infant stimuli, which could be associated with mother–infant interactions and infant development. The study is explorative, hypothesis generating, and should be replicated in a larger sample. Investigation of the long-term implications of reduced maternal sensitivity is warranted.
In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process—the Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)—involving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups’ final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency’s promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports—the full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials—offer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate—as understood by relevant research communities—to the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu.1
Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (tEPEC) infection is a major cause of diarrhoea and contributor to mortality in children <5 years old in developing countries. Data were analysed from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study examining children <5 years old seeking care for moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) in Kenya. Stool specimens were tested for enteric pathogens, including by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for gene targets of tEPEC. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data were collected at enrolment and ~60-days later; multivariable logistic regressions were constructed. Of 1778 MSD cases enrolled from 2008 to 2012, 135 (7.6%) children tested positive for tEPEC. In a case-to-case comparison among MSD cases, tEPEC was independently associated with presentation at enrolment with a loss of skin turgor (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37–3.17), and convulsions (aOR 2.83, 95% CI 1.12–7.14). At follow-up, infants with tEPEC compared to those without were associated with being underweight (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3–3.6) and wasted (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3–4.6). Among MSD cases, tEPEC was associated with mortality (aOR 2.85, 95% CI 1.47–5.55). This study suggests that tEPEC contributes to morbidity and mortality in children. Interventions aimed at defining and reducing the burden of tEPEC and its sequelae should be urgently investigated, prioritised and implemented.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Although their 5-year survival >90%, young patients with HL face tradeoffs between near-term disease control and risk of treatment-related adverse effects decades later, so we seek to understand what patients and clinicians value in HL treatment decisions. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Leveraging our access to large cohorts of physicians, HL patients/survivors, and caregivers, we will use adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis (ACBC) to elicit treatment preferences when offered scenarios that incorporate tradeoffs, e.g., would a patient rather live 20 years with 10% risk of second malignancy or live 40 years with 30% of second malignancy. To reduce survey fatigue, prior choice responses limit subsequent scenarios. Through ACBC, we will identify variations in preferences and the importance of disease outcomes, treatment characteristics, and late effects for HL by respondent type. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The goal is a final sample of 200 physicians and 200 patients/caregivers. We will collect demographics from physicians (age, type of physician, years practicing, type of practice, gender, and geography) and patients/caregivers (age at diagnosis, time since treatment, race, gender, smoker, education). We will ask questions about values of disease outcomes, late effects (second cancers, cardiac disease, chronic fatigue and neuropathy), and treatment characteristics (uncertainty of late effects, salvageability). Results will include utilities about participants views on disease-control and late effects. We anticipate participants to value disease control over late effects. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our study will elicit how physicians and patients/caregivers value treatment tradeoffs for HL. In an era of multiple treatment choices with varying short- and long-term benefits and harms, identifying values and preferences become critical for patient-centered treatment decisions.
We investigate the factors associated with the occurrence and abundance of external and blood parasites in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), an endangered seabird that breeds exclusively on the coasts of Namibia and South Africa. External parasites were collected using the dust-ruffling method from 171 African Penguins admitted at a rehabilitation facility in the Western Cape, South Africa. Additionally, blood smears were obtained upon admission and weekly during rehabilitation and examined for blood parasites. Fleas Parapsyllus longicornis humboldti, ticks Ornithodoros capensis and lice Austrogoniodes demersus were recovered from 93, 63 and 40%, respectively, of the penguins upon admission to the centre. Rescue location and age group were identified as significant determinants of flea abundance, whereas month of admission was a significant determinant of tick abundance. Blood parasites were also common on admission, with Babesia being the most frequent (46% prevalence) whereas Borrelia was recorded sporadically (1.2%) and Plasmodium was recorded once. The prevalence and abundance of ticks on admission was positively associated with Babesia infection on admission. Our findings demonstrate the variability and contributing factor of parasite infections in an endangered species of penguin, and highlight the need for additional research on the parasite–host dynamics involving these potential disease vectors.
To investigate the manipulation of electromagnetic properties of two-dimensional materials, this effort characterizes charge transfer behavior of colloidal COF-5 (covalent organic framework) in the presence of various metal ions. A series of metal chloride compounds was introduced to COF-5 in solution and solid film phases and the interaction of the material with electromagnetic radiation was monitored across the visible region using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Notable changes were observed, quantified, and discussed for copper (II) chloride (CuCl2), chromium (III) chloride (CrCl3), and iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) with COF-5. Ligand-to-metal and metal-to-ligand charge transfer are explored as a possible mechanism for the observed electronic behaviors.
Background: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a children’s neuromuscular disorder. Although motor neuron loss is a major feature of the disease, we have identified fatty acid abnormalities in SMA patients and in preclinical animal models, suggesting metabolic perturbation is also an important component of SMA. Methods: Biochemical, histological, proteomic, and high resolution respirometry were used. Results: SMA patients are more susceptible to dyslipidemia than the average population as determined by a standard lipid profile in a cohort of 72 pediatric patients. As well, we observed a non-alcoholic liver disease phenotype in apreclinical mouse model. Denervation alone was not sufficient to induce liver steatosis, as a mouse model of ALS, did not develop fatty liver. Hyperglucagonemia in Smn2B/-mice could explain the hepatic steatosis by increasing plasma substrate availability via glycogen depletion and peripheral lipolysis. Proteomic analysis identified mitochondrion and lipid metabolism as major clusters. Alterations in mitochondrial function were revealed by high-resolution respirometry. Finally, low-fat diets led to increased survival in Smn2B/-mice. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence for lipid metabolism defects in SMA. Further investigation will be required to establish the primary mechanism of these alterations and understand how they lead to additional co-morbidities in SMA patients.
Background: SMA is a neurodegenerative disease caused by biallelic deletion/mutation of SMN1. Copies of a similar gene (SMN2) modify disease severity. In a phase 1 study, SMN GRT onasemnogene abeparvovec (AVXS-101) improved outcomes of symptomatic SMA patients with two SMN2 copies (2xSMN2) dosed ≤6 months. Because motor neuron loss can be insidious and disease progression is rapid, early intervention is critical. This study evaluates AVXS-101 in presymptomatic SMA newborns. Methods: SPR1NT is a multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study enrolling ≥27 SMA patients with 2–3xSMN2. Asymptomatic infants ≤6 weeks receive a one-time intravenous AVXS-101 infusion (1.1x1014 vg/kg). Safety and efficacy are assessed through study end (18 [2xSMN2] or 24 months [3xSMN2]). Primary outcomes: independent sitting for ≥30 seconds (18 months [2xSMN2]) or assisted standing (24 months [3xSMN2]). Results: From April–September 2018, 7 infants received AVXS-101 (4 female; 6 with 2xSMN2) at ages 8–37 days. Mean baseline CHOP-INTEND score was 41.7 (n=6), which increased by 6.8, 11.0, 18.0, and 22.5 points at day 14 (n=4), month 1 (n=3), 2 (n=3), and 3 (n=2). Updated data available at the time of the congress will be presented. Conclusions: Preliminary data from SPR1NT show rapid motor function improvements in presymptomatic SMA patients.
Introduction: Competency-based skills development has driven the evolution of medical education. Simulation-based education is established as an essential tool to supplement clinical encounters and it provides the opportunity for low-stakes practice of common and high-acuity low-occurrence (HALO) procedures and scenarios. This is particularly important for emergency medicine trainees working to build confidence, knowledge, and skills in the field. Methods: In the procedural training sessions, learners rotate through 6 small-group stations over a 3-hour period. Skills topics are determined from faculty input, prior session feedback, and literature reviews. Topics included chest tubes, airway intervention, lumbar punctures and trauma interventions. Online content and brief written materials are used for pre-session learning. The small groups use hands-on faculty-guided training, with real-time feedback. Printed materials supplement key learning points at the stations. A combination of low-fidelity task trainers and simulated patients are used for practice and demonstration. R3 EM residents have the opportunity to mentor junior learners. Brief participant surveys are distributed at each session to gather qualitative and quantitative feedback. Results: Feedback forms were completed by 79/85 (92.9%) learners over a period of 4 years (2015-2018). Participants included medical students (11.8%), EM residents (52.9%), and non-EM residents (35.3%). 84.8% (67/79) gave positive qualitative feedback on the sessions, citing points such as the beneficial practice opportunities, quality of instruction, and utility of the models. Updated surveys (N = 26) used a 5-point Likert scale (1 = disagree strongly; 5 strongly agree) in addition to qualitative feedback. Participants indicated that sessions were valuable, and informative (M = 4.692, SD = 0.462; M = 4.270, SD = 0.710). They reported increased understanding of procedures discussed, and they were likely to recommend the session (M = 4.301, SD = 0.606; M = 4.808, SD = 0.394). Conclusion: The ongoing evaluation of our mentor guided hands-on low-fidelity and hybrid simulation-based procedural skills sessions facilitates meaningful programmatic changes to best meet the needs of EM learners. Sessions also provide a forum for EM resident mentorship of junior learners. Feedback indicates learners enjoyed the sessions and found this to be an engaging and effective instructional modality.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The study aims to identify patient and provider factors associated with delay in diagnostic resolution after an abnormal screening mammogram, with an emphasis on whether patients who spoke Chinese as their primary language sustained longer times to resolution. Primary outcome is to identify what proportion of patients achieve diagnostic resolution after abnormal screening mammogram within 90 days. Secondary outcome is to identify whether Chinese-speaking patients experience longer times to diagnostic resolution. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a single-center retrospective cohort study at Tufts Medical Center (TMC), a tertiary care hospital that serves as the primary referral site for the Chinatown neighborhood in Boston. We included patients who underwent screening mammogram between 10/1/2015-9/30/2016 which was resulted as BIRADS-0 (non-diagnostic). Diagnostic resolution was defined as BIRADS-1, 2, or 3 imaging or definitive biopsy. We collected data on patient demographics (age, insurance plan, race/ethnicity, primary language, history of cancer), provider characteristics (referring provider location), and post-referral testing. Insurance was categorized as private-only or subsidized. Poverty was categorized using the American Fact Finder database, with a binary variable of <20% of ≥20% people in poverty for a given zip code. We performed descriptive statistics for all variables. We will perform multivariable Cox regression analyses to determine whether Chinese-speaking patients experience longer time to diagnostic resolution, adjusting for age, referring provider type, insurance status, poverty, and breast cancer history. We will use p<0.05 for our threshold for significance. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified 386 patients who met inclusion criteria. Over half (55.9%) of patients were Caucasian, the mean age of study patients was 59 years, and 22% of patients were classified as poor. English was the most commonly spoken primary language (77.7%), while 15.3% of patients identified a Chinese dialect as their primary language. Most patients solely used private insurance for their medical care (73.1%). Majority of patients (83%) presented after undergoing a routine screening mammography, but a considerable proportion (14.4%) had prior breast cancer or a palpable mass. Most patients were referred for their screening mammogram by a hospital-based provider at TMC (85%), of which 77% of TMC referrals were from primary care. We also noted a limited number of referrals from community health centers, private practices and other PCP’s (Table 1). We will calculate median time to diagnostic resolution after screening mammogram and the proportion of patients who achieve resolution within 90 days. We will also calculate time to initiation of diagnostic workup, and whether this differed among Chinese-speaking patients, subsidized patients, or among those who were referred from outside of TMC. We will complete Cox multivariable analysis to identify if Chinese-speaking patients experience longer time to diagnostic resolution, adjusting for age, insurance status, Primary care provider location, poverty, and prior history of breast cancer. We will a priori test for an interaction between primary care provider within Tufts and Chinese as primary language to identify if a PCP within TMC modifies the relationship between Chinese language and time to resolution. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The proposed study will identify whether disparities exist in time to achieving diagnostic resolution. Specifically, we will identify if patients who are primarily Chinese-speaking experience longer time to resolution. Our results will potentially provide the foundation for a patient navigation program to attenuate existing disparities by providing additional support for Chinese speaking patients in breast imaging workup.
The present review evaluated the effectiveness of environmental-based interventions aimed at improving the dietary and physical activity behaviours and body composition indices of adults in institutions.
A systematic review was conducted. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest Dissertation and Theses, Scopus and Athena) were searched for relevant articles published between database inception and October 2017. Searching, selecting and reporting were undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement.
Military establishments and maritime workplaces.
Adults in institutions, aged 18–45 years.
A total of 27842 articles were screened for eligibility, nine studies (reported in eleven articles) were included in the review. Five studies used multilevel strategies and four used environmental strategies only. Duration of follow-up ranged from 3 weeks to 10 years. Eight of the studies reported significant positive effects on dietary behaviours, but effect sizes varied. The study that targeted physical activity had no effect on activity levels but did have a significant positive effect on physical fitness. No evidence was identified that the studies resulted in improvements in body composition indices.
The evidence base appears to be in favour of implementing environmental interventions in institutions to improve the dietary behaviours of adults. However, due to the small number of studies included in the review, and the variable methodological quality of the studies and intervention reporting, further well-designed evaluation studies are required.
Rhinonyssids are obligate haematophagous mites that parasitize the nasal cavity of vertebrates, and occur in a wide range of birds worldwide. Two species of nasal mites are known to occur in penguins: Rhinonyssus sphenisci, which has been recorded from Humboldt and Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus humboldti and S. magellanicus, respectively), and Rhinonyssus schelli, which has been recorded in Adélie and Gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae and P. papua, respectively). We examined the nasal cavity of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) that died while under care at a rehabilitation centre (N = 40) or that were found dead at breeding colonies (N = 67). Nasal mites were found in the nasal cavity and/or paranasal of sinuses of 21 penguins, some of which had signs of mild-to-moderate sinusitis. Prevalence was higher in juveniles (29%) and adults (27%) than in chicks (10%). Mean intensity was 5.9 ± 12.9 mites per infected host (range 1–60). The mites presented morphological characteristics that were at times consistent with either R. sphenisci or R. schelli, and therefore we conservatively classified them as ‘R. sphenisci sensu lato’. Our morphometric results raise the question of whether the specific status of R. schelli is justified.
Introduction: Safe and efficient provision of quality healthcare requires maintenance of knowledge and skills relevant to daily practice. This is particularly relevant in rural and remote locations where high-acuity low-occurrence procedures and clinical scenarios present even less frequently. Simulation based training is widely used to supplement clinical exposure and practice but effective delivery of this approach to the rural/ remote practitioner must address barriers of time, cost and geographical separation. Mobile tele-simulation is an innovative approach that may help in bridging the gap through delivery of effective mentoring using telemedicine technologies and tailored educational content. Methods: To help direct the iterative design cycle for the mobile tele-simulation unit, input from potential future users was felt to be essential. The Delphi method was employed to reach consensus among study participants on four key questions: 1) What applications would the MTU be best suited for?, 2) What technical requirements and teaching tools would be needed to make the MTU successful?, 3) Which fields, besides EM/medical education, may benefit from partnerships with the final MTU?, 4) What research studies could be developed using the MTU? It was decided in advance that two rounds would be the maximum due to time constraints of the larger MTU projects. The first questionnaire focused on demographics and the four questions above. Independent reviewers analyzed, compiled and compared responses. Participants were sent the updated list, asked to confirm their responses and then to rank the responses highest to lowest priority. Results: Fifteen of 17 first round participants completed the questions, giving an 88.2% response rate. All shared a simulation background. 66% were physicians, 13.3% medical students, and 20% staff at Memorials Simulation Center. 66% had been involved with simulation-based education less than 5 years, and the others greater than 5 year. 13 of 15 (86.7%) responded in round 2. Consensus was not reached statistically using Kendalls W test for each of the four questions. However, there were several responses that showed higher median ranks than the others under each question. Application use: rural healthcare training, and medical professional training Technical factors: reliable learner-mentor connection, and competent technical support Non-technical factors: knowledgeable mentor and content relevant to locations practice, Research studies: training needs assessment from rural sites, and learners experience compared to stationary simulation center Conclusion: Input from a heterogeneous group of simulation users was sought to help prioritize key features in the development of the Mobile Tele-simulation Unit. Although statistically the study did not reach consensus, valuable feedback was compiled and pragmatically applied in the iterative development cycle.
Introduction/Innovation Concept: Rural and remote practice of emergency medicine presents unique challenges, particularly when faced with infrequently encountered cases and procedures. Simulation-based training is a valuable tool in the acquisition and maintenance of knowledge and skills; however, simulators are often located in larger centers and they are not widely outside these centers due to geographic, cost and time constraints. Mobile tele-simulation has the potential to overcome barriers but challenges such as comfort, technical issues and ability to teach desired content via tele-simulation must be addressed. We are developing a mobile-tele-simulation unit (MTU) prototype that will enable emergency medicine practitioners and trainees to access simulation-based instruction in rural and remote settings. Methods: Through application of a mixed-methods approach with input of a multidisciplinary team we are iteratively developing an MTU prototype to assess key factors in design and function, including: technical issues, environmental features, and human factors. The Delphi method is being used to collect input from experts on key design components and feedback is also being collected from trainees after participating in trial deployments of the MTU in different educational and environmental settings. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: The effective application of the MTU in a variety of learning settings will be optimized through ongoing evaluation in the iterative design cycle. Feedback to ensure a quality learning experience in the MTU will direct features of physical design and technical performance that can be applied in deployment of the unit. In addition, challenges to the delivery of module content and instructional modality/ features of lessons to be executed will be important considerations as we move toward developing content that can effectively be taught using the MTU. Conclusion: To ensure effective use of tele-simulation in the delivery of a meaningful simulation experience to rural and remote trainees a number of important challenges must be overcome. We describe our evolving multidisciplinary mixed-methods approach to develop an effective mobile tele-simulation unit.
Cattle manure value chains play important biological and economic roles in smallholder crop–livestock systems in developing countries, but relative to other livestock products our understanding of the nature and impact of manure sales is limited. In regions with an active manure trade, farmers face a choice between manure use on-farm and sales, which affects nutrient flows and participant incomes. We analyzed the manure value chain operating in south-central Vietnam as an example of the function and role of manure trade in crop–livestock systems. Lowland cattle farmers sell manure through a network of chain participants, including small-scale collectors, lowland and highland traders, to pepper, coffee, dragon fruit and rubber farms in the central highlands and southeast coast. We collected and summarized quantitative data (e.g., manure-related labor, manure transactions, and fertilizer and manure use) gathered in semi-structured interviews with value-chain participants [lowland cattle owners (n = 101), traders (n = 27) and end users (n = 72)]. Lowland cattle owners were selected by stratified random sampling, and subsequent participants were identified in preceding interviews. One key finding concerns the seasonality of the manure value chain: most manure flowed between February and August (lowland dry season and period of peak highland demand) from lowland communes to highland coffee and pepper farms for use as organic soil amendments. Fewer sales occurred, at a lower price, to southeast coastal dragon fruit farms and rubber companies. Value addition to manure occurred via drying, bagging, collection, transport and composting. The presence of local traders facilitated market sales for smallholder cattle owners, and prices through the value chain generally reflected costs for value addition. The geographic distribution of cattle relative to agricultural land influenced the flow of manure, with net outflows from regions with higher animal density to regions with lower density and higher value crop production. Manure trade was an important source of supplementary income for farmers and a primary livelihood activity for traders. Value chain participant net incomes ranged from near US$100 yr−1 for lowland farmers to over US$13,000 yr−1 for traders, and returns to labor were just over US$0.50 h−1 for lowland farmers and US$2 h−1 for traders. The quantitative information generated during our descriptive assessment provides an important first step toward manure value chain improvement, indicates survey methods that can be applied in other areas, and identifies next steps necessary to evaluate chain evolution and resilience.