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The surface restitution method we present reconstructs the evolution of a glacier surface between two time-separated surface topographies using seasonal surface mass balance (SMB) data. A conservative and systematic error analysis is included, based on the availability of surface elevation measurements within the period. The method is applied from 2001 to 2013 at Hurd Glacier (a 4 km2 glacier), where we have sufficient SMB and elevation data. We estimate surface elevation changes in two steps: (1) elevation change due to SMB and (2) elevation change due to glacier dynamics. Four different models of the method are compared depending on whether or not accumulation is memorised at each time step and whether they employ balance profiles or SMB maps. Models are validated by comparing a set of surface measurements retrieved in 2007 with the corresponding restituted elevations. Although surface elevation change between 2001 and 2007 was larger than 10 m, more than 80% of the points restituted by the four models showed errors below ±1 m compared to only 33% when predicted by a linear interpolator. As error estimates between models differ by 0.10 m, we recommend the simplest model, which does not memorise accumulation and interpolates SMB by elevation profiles.
Dietary studies can offer insight into the effects of imperial rule on colonised populations. Inka expansion was associated with change in agricultural production and diet, including greater emphasis on maize. This article presents stable isotope analyses of ten individuals from two locations in Antofagasta de la Sierra, Argentina. AMS dating assigns one site to the start of the Inka period and one to the end. Despite diachronic changes in material culture, isotope analyses indicate that maize remained relatively unimportant in local diet. Given the symbolic value of maize in the Inka world, this lack of dietary change suggests limited imperial influence over local agricultural production and diet.
Up to 30% of the current tidewater mass loss in Svalbard corresponds to frontal ablation through submarine melting and calving. We developed two-dimensional (2-D) glacier–line–plume and glacier–fjord circulation coupled models, both including subglacial discharge, submarine melting and iceberg calving, to simulate Hansbreen–Hansbukta system, SW Svalbard. We ran both models for 20 weeks, throughout April–August 2010, using different scenarios of subglacial discharge and crevasse water depth. Both models showed large seasonal variations of submarine melting in response to transient fjord temperatures and subglacial discharges. Subglacial discharge intensity and crevasse water depth influenced calving rates. Using the best-fit configuration for both parameters our two coupled models predicted observed front positions reasonably well (±10 m). Although the two models showed different melt-undercutting front shapes, which affected the net-stress fields near the glacier front, no significant effects on the simulated glacier front positions were found. Cumulative calving (91 and 94 m) and submarine melting (108 and 118 m) along the simulated period showed in both models (glacier–plume and glacier–fjord) a 1:1.2 ratio of linear frontal ablation between the two mechanisms. Overall, both models performed well on predicting observed front positions when best-fit subglacial discharges were imposed, the glacier–plume model being 50 times computationally faster.
Platelet serotonin-binding (Bmax), using tritiated-seroionin as the ligand, was determined in 75 patients suffering from major depression with melancholia and in 26 patients diagnosed from dysthymic disorder. Twenty-five normal subjects were used as a control group. The melancholic group had significantly lower Bmax values (mean: 6.7 ± 6.1 pmol/108 platelets) than either dysthymic (9.3 ± 3.9 pmol/108 platelets) or control (9.2 ± 4.8 pmol/108 platelets) groups, while there were no significant differences between the two latter groups. There was also a significant difference on postdexamethasone Cortisol between melancholic (6.3 ± 7.1 μg/dL) and dysthymic (1.4 ± 1.4 μg/dL) groups, with a higher rate of nonsuppressors in melancholic groups. Although both tests were abnormal in the melancholic group, no relationship was found between platelet serotonin-binding and the dexaniethasone suppression test.
Since clinical practice suggests that panic disorder may not be a homogeneous condition, a study was carried out to test the possible existence of different groups or subgroups of panic patients.
Subjects and methods
Thirty-two panic patients (DSM-III-R) underwent lactate challenge in our laboratory and were assessed for heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and Acute Panic Inventory.
During the lactate challenge, patients complaining mainly of ‘cardiorespiratory’ symptoms (N = 12) showed tachycardia and localized sweating. Conversely, patients complaining mainly of ‘pseudoneurological’ symptoms (N = 16) showed bradycardia and generalized sweating. In both groups, Acute Panic Inventory scores were significantly higher during than before the panic attack, but the distribution of the scores was markedly different.
Discussion and Conclusion
The results suggest that panic disorder may be a heterogeneous condition. Implications of these results to other phobic disorders, to Klein’s false suffocation alarm theory and to the ‘extended amygdala model’ are discussed.
One hundred and sixteen patients with RDC unipolar recurrent depressive disorder, melancholic subtype, were treated with imipramine or phenelzine and followed-up for six months. None of the patients had a first-degree relative with bipolar I disorder. Twenty-six patients (22.4%) presented an hypomanic episode (‘hypomanic group’). This group of patients, when depressed, had a significantly lower age of onset of the disorder and higher response to antidepressant therapy than patients who did not present an hypomanic episode. Significantly more patients (88%) of the ‘hypomanic group’ had at least one first-degree relative with a history of major depressive disorder. These patients displayed some of the typical features of bipolar II disorder. Overall results support the continuum in clinical phenomena between unipolar and bipolar disorders.
The presence of mental illness in any of the parents can be a stressful factor in the child and be in certain way generator of disease. AIMS describe and quantify the psychiatric family history in patients who were consecutively referred to the outpatient department of children and adolescent psychiatry,mental health community center of collado villalba, Madrid
Material and method:
Obtain data of a series of cases filing a card of the 18-year-old minor patients who in September, October, November and December, 2007 come for the first time to our mental health community center.
The total number of patients were 114. There were psychiatric family history in 36,8% (N=42), the mother was or had been in psychiatric treatment in 28% (N=31)) of the cases, the father in 15% (N=17) and the brothers in 7 % (N=8), the most frequent diagnoses in mothers it were neurosis in 21 % (N=24), toxic abuse in 3,5% (N=4) and personality disorder in 1,8% (N=2), toxic abuse was the most frequent with 8,8% (N=10) in parents, followed by neurosis diagnosed in 4,4% (N=5), the most frequent diagnoses in brothers was the emotional disorder in 4,4,% (N=5). The mean age of parents was 41,34 (SE =6,34), in mothers was 38,43 (SE=6,59).
We have to consider the existence of some kind of psychiatric family history in the therapeutic plan of the patient.
Brain volume abnormalities and oxidative cell damage have been reported to be pathological characteristics of schizophrenia patients. This study aims to assess a potential relationship between these two characteristics in child and adolescent patients with first-episode psychosis.
26 child and adolescent patients with first-episode early-onset schizophrenia, and 78 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used for volumetric measurements of five cerebral regions: gray matter of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and lateral ventricles. Oxidative cell damage was traced by means of a systemic increase in lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH).
Lateral ventricle volumes were significantly higher in schizophrenia patients than in controls. In schizophrenia patients, a significant positive relationship was found between oxidative cell damage (LOOH levels) and the abnormal enlargement of the lateral ventricles, after controlling for total intracranial volume, age, gender, daily smoking status, intelligence quotient (IQ), psychopathology, and time since onset of psychotic symptoms. No association was found between brain volumes and oxidative cell damage in control subjects.
Our results suggest that, in patients with first-episode early-onset schizophrenia, enlargement of the lateral ventricles is associated with chronic oxidative cell damage.
Cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) is an alpha-1-glycoprotein with high affinity for cortiso that could be a potential biological marker of chronic stress, according to several previous studies. In order to examine CBG concentrations in bipolar disorder, we determined serum CBG levels by radioimmunoassay with monoclonal antibodies in a sample of 39 RDC bipolar I patients in remission and 21 healthy age-, sex- and weight-matched control subjects. Only lithium treatment was permitted. Plasma cortisol and serum lithium levels were also determined. Bipolar males showed statistically significant lower serum CBG levels than controls, whereas women showed very similar values. No correlation was found between CBG levels and cortisol or lithium concentrations. It is concluded that CBG levels are affected by chronic affective illness, even during remission periods, at least in bipolar males.
The Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity (ADDH) is now, a frequent diagnosis in Paediatrics Psychiatry. This real neurobiological syndrome has a variable incidence (3-12%), an early beginning (before 7 years) and an important permanency in adult age (15-20% keep diagnosis and 65% residual symptoms). It represents a risk factor for posterior psychiatric diseases, antisocial behaviour and relation problems. This makes the early diagnosis and treatment necessary. The 70-90% of the patients responds to simpatico mimetic treatment and the methylphenidate is the most used. Patients must carry out the clinical criteria and nowadays there is not any recognized helpful test for the diagnoses except the clinical one. The medium latency auditory evoked response (MLAER) appears 10-70 ms after the cochlear receptor activation and it has cortical and subcortical generators.
We studied MLAER in ADDH: their morphology, changes with treatment and relation between morphology changes and clinical response to treatment.
Patients (53) had ADDH clinical criteria, methylphenidate treatment chosed, not comorbidity neither hearing loss. First phase without treatment and second with it where we did MLAER and tronco-encephalic auditory evoked response during wakefulness and sleep.
Without treatment 76% responses were asymmetric (51% of them with a specific type). The rest 23% were normal. With treatment 63% changed the morphology and 70% had a good response to treatment. Only 11% of patients without alterations had a good clinical development.
An ADDH diagnosis has different physiopathologic mechanism. The MLAER in ADDH could predict the treatment response.
The objective of the present study was to examine the short-term effectiveness of a 11-week chess training course for children with ADHD. This is a naturalistic, descriptive clinical intervention study.
Sample and procedure: Parents of 44 children between 6 and 17 of age with a primary diagnosis of ADHD consented to take part into the present study. Parents completed the Spanish version of the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham Scale for parents (SNAP-IV) and the the Abbreviated Conners Rating Scales for parents (CPRS-HI) prior to 11-week chess training course. Statistical Analyses: We used a paired t test statistic to compare pre- to post- intervention outcomes, and Cohen-d calculations to measure the magnitude of the effect. Statistical significance was set at p< 0.05.
After 11 weeks of these pilot programme, more than 80% of children showed improvement in the severity of ADHD. T-test revealed that children with ADHD improved in both the SNAP-IV (t=6.23; d.f.=41; p< 0.001) and the CPRS-HI (5.39; d.f.=33; p< 0.001). Our results suggest a large effect in decreasing the severity of ADHD as measured by the SNAP-IV (d=0.96) and the CPRS-HI (d=0.92)
Diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) may be difficult in clinical practice, particularly during the first episodes of early-onset psychosis (FE-EOP).
To develop a Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm as a predictive tool for diagnostic outcome in patients with FE-EOP, based on clinical and biomedical data at the emergence of the illness.
Two-year, prospective longitudinal study, where 81 patients (9-17 years of age) with a FE-EOP and stable diagnosis at follow-up and 41 age and sex-matched healthy controls (HC) were included. Structured diagnostic interviews, clinical and cognitive scales, a MRI scan and biochemical tests were conducted at baseline. Three SVM classification algorithms were developed (SSD vs HC group, non-SSD vs HC group, and SSD vs non-SSD group). Jackknifing was used to validate the algorithms and to calculate performance estimates. Enhanced-Recursive Feature Elimination was performed in order to gain information about the predictive weight for diagnosis of each variable.
The SSD-versus-non-SSD classifier achieved an overall accuracy of 83.1%, sensitivity of 86.6% and specificity of 77.8%. The variables during a FE-EOP with higher predictive value for a diagnosis of SSD were clinical variables such as negative symptoms preceding or during the psychotic onset, poor insight and duration of illness until first psychiatric contact. Biochemical, neuroimaging, and cognitive variables at baseline did not provide any additional predictive value.
SVM may serve as a predictive tool for early diagnosis of SSD during a FE-EOP. The most discriminative variables during a FE-EOP for a future diagnosis of SSD are clinical variables.
The forced displacement in Montería, a region from the Colombian Caribbean could become a risk factor for the existence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), nevertheless, there isn’t data of the prevalence of this disorder.
To identify the prevalence of the PTSD and associated events in adults victims of the displacement in the city of Montería.
Transversal and explorative study, 117 adults (M: 40,41; SD: 13,14). The PTSD was verified with the checklist for PTSD (Weathers, Litz, herman, Huska & Keane, 1993) and according to criteria of DSM-5 (APA, 2014). The 3 factors associated with the disorder were analyzed according to age groups. To evaluate the events associated to the disorder was used the checklist of events (Blake, Weathers & Nagy, 1990). Occurred and witnessed by the subject events were analyzed. Descriptive were used to determinate the existence of the PTSD and an ANOVA to contrast the symptomatology of the PTSD by age groups.
The 26,49% (n = 31) of the sample had the clinic criteria of PTSD. An ANOVA of a factor evidenced that the activation was present in a biggest proportion in the range of 53-59 years old (M = 18.73); intrusion and avoidance was shown mostly in the range of 60-71 years old (intrusion M = 14.00; avoidance M = 14.85). In relation to the associated events occurred to the subjects, there was found that the highest incidence were: natural disasters (42.7%) and unexpected death (35.9%); the witnessed events with higher percentage where: unexpected death (19.70%) and traffic accidents (15.4%).
References not available.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This article shows the importance of flow compressibility on the heat transfer in confined impinging jets, and how it is driven by both the Mach number and the wall heat flux. Hence, we present a collection of cases at several Mach numbers with different heat-flux values applied at the impingement wall. The wall temperature scales linearly with the imposed heat flux and the adiabatic wall temperature is found to be purely governed by the flow compression. Especially for high heat-flux values, the non-constant wall temperature induces considerable differences in the thermal conductivity of the fluid. This phenomenon has to date not been discussed and it strongly modulates the Nusselt number. In contrast, the heat transfer coefficient is independent of the varying thermal properties of the fluid and the wall heat flux. Furthermore, we introduce the impingement efficiency, which highlights the areas of the wall where the temperature is influenced by compressibility effects. This parameter shows how the contribution of the flow compression to raising the wall temperature becomes more dominant as the heat flux decreases. Thus, knowing the adiabatic wall temperature is indispensable for obtaining the correct heat transfer coefficient when low heat-flux values are used, even at low Mach numbers. Lastly, a detailed analysis of the dilatation field also shows how the compressibility effects only affect the heat transfer in the vicinity of the stagnation point. These compressibility effects decay rapidly further away from the flow impingement, and the density changes along the developing boundary layer are caused instead by variable inertia effects.
To study subglacial hydrological condition and its influence on the glacier dynamics, we drilled Johnsons Glacier on Livingston Island in the Antarctic Peninsula region. Subglacial water pressure was recorded in boreholes at two locations over 2 years, accompanied by high-frequency ice-speed measurements during two summer melt seasons. Water pressure showed two different regimes, namely high frequency and large amplitude variations during the melt season (January–April) and small fluctuations near the overburden pressure the rest of the year. Speed-up events were observed several times in each summer measurement period. Ice motion during these events substantially contributed to total glacier motion, for example, fast ice flow over 1 week accounted for ~70% of the total displacement over a 25-day long measurement period. We did not find a clear relationship between subglacial water pressure and ice speed. This was probably because subglacial hydraulic conditions were spatially inhomogeneous and thus our borehole data did not always represent a large-scale subglacial condition. Ice temperature measurements in the boreholes confirmed the existence of a cold ice layer near the glacier surface. Our data provide a basis to better understand the dynamic and hydrological conditions of relatively unstudied glaciers in the Antarctic Peninsula region.
We present the case of hot semi-detached Algols showing photometric cycles longer than the orbital period. The evidence indicating that this long cycle might be due to a magnetic dynamo operating in the rapidly rotating donor star is examined.
This work combines very detailed measurements from terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), ground-based interferometry radar (GB-SAR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to diagnose current conditions and to analyse the recent evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees from 2011 to 2017. Thus, this is currently one of the best monitored small glacier (<0.5 km2) worldwide. The evolution of the glacier surface was surveyed with a TLS evidencing an important decline of 6.1 ± 0.3 m on average, with ice losses mainly concentrated over 3 years (2012, 2015 and 2017). Ice loss is unevenly distributed throughout the study period, with 10–15 m thinning in some areas while unchanged areas in others. GB-SAR revealed that areas with higher ice losses are those that are currently with no or very low ice motion. In contrast, sectors located beneath the areas with less ice loss are those that still exhibit noticeable ice movement (average 2–4.5 cm d─1 in summer, and annual movement of 9.98 ma─1 from ablation stakes data). GPR informed that ice thickness was generally <30 m, though locally 30–50 m. Glacier thinning is still accelerating and will lead to extinction of the glacier over the next 50 years.
Understanding the consequences of environmental fluctuations for parasite dynamics requires a long-term view stretching over many transmission cycles. Here we studied the dynamics of three malaria parasites (Plasmodium azurophilum, P. leucocytica and P. floridense) infecting the lizard Anolis gundlachi, in the rainforest of Puerto Rico. In this malaria–anole system we evaluated temporal fluctuations in individual probability of infection, the environmental drivers of observed variation and consequences for host body condition and Plasmodium parasites assemblage. We conducted a total of 15 surveys including 10 from 1990 to 2002 and five from 2015 to 2017. During the early years, a lizard's probability of infection by all Plasmodium species appeared stable despite disturbances ranging from two hurricanes to short droughts. Over a longer timescale, probability of infection and overall prevalence varied significantly, following non-linear relationships with temperature and rainfall such that highest prevalence is expected at intermediate climate measures. A perplexing result was that host body condition was maximized at intermediate levels of rainfall and/or temperature (when risk of infection was highest), yet we found no significant decreases in body condition due to infection. Plasmodium parasite species composition varied through time with a reduction and near local extinction of P. floridense. Our results emphasize the need for long-term studies to reveal host–parasite dynamics, their drivers and consequences.