Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the single most common neuropsychiatric disorder with cognitive and behavioral manifestations, often starts in childhood and usually persists into adolescence and adulthood. Rarely seen alone, ADHD is most commonly complicated by other neuropsychiatric disorders that must be factored into any intervention plan to optimally address ADHD symptoms. With more than 30 classical Schedule II (CII) stimulant preparations available for ADHD treatment, only three nonstimulants (atomoxetine and extended-release formulations of clonidine and guanfacine) have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), all of which focus on modulating the noradrenergic system. Given the heterogeneity and complex nature of ADHD in most patients, research efforts are identifying nonstimulants which modulate pathways beyond the noradrenergic system. New ADHD medications in clinical development include monoamine reuptake inhibitors, monoamine receptor modulators, and multimodal agents that combine receptor agonist/antagonist activity (receptor modulation) and monoamine transporter inhibition. Each of these “pipeline” ADHD medications has a unique chemical structure and differs in its pharmacologic profile in terms of molecular targets and mechanisms. The clinical role for each of these agents will need to be explored with regard to their potential to address the heterogeneity of individuals struggling with ADHD and ADHD-associated comorbidities. This review profiles alternatives to Schedule II (CII) stimulants that are in clinical stages of development (Phase 2 or 3). Particular attention is given to viloxazine extended-release, which has completed Phase 3 studies in children and adolescents with ADHD.