The integrated use of biconical traps, insecticide-impregnated targets and the sterile insect technique was developed for the eradication of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Robineau-Desvoidy) in a 1500-km2 area of central Nigeria. Six weeks or more of continuous removal trapping, using biconical traps, reduced the target tsetse population by more than 90% but failed to eradicate it. Males sterilized by irradiation from a 60Co source that were then released weekly induced significant sterility in target females and were successful in helping to eradicate the target population. A minimum ratio of 10:1 of sterile to wild males was required to achieve eradication in a central area of 300 km2. In marginal habitats, insecticide-impregnated targets were found adequate to control the tsetse population. The targets were also efficient as barriers to prevent reinvasion of the area. The combined effect of removal trapping and sterile male release is expected to eradicate G. p. palpalis from the entire study area.