To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
International legal scholars tend to think of their work as the interpretation of rules: the application of a law 'out there' to concrete situations. This book takes a different approach to that scholarship: it views doctrine as a socio-linguistic practice. In other words, this book views legal scholars not as law-appliers, but as constructing knowledge within a particular academic discipline. By means of three close-ups of the discourse on cyberwar and international law, this book shows how international legal knowledge is constructed in ways usually overlooked: by means of footnotes, for example, or conference presentations. In so doing, this book aims to present a new way of seeing international legal scholarship: one that pays attention to the mundane parts of international legal texts and provides a different understanding of how international law as we know it comes about.
Measurement burst designs, in which assessments of a set of constructs are made at two or more times in quick succession (e.g., within days), can be used as a novel method to improve the stability of basic measures typically used in longitudinal peer research. In this Element, we hypothesized that the stabilities for adolescent-reported peer acceptance, anxiety, and self-concept would be stronger when using the measurement burst approach versus the single time observation. Participants included youth between 10 and 13 years old who completed (a) sociometric assessments of acceptance, and measures of (b) social and test anxiety, and (c) self-concept across three times with two assessments made at each burst. Findings broadly showed that the stabilities were significantly stronger with the measurement burst when compared to the single time assessment, supporting our main hypothesis. We discuss the utility of the measurement burst in a broader context and considerations for researchers.
ABSTRACT. This chapter aims to identify and analyse the logistics of slave trade from the northern Portuguese seaports in the early modern period. This is a generally unknown topic in Portuguese and European historiographies, which for a long time focused exclusively on the major ports such as Lisbon or Seville. However, when looking at the early modern port traffic on the northern Portuguese coast, the slave trade was one of the main ventures of commercial and mercantile agents and triggered new and potent port dynamics. Analysis of a set of ships chartered from Porto, Viana and Vila do Conde, and numerous mercantile contracts between merchants and shipowners – from the mid-sixteenth century onwards – allows us to identify the operative logistics and the participants in this complex process. From cargo handling to the fitting of the ships, and from mercantile societies to financial investments, we can uncover a complex and widely spread practice related to the slave trade in these Portuguese seaports, proving that the slave trade depended on many more agents and connections than those studied hitherto by historians.
On 8 February 1526, after a troubled six-month voyage, the ship Conceição arrived in São Tomé. On board, in deplorable conditions, it carried 466 slaves bought on behalf of the island's contractors in the Kingdom of Congo. En route, eighty-nine were buried at sea, victims of illness, hunger, accidents and the ultimate and desperate means to avoid captivity: suicide.
In a less dramatic tone, this chapter deals with the same topic: the Atlantic Slave Trade. I will analyse a slightly later chronology, the second half of the sixteenth century, and approach the subject from a different perspective: the ports of northern Portugal and their participation in this business, one of the most conspicuous in the history of the early modern era. The main objective is to identify, describe and analyse the slave-trade logistics mobilised by these ports.
This topic remains generally untapped in Portuguese and European historiography, which for a long time has concentrated exclusively on major ports such as Lisbon or Seville. However, when looking at port traffic of the early modern period on the northern coast of Portugal, the slave trade was one of the major business pursuits and became the driving force behind the vigorous new port dynamics.
The study of intelligence, or general cognitive ability, is one of the earliest avenues of modern psychological enquiry (Spearman, 1904). A consistent goal of this field is the development of cognitive measures that predict real-world outcomes, ranging from academic performance, health (Calvin et al., 2017), and psychopathology (Woodberry, Giuliano, & Seidman, 2008), to mortality and morbidity rates (Batty, Deary, & Gottfredson, 2007). Despite evidence linking intelligence with a host of important life outcomes, we remain far from a mechanistic understanding of how neurobiological processes contribute to individual differences in general cognitive ability. Excitingly for researchers, advances in predictive statistical modeling, the emergence of well-powered imaging and genetic datasets, and a cultural shift toward open access data may allow for behavioral prediction at the level of a single individual (Miller et al., 2016; Poldrack & Gorgolewski, 2014).
In this chapter we focus on social value in health-related research involving humans, including data driven research. We find that to state a requirement for social value is one thing; to actually evaluate the social value of a research project in a Research Ethics Committees (REC) is another. We therefore elaborate on how the requirement of social value can be applied. We argue, first, that it is important to have this requirement as a separate condition. To increase systematisation, we further discuss how social value can be assessed in the steps that together constitute the risk-benefit task of RECs. We argue that the addition of the requirement of social value can be seen as a consequence of a change in the sociology of science. It illustrates the move away from a science-internal understanding of scientific validity into an inclusive understanding of social value. Accepting social value as a requirement for research to be evaluated by a REC means that social value has matured from an attractive but illusive idea into something that has to be assessed, evaluated and optimised and can be used to address some of the justice issues in healthcare.
The placebo response in depression clinical trials is a major contributing factor for failure to establish the efficacy of novel and repurposed treatments. However, it is not clear as to what the placebo response in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) patients is or whether it differs across treatment modalities. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the magnitude of the placebo response in TRD patients across different treatment modalities and its possible moderators.
Searches were conducted on MEDLINE and PsychInfo from inception to January 24, 2020. Only studies that recruited TRD patients and randomization to a placebo (or sham) arm in a pharmacotherapy, brain stimulation, or psychotherapy study were included (PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020190465). The primary outcome was the Hedges’ g for the reported depression scale using a random-effects model. Secondary outcomes included moderators assessed via meta-regression and response and remission rate. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Egger's Test and a funnel plot. Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used to estimate risks.
46 studies met our inclusion criteria involving a total of 3083 participants (mean (SD) age: 45.7 (6.2); female: 52.4%). The pooled placebo effect for all modalities was large (N = 3083, g = 1.08 ,95% CI [0.95-1.20)I 2 = 0.1). The placebo effect in studies of specific treatment modalities did not significantly differ: oral medications g = 1.14 (95%CI:0.99-1.29); parenteral medications g = 1.32 (95%CI:0.59-2.04); ayahuasca g = 0.47 (95%CI:-0.28-1.17); rTMS g = 0.93 (95%CI:0.63-1.23); tDCS g = 1.32 (95%CI:0.52-2.11); invasive brain stimulation g = 1.06 (95%CI:0.64-1.47). There were no psychotherapy trials that met our eligibility criteria. Similarly, response and remission rates were comparable across modalities. Heterogeneity was large. Two variables predicted a lager placebo effect: open-label prospective design (B:0.32, 95%CI: 0.05-0.58; p:0.02) and sponsoring by a pharmaceutical or medical device company (B:0.39, 95%CI:0.13-0.65, p:0.004)). No risk of publication bias was found.
The overall placebo effect in TRD studies was large (g = 1.08) and did not differ among treatment modalities. A better understanding of the placebo response in TRD will require: standardizing the definition of TRD, head-to-head comparisons of treatment modalities, an assessment of patient expectations and experiences, and standardized reporting of outcomes.
We developed a passive sampler for time-integrated collection and radiocarbon (14C) analysis of soil respiration, a major flux in the global C cycle. It consists of a permanent access well that controls the CO2 uptake rate and an exchangeable molecular sieve CO2 trap. We tested how access well dimensions and environmental conditions affect collected CO2, and optimized cleaning procedures to minimize 14CO2 memory. We also deployed two generations of the sampler in Arctic tundra for up to two years, collecting CO2 over periods of 3 days–2 months, while monitoring soil temperature, volumetric water content, and CO2 concentration. The sampler collects CO2 at a rate proportional to the length of a silicone tubing inlet (7–26 µg CO2-C day-1·m Si-1). With constant sampler dimensions in the field, CO2 recovery is best explained by soil temperature. We retrieved 0.1–5.3 mg C from the 1st and 0.6–13 mg C from the 2nd generation samplers, equivalent to uptake rates of 2–215 (n=17) and 10–247 µg CO2-C day-1 (n=20), respectively. The method blank is 8 ± 6 µg C (mean ± sd, n=8), with a radiocarbon content (fraction modern) ranging from 0.5875–0.6013 (n=2). The sampler enables more continuous investigations of soil C emission sources and is suitable for Arctic environments.
Tonsillectomy has generated extensive comment on the internet, but this content has not been examined in a scientific manner. This study aimed to determine what the blogosphere has to say about adult tonsillectomy and to report whether this information can be used to improve post-surgical care.
The internet was searched to find personal blogs relating to tonsillectomy. A retrospective review of data collected on these blogs was carried out and the blogs were conceptually analysed by the authors.
Fifty blogs were included. Seventy per cent of patients had read blogs prior to their procedure. The average pain score where available was 7.2. Complications occurred in 10 per cent of patients. Only 1 patient (2 per cent) regretted having a tonsillectomy.
It is important for otolaryngologists to stay in tune with the blogosphere as this unregulated and easily accessible source of information is both friend and foe but will ultimately help in pre-operative counselling and post-operative management.
Lolium multiflorum, one of the most important temperate forage grasses in the world, is used in integrated crop-livestock systems and as a cover crop. However, it is also one of the main weeds in winter crops. The continuous use of glyphosate to manage this species has led to the selection of resistant biotypes (LOLMU-R), making it important to prevent the dispersal of these seeds. This study aimed to assess the recovery and germination of LOLMU-R that have passed through the digestive system of cattle. The experiments were carried out in metabolism cages, using a completely randomized design with six replications. The animals were given 12 112 seeds each, which were recovered from their faeces over a period of 6 days. Germination of the recovered seeds was assessed in a germination chamber and compared against a control (no animal passage). After germination, a glyphosate dose-response curve was constructed. The results obtained showed a total recovery of 1109 seeds (9.1%), with maximum recovery 2 days after ingestion, decreasing to almost zero on day 6. Germination declined linearly as a function of recovery time; however, 4 days after ingestion, germination potential was 18%. The dose-response curve proved the resistance of the recovered seeds. Cattle is a dispersal agent for LOLMU-R seeds, with animals requiring 7 days of quarantine before moving from one infested area to another.
To identify the BOLD (blood oxygenation level dependent) correlates of bursts of beta frequency band electrophysiological activity, and to compare BOLD responses between healthy controls and patients with psychotic illness.
The post movement beta rebound (PMBR) is a transient increase in power in the beta frequency band (13-30 Hz), recorded with methods such as electroencephalography (EEG), following the completion of a movement. PMBR size is reduced in patients with schizophrenia and inversely correlated with severity of illness. PMBR size is inversely correlated with measures of schizotypy in non-clinical groups. Therefore, beta-band activity may reflect a fundamental neural process whose disruption plays an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Recent work has found that changes in beta power reflect changes in the probability-of-occurrence of transient bursts of beta-frequency activity. Understanding the generators of beta bursts could help unravel the pathophysiology of psychotic illness and thus identify novel treatment targets.
EEG data were recorded simultaneously with BOLD data measured with 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), whilst participants performed an n-back working memory task. We included seventy-eight participants – 32 patients with schizophrenia, 16 with bipolar disorder and 30 healthy controls. Beta bursts were identified in the EEG data using a thresholding method and burst timings were used as markers in an event-related fMRI design convolved with a conventional haemodynamic response function. A region of interest analysis compared beta-event-related BOLD activity between patients and controls.
Beta bursts phasically activated brain regions implicated in coding task-relevant content (specifically, regions involved in the phonological representation of letter stimuli, as well as areas representing motor responses). Further, bursts were associated with suppression of tonically-active regions. In the EEG, PMBR was greater in controls than patients, and, in patients, PMBR size was positively correlated with Global Assessment of Functioning scores, and negatively correlated with persisting symptoms of disorganisation and performance on a digit symbol substition test. Despite this, patients showed greater, more extensive, burst-related BOLD activation than controls.
Our findings are consistent with a recent model in which beta bursts serve to reactivate latently-maintained, task-relevant, sensorimotor information. The increased BOLD response associated with bursts in patients, despite reduced PMBR, could reflect inefficiency of burst-mediated cortical synchrony, or it may suggest that the sensorimotor information reactivated by beta bursts is less precisely specified in psychosis. We propose that dysfunction of the mechanisms by which beta bursts reactivate task-relevant content can manifest as disorganisation and working memory deficits, and may contribute to persisting symptoms and impairment in psychosis.
Disasters often occur without any warning and may result in mass casualties that can overwhelm the capacity of local and regional healthcare systems. The etiology of disasters can be man-made or natural, can be localized or effect a large geographic area, and can result in minimal harm to the population or mass casualties. The most lethal natural disasters include earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, tsunamis, snowstorms, and fires. Man-made disasters include wars, building collapses, mine cave-ins, chemical and biological exposures, nuclear accidents, and civil unrest.
Metformin is widely used in pregnancy, despite lack of long-term safety for children. We hypothesised that metformin exposure in utero is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We tested this hypothesis in a follow-up study of children born to obese mothers who had participated in a randomised controlled trial of metformin versus placebo in pregnancy (EMPOWaR). We measured body composition, peripheral blood pressure (BP), arterial pulse wave velocity and central haemodynamics (central BP and augmentation index) using an oscillometric device in 40 children of mean (SD) age 5.78 (0.93) years, exposed to metformin (n = 19) or placebo (n = 21) in utero. There were no differences in any of the anthropometric or vascular measures between metformin and placebo-exposed groups in univariate analyses, or after adjustment for potential confounders including the child’s behaviour, diet and activity levels. Post-hoc sample size calculation indicated we would have detected large clinically significant differences between the groups but would need an unfeasible large number to detect possible subtle differences in key cardiovascular risk parameters in children at this age of follow-up. Our findings suggest no evidence of increased cardiovascular risk in children born to obese mothers who took metformin in pregnancy and increase available knowledge of the long-term safety of metformin on childhood outcomes.
Veganism has increased in popularity in the past decade and, despite being a characteristic protected by law, is often viewed negatively by the general population. Little is known about the attitudes of healthcare professionals despite the potential influence on practice and eating disorder patient care. This is one of the first studies to investigate attitudes toward veganism within specialist eating disorder, general mental health and other professionals.
A one-way ANOVA indicated all professionals held positive views toward veganism. General mental health professionals held statistically more positive veganism attitudes than specialist eating disorder and other professionals.
As one of the first studies to suggest eating disorder professionals are not biased against veganism, it has important clinical practice implications, particularly when exploring motivations for adopting a vegan diet (health, weight loss, environmental or animal welfare concerns) in patients with eating disorders. Implications for further research are provided.
Chapter 2 explores the structure and evolution of federal, state, and international SORN policies. The chapter first outlines the history of federal legislation in the United States that has shaped the current SORN environment, beginning with the 1994 Jacob Wetterling Act and continuing through the 2006 Sex Offender Registration and Notification Act (SORNA) and its subsequent amendments. The chapter then explores the key points of variation in state SORN policies, underscoring the elusive nature of fulfilling SORNA’s vision of a uniform national system. This analysis examines two particularly prominent points of interstate variation: provisions for the registration of juveniles and mechanisms for registrant classification. The chapter concludes with a brief examination of SORN systems outside the United States, indicating that, although many countries have adopted provisions for requiring registration with law enforcement, the provision of public access to registrant information is far less common.
Plants not only respond to herbivorous damage but adjust their defense system after egg deposition by pest insects. Thereby, parasitoids use oviposition-induced plant volatiles to locate their hosts. We investigated the olfactory behavioral responses of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to volatile blends emitted by maize (Zea mays L.) with singular and stacked events after oviposition by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith, 1797 (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) moths. Additionally, we examined possible variations in gene expression and on oviposition-induced volatiles. We used a Y-tube olfactometer to test for the wasp responses to volatiles released by maize plants oviposited by S. frugiperda and not-oviposited plants. Using the real-time PCR technique (qRT-PCR), we analyzed the expression of lipoxygenase and three terpene synthases genes, which are enzymes involved in the synthesis of volatile compounds that attract parasitoids of S. frugiperda. Olfactometer tests showed that T. pretiosum is strongly attracted by volatiles from transgenic maize emitted by S. frugiperda oviposition (VTPRO 3, more than 75% individuals were attracted). The relative expression of genes TPS10, LOX e STC was higher in transgenic hybrids than in the conventional (isogenic line) hybrids. The GC-MS analysis revealed that some volatile compounds are released exclusively by transgenic maize. This study provides evidence that transgenic hybrids enhanced chemical cues under oviposition-induction and helped to increase T. pretiosum efficiency in S. frugiperda control. This finding shows that among the evaluated hybrids, genetically modified hybrids can improve the biological control programs, since they potentialize the egg parasitoid foraging, integrating pest management.
Teaching and learning in higher education is occurring, unavoidably, within the broader civic context of today’s extraordinarily polarizing political times. We seek to help students situate themselves with respect to and, above all, thoughtfully assess others’ as well as their own perspectives on issues of profound contention, without contributing to exacerbated polarization ourselves. Specifically, we offer students in our first-year exploratory political science course a vital tool—critical rigor—for navigating but not being inundated by the storm. This article discusses our experiences in teaching the course titled, “The Worlds of Politics,” as we attempt to help students deeply engage in cognitive processes of critical thinking and analysis, without undue infringement from their own—and least of all our own—personal political biases. Our focal learning objective is the cultivation of critical-thinking skills that promote students’ drawing of distinctions between advocacy and analysis, as well as their discerning civic engagement.
Violent criminal offenders with personality disorders (PD's) can cause immense harm, but are often deemed untreatable. This study aimed to conduct a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of long-term psychotherapy for rehabilitating offenders with PDs.
We compared schema therapy (ST), an evidence-based psychotherapy for PDs, to treatment-as-usual (TAU) at eight high-security forensic hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients in both conditions received multiple treatment modalities and differed only in the individual, study-specific therapy they received. One-hundred-three male offenders with antisocial, narcissistic, borderline, or paranoid PDs, or Cluster B PD-not-otherwise-specified, were assigned to 3 years of ST or TAU and assessed every 6 months. Primary outcomes were rehabilitation, involving gradual reintegration into the community, and PD symptoms.
Patients in both conditions showed moderate to large improvements in outcomes. ST was superior to TAU on both primary outcomes – rehabilitation (i.e. attaining supervised and unsupervised leave) and PD symptoms – and six of nine secondary outcomes, with small to moderate advantages over TAU. ST patients moved more rapidly through rehabilitation (supervised leave, treatment*time: F(5308) = 9.40, p < 0.001; unsupervised leave, treatment*time: F(5472) = 3.45, p = 0.004), and showed faster improvements on PD scales (treatment*time: t(1387) = −2.85, p = 0.005).
These findings contradict pessimistic views on the treatability of violent offenders with PDs, and support the effectiveness of long-term psychotherapy for rehabilitating these patients, facilitating their re-entry into the community.
Time constraints have been suggested as a potential driver of antibiotic overuse for acute respiratory tract infections. In this cross-sectional analysis of national data from visits to offices and emergency departments, we identified no statistically significant association between antibiotic prescribing and the duration of visits for acute respiratory tract infections.