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Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Homogeneously developed oak (Quercus robur L.) microcuttings
were challenged in a Petri-dish system with the
mycobionts Piloderma croceum J. Erikss. & Hjortst. and
Paxillus involutus (Batsch) Fr. Non-destructive
observations over 10 wk followed by d. wt measurements at the end of the
assays served to precisely characterize
root and shoot development, dynamics of mycorrhizal colonization and
morphological ratio. In the system, plant
development, and especially root morphogenesis, had more similarities to
those of stump cuttings or of older
seedlings than to those of 3-month-old seedlings. Whereas Paxillus
involutus displayed early mycorrhizal
colonization and had no significant morphological effects on the host
Piloderma croceum modified markedly the
entire plant development before a delayed mycorrhiza formation. The latter
mycobiont stimulated elongation and
production of the lateral root system and also increased the leaf surface.
However, no corresponding weight
increases were noted, which was reflected by significant increase of both
specific root length and specific leaf area.
These differential effects are discussed in relation to data concerning
requirement and auxin production
of the mycobionts. The developed system was shown to be highly suitable
for comparative studies with diverse
mycobionts on recognition and physiological balance between partners before,
and in the early stage of, formation of mycorrhizas.
The identity of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)
ectomycorrhizas was investigated using PCR/RFLP
analysis of the ITS region from 16 morphotypes sampled at a 60-yr-old black
alder stand. A comparison was made
with restriction patterns from sporocarps of 28 mycobionts, of which 16
originated from the same stand, the
remaining 12 came from two geographically distant alder stands. Eight of
the mycorrhizal types could thus be
identified, whereas eight mycorrhizal types remained unidentified. The
identified mycorrhizas belonged to the
genera Russula, Lactarius, Naucoria and
Cortinarius. Four of the identified ectomycorrhizal types had
PCR/RFLP profiles to corresponding fruit bodies from all investigated
stands with no detectable intraspecific
variation, despite the geographical distance of c. 300 km between
the sampling locations. By contrast, intraspecific
variation between sporocarps from the different locations was detected
Paxillus rubicundulus, mycorrhizas of
which were not found. The diversity of fruiting alder mycobionts at the
experimental plot only partly
matched the diversity observed from mycorrhizas when comparing their
PCR/RFLP profiles. The results are
discussed regarding sampling techniques, PCR/RFLP analyses and ecological