Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to study the distribution of glycine receptor (GlyR) subunits and the GlyR-associated protein gephyrin in the rat retina. Monoclonal antibodies against the α and β subunits of the GlyR and gephyrin showed a strong punctate labeling pattern in the inner plexiform layer. Glycine receptor mRNAs were found in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. The α 1 subunit mRNA is predominantly present in the outer half of the INL and on some but not all ganglion cells. GlyR α2 subunit mRNA is predominantly present in the inner half of the INL and on nearly all cells in the ganglion cell layer. GlyR α3–, GlyR β-, and gephyrin-mRNAs are present in the entire INL and in cells in the ganglion cell layer. The differential expression of glycine receptor subunits indicates a functional diversity of glycine receptors in the retina.