To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) exist to optimize antibiotic use, reduce selection for antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms, and improve patient outcomes. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to optimal antibiotic use. Because diagnostic testing plays a significant role in diagnosing patients, it has one of the strongest influences on clinician antibiotic prescribing behaviors. Diagnostic stewardship, consequently, has emerged to improve clinician diagnostic testing and test result interpretation. Antimicrobial stewardship and diagnostic stewardship share common goals and are synergistic when used together. Although ASP requires a relationship with clinicians and focuses on person-to-person communication, diagnostic stewardship centers on a relationship with the laboratory and hardwiring testing changes into laboratory processes and the electronic health record. Here, we discuss how diagnostic stewardship can optimize the “Four Moments of Antibiotic Decision Making” created by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and work synergistically with ASPs.
Invasive species can have disastrous effects on the ecosystems they invade, requiring costly, labour-intensive mitigation. Public awareness campaigns are often used as a tool to reduce these species’ impacts. While heralded as useful and cost-effective, little evidence suggests that these campaigns contribute to meaningful biological outcomes. Furthermore, awareness campaigns are relatively understudied despite their usage as a common approach to mitigating invasive species. We conducted a literature review to assess publications that evaluated the efficacy of public awareness campaigns for managing invasive species. Out of 4382 papers initially extracted for analysis, we determined that 24 of them included studies conducted on awareness campaigns for invasive species. Four public awareness campaigns were deemed a ‘success’, and the other campaigns’ success was indeterminable due to study design. Our study revealed that inconsistencies in defined end points, unclear procedures and variability of campaigns contribute to there being insufficient evidence to determine the efficacy of public awareness campaigns. To evaluate the true efficacy of public awareness campaigns, we recommend that organizations conducting such campaigns implement rigorous and standardized assessments (e.g., Before–After Control–Impact designs or Bayesian analyses) that include measures of not just changes in the knowledge and behaviour of target audiences, but also relevant biological outcomes.
Methamphetamine and cannabis are two widely used, and frequently co-used, substances with possibly opposing effects on the central nervous system. Evidence of neurocognitive deficits related to use is robust for methamphetamine and mixed for cannabis. Findings regarding their combined use are inconclusive. We aimed to compare neurocognitive performance in people with lifetime cannabis or methamphetamine use disorder diagnoses, or both, relative to people without substance use disorders.
423 (71.9% male, aged 44.6 ± 14.2 years) participants, stratified by presence or absence of lifetime methamphetamine (M−/M+) and/or cannabis (C−/C+) DSM-IV abuse/dependence, completed a comprehensive neuropsychological, substance use, and psychiatric assessment. Neurocognitive domain T-scores and impairment rates were examined using multiple linear and binomial regression, respectively, controlling for covariates that may impact cognition.
Globally, M+C+ performed worse than M−C− but better than M+C−. M+C+ outperformed M+C− on measures of verbal fluency, information processing speed, learning, memory, and working memory. M−C+ did not display lower performance than M−C− globally or on any domain measures, and M−C+ even performed better than M−C− on measures of learning, memory, and working memory.
Our findings are consistent with prior work showing that methamphetamine use confers risk for worse neurocognitive outcomes, and that cannabis use does not appear to exacerbate and may even reduce this risk. People with a history of cannabis use disorders performed similarly to our nonsubstance using comparison group and outperformed them in some domains. These findings warrant further investigation as to whether cannabis use may ameliorate methamphetamine neurotoxicity.
Misdiagnosis of bacterial pneumonia increases risk of exposure to inappropriate antibiotics and adverse events. We developed a diagnosis calculator (https://calculator.testingwisely.com) to inform clinical diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia using objective indicators, including incidence of disease, risk factors, and sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests, that were identified through literature review.
Three years after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, better knowledge on the transmission of respiratory viral infections (RVI) including the contribution of asymptomatic infections encouraged most healthcare centers to implement universal masking. The evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology and improved immunization of the population call for the infection and prevention control community to revisit the masking strategy in healthcare. In this narrative review, we consider factors for de-escalating universal masking in healthcare centers, addressing compliance with the mask policy, local epidemiology, the level of protection provided by medical face masks, the consequences of absenteeism and presenteeism, as well as logistics, costs, and ecological impact. Most current national and international guidelines for mask use are based on the level of community transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Actions are now required to refine future recommendations, such as establishing a list of the most relevant RVI to consider, implement reliable local RVI surveillance, and define thresholds for activating masking strategies. Considering the epidemiological context (measured via sentinel networks or wastewater analysis), and, if not available, considering a time period (winter season) may guide to three gradual levels of masking: (i) standard and transmission-based precautions and respiratory etiquette, (ii) systematic face mask wearing when in direct contact with patients, and (iii) universal masking. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the different strategies is warranted in the coming years. Masking is just one element to be considered along with other preventive measures such as staff and patient immunization, and efficient ventilation.
The glaciogenic nature of the Yudnamutana Subgroup was first recognized over a century ago, and its global significance was recognized shortly after, with the eventual postulation of a global Sturtian Glaciation and Snowball Earth theory. Much debate on the origin and timing of these rocks, locally and globally, has ensued in the years since. A significant corpus of research on the lithology, sedimentology, geochronology and formal lithostratigraphy of these sequences globally has attempted to resolve many of these debates. In the type area for the Sturtian Glaciation, South Australia’s Adelaide Superbasin, the lithostratigraphy and sedimentology are well understood; however, formal stratigraphic nomenclature has remained complicated and contested. Absolute dates on the stratigraphy are also extremely sparse in this area. The result of these longstanding issues has been disagreement as to whether the sedimentary rocks of the Yudnamutana Subgroup are truly correlative throughout South Australia, and if they were deposited in the same time span recently defined for Sturtian glacial rocks globally, c. 717 Ma to c. 660 Ma. This study presents a large detrital zircon study, summarizes and compiles existing global geochronology for the Sturtian Glaciation and revises the formal lithostratigraphic framework of the Yudnamutana Subgroup. We show equivalence of the rocks that comprise the revised Sturt Formation, the main glaciogenic unit of the Yudnamutana Subgroup, and that it was deposited within the time span globally defined for the Sturtian Glaciation.
Urine-culture diagnostic stewardship aims to decrease misdiagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs); however, these interventions are not widely adopted. We examined UTI diagnosis and management practices to identify barriers to and facilitators of diagnostic stewardship implementation.
Using a qualitative descriptive design, we conducted semistructured interviews at 3 Veterans’ Affairs medical centers. Interviews were conducted between November 2021 and May 2022 via Zoom videoconferencing using an interview guide and visual prototypes of proposed interventions. Interviewees were asked about current practices and thoughts on proposed interventions for urine-culture ordering, processing, and reporting. We used a rapid analysis matrix approach to summarize key interview findings and compare practices and perceptions across sites.
We interviewed 31 stakeholders and end users. All sites had an antimicrobial stewardship program but limited initiatives targeting appropriate diagnosis and management of UTIs. The majority of those interviewed identified the importance of diagnostic stewardship. Perceptions of specific interventions ranged widely by site. For urine-culture ordering, all 3 sites agreed that documentation of symptomology would improve culturing practices but did not want it to interrupt workflow. Representatives at 2 sites expressed interest in conditional urine-culture processing and 1 was opposed. All sites had similar mechanisms to report culture results but varied in perceptions of the proposed interventions. Feedback from end users was used to develop a general diagnostic stewardship implementation checklist.
Interviewees thought diagnostic stewardship was important. Qualitative assessment involving key stakeholders in the UTI diagnostic process improved understanding of site-specific beliefs and practices to better implement interventions for urine-culture ordering, processing, and reporting.
Understanding the distribution and extent of suitable habitats is critical for the conservation of endangered and endemic taxa. Such knowledge is limited for many Central African species, including the rare and globally threatened Grey-necked Picathartes Picathartes oreas, one of only two species in the family Picathartidae endemic to the forests of Central Africa. Despite growing concerns about land-use change resulting in fragmentation and loss of forest cover in the region, neither the extent of suitable habitat nor the potential species’ distribution is well known. We combine 339 (new and historical) occurrence records of Grey-necked Picathartes with environmental variables to model the potential global distribution. We used a Maximum Entropy modelling approach that accounted for sampling bias. Our model suggests that Grey-necked Picathartes distribution is strongly associated with steeper slopes and high levels of forest cover, while bioclimatic, vegetation health, and habitat condition variables were all excluded from the final model. We predicted 17,327 km2 of suitable habitat for the species, of which only 2,490 km2 (14.4%) are within protected areas where conservation designations are strictly enforced. These findings show a smaller global distribution of predicted suitable habitat forthe Grey-necked Picathartes than previously thought. This work provides evidence to inform a revision of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List status, and may warrant upgrading the status of the species from “Near Threatened” to “Vulnerable”.
Background: Saskatchewan’s Rural and Remote Memory Clinic (RRMC) has provided post-diagnostic virtual dementia care for approximately 19 years. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and a new need for remote dementia diagnosis, we developed a virtual, team-based, interdisciplinary (neurology, neuropsychology, nursing), diagnostic memory clinic (vRRMC). We evaluated patient and caregiver satisfaction with the new virtual clinic. Methods: Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with rural vRRMC patients (n=7), caregivers (n= 13), and one patient/caregiver dyad. Ages of respondents ranged from 40 to 70 years old (60% female). Level of diagnosed cognitive dysfunction ranged from subjective cognitive impairment to major neurocognitive disorder. Respondents saved an average of 460 km of travel compared to a trip to Saskatoon. Results: Thematic analysis of responses revealed universal satisfaction with the virtual model. The technology training sessions, offered prior to the first vRRMC visit, was described as important for satisfaction. Analysis of preference for future visits revealed more nuance; some preferred in-person visits and planned to travel for future appointments post-pandemic, while others preferred to maintain the virtual model due to perceived travel burden (cost, time, and inconvenience). Conclusions: When clinically appropriate, virtual diagnostic memory clinics should persist as an option post pandemic for families who experience high travel burden.
Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) respiratory panels are rapid, highly sensitive tests for viral and bacterial pathogens that cause respiratory infections. In this study, we (1) described best practices in the implementation of respiratory panels based on expert perspectives and (2) identified tools for diagnostic stewardship to enhance the usefulness of testing.
We conducted a survey of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network to explore current and future approaches to diagnostic stewardship of multiplex PCR respiratory panels.
In total, 41 sites completed the survey (response rate, 50%). Multiplex PCR respiratory panels were perceived as supporting accurate diagnoses at 35 sites (85%), supporting more efficient patient care at 33 sites (80%), and improving patient outcomes at 23 sites (56%). Thirteen sites (32%) reported that testing may support diagnosis or patient care without improving patient outcomes. Furthermore, 24 sites (58%) had implemented diagnostic stewardship, with a median of 3 interventions (interquartile range, 1–4) per site. The interventions most frequently reported as effective were structured order sets to guide test ordering (4 sites), restrictions on test ordering based on clinician or patient characteristics (3 sites), and structured communication of results (2 sites). Education was reported as “helpful” but with limitations (3 sites).
Many hospital epidemiologists and experts in infectious diseases perceive multiplex PCR respiratory panels as useful tests that can improve diagnosis, patient care, and patient outcomes. However, institutions frequently employ diagnostic stewardship to enhance the usefulness of testing, including most commonly clinical decision support to guide test ordering.
Since the early 2000s, many of the left groups that spurred the alt-globalization movement have embraced directly democratic organizing and the creation of ethical relationships and subjectivities far more than they have pursued projects to reform legal and political institutions. These practices are often described as prefigurative because people are working to build alternative possible futures in the here-and-now outside of dominant statist and capitalist rationalities. In this essay, we ask if prefiguration can also involve imagining legal forms anew. Drawing on Amelia Thorpe, Owning the Street: The Everyday Life of Property (2020), we discuss contemporary efforts to use the language, form, and legitimacy of law to imagine it otherwise, efforts that occur through various kinds of direct actions rather than primarily through appeals to courts, legislators, or other state officials. In so doing, we point to an emergent field of critical and sociolegal scholarship that we call prefigurative legality.
Tobacco is a highly prevalent substance of abuse in patients with psychosis. Previous studies have reported an association between tobacco use and schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between tobacco use and first-episode psychosis (FEP), age at onset of psychosis, and specific diagnosis of psychosis.
The sample consisted of 1105 FEP patients and 1355 controls from the European Network of National Schizophrenia Networks Studying Gene–Environment Interactions (EU-GEI) study. We assessed substance use with the Tobacco and Alcohol Questionnaire and performed a series of regression analyses using case-control status, age of onset of psychosis, and diagnosis as outcomes and tobacco use and frequency of tobacco use as predictors. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, alcohol, and cannabis use.
After controlling for cannabis use, FEP patients were 2.6 times more likely to use tobacco [p ⩽ 0.001; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.1–3.2]] and 1.7 times more likely to smoke 20 or more cigarettes a day (p = 0.003; AOR 1.7; 95% CI [1.2–2.4]) than controls. Tobacco use was associated with an earlier age at psychosis onset (β = −2.3; p ⩽ 0.001; 95% CI [−3.7 to −0.9]) and was 1.3 times more frequent in FEP patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia than in other diagnoses of psychosis (AOR 1.3; 95% CI [1.0–1.8]); however, these results were no longer significant after controlling for cannabis use.
Tobacco and heavy-tobacco use are associated with increased odds of FEP. These findings further support the relevance of tobacco prevention in young populations.
Emotional functioning is linked to HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, yet research on this association among diverse people with HIV (PWH) is scant. We examined emotional health and its association with neurocognition in Hispanic and White PWH.
Participants included 107 Hispanic (41% primarily Spanish-speakers; 80% Mexican heritage/origin) and 216 White PWH (Overall age: M = 53.62, SD = 12.19; 86% male; 63% AIDS; 92% on antiretroviral therapy). Emotional health was assessed via the National Institute of Health Toolbox (NIHTB)-Emotion Battery, which yields T-scores for three factor-based summary scores (negative affect, social satisfaction, and psychological well-being) and 13 individual component scales. Neurocognition was measured via demographically adjusted fluid cognition T-scores from the NIHTB-cognition battery.
27%–39% of the sample had problematic socioemotional summary scores. Hispanic PWH showed less loneliness, better social satisfaction, higher meaning and purpose, and better psychological well-being than Whites (ps <.05). Within Hispanics, Spanish-speakers showed better meaning and purpose, higher psychological well-being summary score, less anger hostility, but greater fear affect than English speakers. Only in Whites, worse negative affect (fear affect, perceived stress, and sadness) was associated with worse neurocognition (p <.05); and in both groups, worse social satisfaction (emotional support, friendship, and perceived rejection) was linked with worse neurocognition (p <.05).
Adverse emotional health is common among PWH, with subgroups of Hispanics showing relative strengths in some domains. Aspects of emotional health differentially relate to neurocogntition among PWH and cross-culturally. Understanding these varying associations is an important step towards the development of culturally relevant interventions that promote neurocognitive health among Hispanic PWH.
The standardized antimicrobial administration ratio (SAAR) is the metric for reporting antimicrobial use that hospitals will be mandated to use in 2024. We highlight limitations of the SAAR and caution against efforts to use it for public reporting and financial reimbursement. Before the SAAR is ready for public reporting, it needs to include patient-level risk adjustment and antimicrobial resistance data as well as improved hospital location options and revised antimicrobial agent groupings to appropriately reflect and incentivize important stewardship work.
A 4-year-old boy presented to our institution with pancytopenia, consumptive coagulopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and recurrent complex pericardial effusion secondary to kaposiform lymphagiomatosis. Due to extensive loculation, conventional drainage was minimally effective. As an adjunct to medical therapy, the Indigo™ aspiration system was used to remove thrombus within the pericardial space. Our patient had good medium-term results with complete resolution of his pericardial effusion at 4 months.
In total, 50 healthcare facilities completed a survey in 2021 to characterize changes in infection prevention and control and antibiotic stewardship practices. Notable findings include sustained surveillance for multidrug-resistant organisms but decreased use of human resource-intensive interventions compared to previous surveys in 2013 and 2018 conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.
We provide an overview of diagnostic stewardship with key concepts that include the diagnostic pathway and the multiple points where interventions can be implemented, strategies for interventions, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration, and key microbiologic diagnostic tests that should be considered for diagnostic stewardship. The document focuses on microbiologic laboratory testing for adult and pediatric patients and is intended for a target audience of healthcare workers involved in diagnostic stewardship interventions and all workers affected by any step of the diagnostic pathway (ie, ordering, collecting, processing, reporting, and interpreting results of a diagnostic test). This document was developed by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Diagnostic Stewardship Taskforce.
The formation time of the surrounding sheath of Langmuir probes in an ionospheric plasma has been studied to better understand the constraints this puts on the sampling frequency of a probe. A fully kinetic three-dimensional particle-in-cell model is used to simulate the temporal effects in the electron saturation region as the sheath forms. The stability of the probe current and the stability of the ion and electron density in the vicinity of the probe have been used to evaluate when the sheath was formed. Simulated results were compared with theoretical models and are in good agreement with the theoretical results. This shows that theoretical models can be used as guidance to estimate the formation time and to determine the sampling rate for a swept bias Langmuir system. Our results also show that the formation time is less affected by the plasma temperature and bias voltage as we move into the thick sheath regime, and will instead be determined by the plasma density. The presented results also show that applying a step function to the probe could be used to characterise ions species composition, or to estimate the ion density.
We present a catalogue of over 7000 sources from the GLEAM survey which have significant structure on sub-arcsecond scales at 162 MHz. The compact nature of these sources was detected and quantified via their Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) signature, measured in interferometric images from the Murchison Widefield Array. The advantage of this approach is that all sufficiently compact sources across the survey area are included down to a well-defined flux density limit. The survey is based on
observations, and the area covered is somewhat irregular, but the area within
is covered entirely, and over 85% of this area has a detection limit for compact structure below 0.2 Jy. 7839 sources clearly showing IPS were detected (
confidence), with a further 5550 tentative (
confidence) detections. Normalised Scintillation Indices (NSI; a measure of the fraction of flux density coming from a compact component) are reported for these sources. Robust and informative upper limits on the NSI are reported for a further 31081 sources. This represents the largest survey of compact sources at radio frequencies ever undertaken.