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The main aim of the present studies is to determine whether, or to some extent, specific cognitive domains could differentiate the main subtypes of mood disorder in the depressed and clinically remitted status respectively.
Three groups of bipolar I (n = 92), bipolar II (n = 131) and unipolar depression patients (n = 293) were tested with a battery of neuropsychological tests at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment, contrasting with 202 healthy controls on cognitive performance.
At the acute depressive state, the three patients groups (bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar depression) showed cognitive dysfunction in processing speed, memory, verbal fluency and executive function but not attention compared with controls. And post comparisons revealed that bipolar I patients performed significantly worse in these impaired cognitive domain than bipolar II and unipolar depression patients in verbal fluency and executive function. After treatment, clinically remitted bipolar I and bipolar II patients only displayed cognitive impairment in processing speed and visual memory in relative to controls, while remitted unipolar depression patients showed cognitive impairment in executive function in addition to processing speed and visual memory.
Bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar depression patients have a similar pattern of cognitive impairment during the state of acute depressive episodes. At the clinically remission, still both bipolar disorder and unipolar depression patients showed cognitive deficits in processing speed and visual memory, and executive dysfunction might be a status-maker for bipolar disorder, but a trait-marker for unipolar depression
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementing different amounts of daidzein in a diet on the growth performance, blood biochemical parameters and meat quality of finishing beef cattle. Thirty finishing Xianan steers were distributed in three groups equilibrated by weight and fed three different dietary treatments (concentrate ratio = 80%): (1) control; (2) 500 mg/kg daidzein and (3) 1000 mg/kg daidzein, respectively. Steers were slaughtered after an 80-day feeding trial. Results showed that daidzein supplementation had no effect on the final body weight, average daily gain and feed conversion rate of steers. Steers fed with 1000 mg/kg daidzein had greater dry matter intake than those fed with control diets. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group had a higher fat thickness, lower shear force and lightness. The pH, drip loss, cooking loss, redness (a*), yellowness (b*), moisture, ash, crude protein and intramuscular fat of the Longissimus dorsi muscle were unaffected by daidzein supplementation. Compared with the control group, the 1000 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentrations of insulin, free fatty acid and Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase. The 500 mg/kg daidzein group significantly increased the serum concentration of tetraiodothyronine compared with the control group. Supplemental daidzein did not affect the blood antioxidant ability and blood immune parameters in serum. In conclusion, daidzein supplementation above 500 mg/day modifies feed intake and metabolic and hormonal profile, with positive and negative effects on meat quality.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
Insect defensins, are cationic peptides that play an important role in immunity against microbial infection. In the present study, an anionic defensin from Plutella xylostella, (designated as PxDef) was first cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the mature peptide owned characteristic six-cysteine motifs with predicted isoelectric point of 5.57, indicating an anionic defensin. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that PxDef was significantly induced in epidermis, fat body, midgut and hemocytes after injection of heat-inactivated Bacillus thuringiensis, while such an induction was delayed by the injection of live B. thuringiensis in the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella. Knocking down the expression of nuclear transcription factor Dorsal in P. xylostella by RNA interference significantly decreased the mRNA level of PxDef, and increased the sensitivity of P. xylostella larvae to the infection by live B. thuringiensis. The purified recombinant mature peptide (PxDef) showed higher activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with the minimum inhibition concentrations of 1.6 and 2.6 µM against B. thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report about an anionic PxDef, which may play an important role in the immune system of P. xylostella against B. thuringiensis.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria that cause diarrhea in piglets through colonizing pig small intestine epithelial cells by their surface fimbriae. Different fimbriae type of ETEC including F4, F18, K99 and F41 have been isolated from diarrheal pigs. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study to map the loci associated with the susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 using 39454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 667 F2 pigs from a White Duroc×Erhualian F2 cross. The most significant SNP (ALGA0022658, P=5.59×10−13) located at 6.95 Mb on chromosome 4. ALGA0022658 was in high linkage disequilibrium (r2>0.5) with surrounding SNPs that span a 1.21 Mb interval. Within this 1.21 Mb region, we investigated ZFAT as a positional candidate gene. We re-sequenced cDNA of ZFAT in four pigs with different susceptibility phenotypes, and identified seven coding variants. We genotyped these seven variants in 287 unrelated pigs from 15 diverse breeds that were measured with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype. Five variants showed nominal significant association (P<0.05) with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype in International commercial pigs. This study provided refined region associated with susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 than that reported previously. Further works are needed to uncover the underlying causal mutation(s).
Ear cartilage piercing is increasingly popular and has a significant complication rate. Contrary to popular belief, there are no minimum qualifications required to practice ear piercing. This study evaluated ear cartilage piercing practices in London, UK.
Practitioners at 25 piercing parlours completed a telephone questionnaire assessing piercing practice.
Ninety-six per cent of practitioners were aware of the risk of infection post-piercing. Four per cent, 12 per cent and 0 per cent of practitioners were aware of keloid scarring, hypertrophic scarring and cauliflower ear respectively. No practitioners were aware of any other complications. Their consent forms did not document any ear cartilage complications. Twenty-eight per cent of participants advised clients to seek medical attention following a complication. Forty per cent did not provide written post-piercing guidance.
Piercing practitioners were insufficiently aware of ear cartilage piercing complications. It is unlikely that informed consent was obtained prior to piercing. The post-piercing practice of the majority of parlours did not follow published national guidance.
The Dark Matter Time Projection Chamber collaboration recently reported a dark matter
limit obtained with a 10 liter time projection chamber filled with CF4 gas. The
10 liter detector was capable of 2D tracking (perpendicular to the drift direction) and 2D
fiducialization, and only used information from two CCD cameras when identifying tracks
and rejecting backgrounds. Since that time, the collaboration has explored the potential
benefits of photomultiplier tube and electronic charge readout to achieve 3D tracking, and
particle identification for background rejection. The latest results of this effort is
A heterophase polydomain structure has been recently discovered in BiFeO3 epitaxial ferroelectric films, which provides large electromechanical responses. In this work, the formation of such a microstructure is explained by theory of elastic domains. The thermodynamics of the heterophase polydomain microstructure is analyzed to predict the equilibrium volume fraction of domains at different film-substrate lattice misfits. Extrinsic mechanical and piezoelectric properties are discussed for the heterophase polydomains. It is shown that an applied electric field, which increases electrostatic interaction between domains, may lead to dramatic increase of piezo response. The results of this work are in good agreement with experimental data for BiFeO3.
Hybrid actuation systems consist of two types of motors: constant velocity (CV)
motor and servo (SV) motor. The CV motor can produce a large power but with a
poor task flexibility. On the other hand, the SV motor has an excellent task
flexibility but with a small power capacity. Combination of these two types of
motors into a coherent driver architecture for machine systems is extremely
promising, because they complement each other. Existing studies on the hybrid
actuation or machine system usually employ two servo motors, one of which
substitutes the CV motor. This treatment compromises the control accuracy for
the trajectory tracking at the end-effector. This paper presents a study on a
new controller for the hybrid machine that considers one SV motor and one CV
motor and for trajectory tracking at the end-effector level. A comparison of
this new controller with the controller we developed previously is provided. A
five-bar mechanism with two degrees of freedom is employed for the illustration
The rate law for CO oxidation over Pd-substituted BaCeO3 was studied. Under CO-rich conditions over a range of pressures and temperatures, changing reaction orders for both CO and O2 suggest the coexistence of both Langmuir-Hinshelwood and BaCeO3-mediated mechanisms. The latter dominates at high P(CO)/P(O2), while both mechanisms contribute significantly at low P(CO)/P(O2). Under CO-lean conditions, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism dominates the kinetics. The importance of the BaCeO3-mediated mechanism increases with temperature. Steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis (SSITKA) using 18O2 confirmed the participation of labile lattice oxygen, thus BaCeO3 behaves as a BaO-stabilized form of CeO2.
A new class of silicon-based chemical and biological sensors that offer an electrical response to a variety of substances is described. The devices utilize silicon flow-through sensing membranes with deep trench structures formed to depths up to 100μm, fabricated by electrochemical etching which transforms the silicon into macro-porous silicon (MPS). The sensors have demonstrated the ability to detect the presence of certain chemical and biological materials. Although the principle of operation of the devices is fairly complex, the transduction mechanisms can be compared to chemiresistors and chemically sensitive field-effect transistors (chemFETs). The electrical responses that have shown the most sensitivity are AC conductance and capacitance. Previous work has demonstrated that upon exposure to organic solvents (i.e. ethanol, acetone, benzene) the devices exhibit a characteristic impedance signature. The devices have also shown the ability to detect the hybridization of complementary DNA. The incorporation of other materials that have demonstrated sensitivity to low ambient levels of contaminants is also under investigation. The sensors have been designed and fabricated in linear array configurations; a microfluidic transport chip/package co-design is currently in progress.
Bunched and multi-circularly wrapped carbon nanotubes (CNT) are
observed to grow on alloy substrates based on iron group metals and copper
by a microwave enhanced hot-filament method with a dilute gas of ammonia at
a proper RF self-bias. The grown size of CNTs embodied in the grain sizes of
conducting bulk alloy catalysts such as Cu-Ni, Cu-Fe, Cu-Co, and Cu-Ni-Fe-Co
are controlled by a precursor time of hydrogen plasma etching. Species with
different structural features and homogenization of CNTs samples are
produced crucially attributed to various reactant gases and self-bias
induced by the radio frequency field.
The converse piezoelectric response of a thin film constrained by a substrate is analyzed in different geometries under various boundary conditions. We considerthe effects of elastic deformation of the substrate on the total displacement of thefilm surface induced by the electric field. The change of film thickness and the bending curvature of a film/substrate couple are calculated. For a thin film island clamped on a large thick substrate, the theoretical estimation of the piezoresponse, including a local bending in the vicinity of the island/substrate interface, is in agreement with the finite element calculation.
Electrical bistable states with the conductivity different by more than four orders in magnitude were observed in a polymer film sandwiched between two metal electrodes. This polymer film was composed of gold nanoparticles, 8-hydroxyquinoline and polystyrene, and was formed by a solution process. The film can be programmed between the two electrical states by an electric field. The as-prepared device, which was in a low conductivity state, exhibited an abrupt increase of current when the device was scanned up to 2.8 volt (V). The high conductivity state can be returned to the low conductivity state at a voltage of –1.8 V in the reverse direction. The device has a good stability in both the states. The transitions are nonvolatile, and the transition from the low to the high conductivity state takes place in nanoseconds, so that the device can be used as a low-cost, high-density, high-speed, and nonvolatile memory. The switching mechanism was studied by investigating the current-voltage characteristics, the temperature dependence of the current, the surface potential atomic force microscopy and the energy levels of the materials. The electronic transition is attributed to the electric-field induced charge transfer between the gold nanoparticles and 8-hydroxyquinoline molecules.
With the preparation of organic-inorganic layered perovskite-type compounds (C4H9NH3)2MCl4 (M = Mn, Cu) in solutions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to characterize the obtained powders. XRD patterns demonstrate that the two compounds have obvious layered structures and SEM pictures reveal that both (C4H9NH3)2MnCl4 and (C4H9NH3)2CuCl4 take on obvious sheet-like microstructure. TG&DSC curves indicate that (C4H9NH3)2CuCl4 decomposes at much lower temperature than (C4H9NH3)2MnCl4.This is ascribed to weakening interactions between its organic and inorganic components, which is presumably due to the Jahn-Teller distortion of [CuCl6] octahedra.
An overview of SiGe modulation-doped field-effect transistor (MODFET) technology is provided. The layer structures and mobility enhancements for both p- and n-channel modulation-doped quantum wells are described and compared to mobilities in Si/SiO2 inversion layers. Next, previous results on high-performance n- and p-MODFETs fabricated at IBM and elsewhere are reviewed, followed by recent results on laterally-scaled Si/SiGe n-MODFETs with gate lengths as small as 70 nm. We conclude with a discussion of the materials issues for the future vertical and lateral scaling of SiGe MODFETs.
Ceramic sintering in microwave field is a new ceramic processing method. In present paper, we detected the microstructures and boundary segregation of BaTiO3 ceramics which were sintered in microwave field. Scanning electron microscopy(SEM), and transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and chemical analysis methods were employed to detect the microstructure of BaTiO3, element distribution near the boundary of BaTiO3 ceramic. The results shown growth of grain of the ceramic was influenced by impurities such as acceptor, benefactor et al, and the element distribution near the grain boundary of BaTiO3 sintered in microwave field were different with that sintered in conventional method. The boundary segregations of BaTiO3 sintered in microwave field were not obvious as compared to the conventional method because the diffusion was enhanced due to the microwave field.