To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The exhaust from combustion engines contains particulate matter (PM), which poses potential health risks to human lungs. Current emission laws place increasingly strict limitations on both PM and particle number, leading to the necessity of using wall-flow filters to separate out a significant amount of the introduced PM. As this leads to an increase in the filter's loading, it is regenerated continuously or periodically, leading to the rearrangement of individual particulate structures inside the filter channels. Such rearrangement events cause the formation of specific deposition patterns, which affect the filter's pressure drop, its loading capacity and the separation efficiency. In order to derive predictions on the formation of specific deposition patterns, the transient behaviour of individual particle structures needs to be examined. The present work investigates the detachment and transport of particle structures during filter regeneration with three-dimensional surface-resolved simulations using a lattice Boltzmann method. The goal of this work is the determination of relevant key quantities and their interpretation with respect to predictions regarding the resulting deposition patterns. In this context, it is shown that lift forces are not the predominant detachment forces for non-spherical particle structures, and that the stopping distance of such structures is too long to avoid back-end deposition.
Walking ability is related to motor co-ordination which, in rodents, can be assessed by an established test in pharmacological studies — the rotarod test. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a modified rotarod test for chickens and its relation to the often-used gait score system. At the end of their rearing period, we tested 138 male chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) from three differing growth performance strains: Ross 308 (fast-growing; n = 46), Lohmann Dual (medium-growing; n = 46) and Lohmann Brown Plus (slow-growing; n = 46). First, the chickens’ gait scores were assessed and, immediately following this, they were placed gently onto a steady rod. The velocity of the rotating rod gradually increased, and the latency to leave the rod was recorded. By using a linear mixed model, we were able to show that the latency to leave the rotating rod was significantly predicted by the gait score. Fast-growing chickens had shorter durations on the rotating rod, and these durations were associated with gait score. We conclude that the rotarod test provides an objective alternative method for assessing walking ability in chickens without the need for intense observer training or the risk of observer biases and propose that this novel methodology has the potential to function as a precise, objective indicator of animal welfare.
The new development of cyber-physical product families currently lacks a methodically supported modularisation approach. This paper provides an approach for module-based mechatronic development, which provides design for future product variety. The state of the art in terms of mechatronic system design and modular product architecture design is presented. A modified V-model is then shown that integrates initial product architecture design and life phase modularisation. The method is applied and evaluated for the development of product family generations of robot units in a teaching course.
The modular lightweight design attempts to reconcile the partially conflicting goals between modularization and lightweight design in order to establish a harmonized modular hybrid design. This requires a close exchange of the resulting development data between the two areas. In this contribution a concept for an interface for the data exchange between system models and FEM models is presented and successfully implemented in the Cameo Systems Modeler and applied to examples from the aircraft cabin. With the interface the homogenization step of modular lightweight design can be performed.
By transforming from a manufacturer into a PSS provider, the business model of a company changes. In particular with service-oriented business models, the importance of tangible products alters. Instead of selling products, PSS providers need product fleets that enable the provision of services. If the manufacturer of the product and the provider of the PSS fleet are identical, the products can be designed specifically for the PSS. This paper introduces a framework that supports the design of modular PSS fleets so that the product architecture is optimised for the requirements of the fleet.
Aircraft cabin monuments must be optimized in terms of lightweight design, cost structure and variance. Model-based approaches support the aircraft data and help to modify them consistently during further development. In this paper, a holistic methodological approach for product families of aircraft cabin development is shown, which integrates lightweight and cost-efficient aspects, in addition to the variance focus. For this purpose, the development of cost-efficient and ligthweight optimized cabin modules is supported in a model-based way.
In the present paper, as part of an interdisciplinary research project (Priority Programme SPP2045), we propose a possible way to design an open access archive for particle-discrete tomographic datasets: the PARROT database (https://parrot.tu-freiberg.de). This archive is the result of a pilot study in the field of particle technology and three use cases are presented for illustrative purposes. Instead of providing a detailed instruction manual, we focus on the methodologies of such an archive. The presented use cases stem from our working group and are intended to demonstrate the advantage of using such an archive with concise and consistent data for potential and ongoing studies. Data and metadata merely serve as examples and need to be adapted for disciplines not concerned here. Since all datasets within the PARROT database and its source code are freely accessible, this study represents a starting point for similar projects.
The cosmic evolution of the chemical elements from the Big Bang to the present time is driven by nuclear fusion reactions inside stars and stellar explosions. A cycle of matter recurrently re-processes metal-enriched stellar ejecta into the next generation of stars. The study of cosmic nucleosynthesis and this matter cycle requires the understanding of the physics of nuclear reactions, of the conditions at which the nuclear reactions are activated inside the stars and stellar explosions, of the stellar ejection mechanisms through winds and explosions, and of the transport of the ejecta towards the next cycle, from hot plasma to cold, star-forming gas. Due to the long timescales of stellar evolution, and because of the infrequent occurrence of stellar explosions, observational studies are challenging, as they have biases in time and space as well as different sensitivities related to the various astronomical methods. Here, we describe in detail the astrophysical and nuclear-physical processes involved in creating two radioactive isotopes useful in such studies,
. Due to their radioactive lifetime of the order of a million years, these isotopes are suitable to characterise simultaneously the processes of nuclear fusion reactions and of interstellar transport. We describe and discuss the nuclear reactions involved in the production and destruction of
, the key characteristics of the stellar sites of their nucleosynthesis and their interstellar journey after ejection from the nucleosynthesis sites. This allows us to connect the theoretical astrophysical aspects to the variety of astronomical messengers presented here, from stardust and cosmic-ray composition measurements, through observation of
rays produced by radioactivity, to material deposited in deep-sea ocean crusts and to the inferred composition of the first solids that have formed in the Solar System. We show that considering measurements of the isotopic ratio of
eliminate some of the unknowns when interpreting astronomical results, and discuss the lessons learned from these two isotopes on cosmic chemical evolution. This review paper has emerged from an ISSI-BJ Team project in 2017–2019, bringing together nuclear physicists, astronomers, and astrophysicists in this inter-disciplinary discussion.
Current first-line treatments for paediatric depression demonstrate mild-to-moderate effectiveness. This has spurred a growing body of literature on lifestyle recommendations pertaining to nutrition, sleep and exercise for treating paediatric depression.
Paediatric depression clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) were reviewed for quality and to catalogue recommendations on nutrition, sleep and exercise made by higher-quality CPGs.
Searches were conducted in Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and CINAHL, and grey literature CPGs databases for relevant CPGs. Eligible CPGs with a minimum or high-quality level, as determined by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation, Second Edition instrument, were included if they were (a) paediatric; (b) CPGs, practice parameter or consensus or expert committee recommendations; (c) for depression; (d) the latest version and (e) lifestyle recommendations for nutrition, sleep or exercise. Key information extracted included author(s), language, year of publication, country, the institutional body issuing the CPG, target disorder, age group, lifestyle recommendation and the methods used to determine CPG lifestyle recommendations.
Ten paediatric CPGs for depression with a minimum or high-quality level contained recommendations on nutrition, sleep or exercise. Lifestyle recommendations were predominately qualitative, with quantitative details only outlined in two CPGs for exercise. Most recommendations were brief general statements, with 50% lacking supporting evidence from the literature.
Interest in lifestyle interventions for treatment in child and youth depression is growing. However, current CPG lifestyle recommendations for nutrition, sleep or exercise are based on expert opinion rather than clinical trials.
To identify dietary self-monitoring implementation strategies in behavioural weight loss interventions.
We conducted a systematic review of eight databases and examined fifty-nine weight loss intervention studies targeting adults with overweight/obesity that used dietary self-monitoring.
We identified self-monitoring implementation characteristics, effectiveness of interventions in supporting weight loss and examined weight loss outcomes among higher and lower intensity dietary self-monitoring protocols. Included studies utilised diverse self-monitoring formats (paper, website, mobile app, phone) and intensity levels (recording all intake or only certain aspects of diet). We found the majority of studies using high- and low-intensity self-monitoring strategies demonstrated statistically significant weight loss in intervention groups compared with control groups.
Based on our findings, lower and higher intensity dietary self-monitoring may support weight loss, but variability in adherence measures and limited analysis of weight loss relative to self-monitoring usage limits our understanding of how these methods compare with each other.
Carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant also used as a mood stabilizer and for trigeminal neuralgia, is associated with serious, sometimes fatal cutaneous adverse drug reactions, including Stevens Johnson Syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis1. Current literature demonstrates a genetic predisposition linked to specific class I and II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types in various ethnic populations2. HLA-A*31:01 is one such HLA type, and is routinely identified by the tag SNP rs1061235. However, rs1061235 has poor specificity for HLA*31:01 due to interference of HLA-A*33 types3. We investigated the false positive rate in our population and developed a novel real-time PCR assay that distinguishes HLA-A*31:01 from other HLA-A types including HLA-A*33.
120 unique samples were tested in triplicate during the validation of this assay and were sent to a reference lab for HLA next generation sequencing (NGS) typing, including 89 in-house samples and 31 Coriell samples with documented HLA typing results. The results from our real-time PCR assay were compared to the HLA typing results. HLA typing results were also compared to the tag SNP rs1061235 results to calculate the false positive rate.
There was 100% concordance between our real-time PCR results and expected results based on HLA typing. 89 sample results for tag SNP rs1061235 were compared to HLA typing results. 75/89 samples had a rs1061235 variant, but 31/75 (41%) samples did not have the HLA-A*31:01 type, thus defining the false positive rate of the tag SNP for our population. We theorized there would be a small subset of rare HLA-A types that would interfere with the assay and we tested the three types available to us. We confirmed that 3 of the HLA types (HLA-A*31:04, 31:12, and 31:16) result falsely positive due to sequence homology with 31:01. There is no known literature indicating whether these rare HLA-A*31 subtypes are associated with cutaneous adverse reactions. These 3 HLA types and the other suspected interfering HLA types have limited frequency data sets and are expected to occur rarely in our patient population; we expect these HLA types make up less than 0.003% of the our population. Our assay specificity for the validation is >99%.
Our custom real-time PCR assay for detection of HLA-A*31:01 is significantly more specific than the commonly used tag SNP rs1061235. Clinicians considering carbamazepine therapy for their patients will have a better understanding of cutaneous adverse reaction risk and can make improved personalized treatment decisions. This quick, cost effective assay allows more patients in need of carbamazepine treatment to benefit from its use.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with a high risk of developing chronic diseases and decreased life expectancy, but no ACE epigenetic biomarkers have been identified until now. The latter may result from the interaction of multiple factors such as age, sex, degree of adversity, and lack of transcriptional effects of DNA methylation changes. We hypothesize that DNA methylation changes are related to childhood adversity levels and current age, and these markers evolve as aging proceeds. Two Gene Expression Omnibus datasets, regarding ACE, were selected (GSE72680 and GSE70603), considering raw- and meta-data availability, including validated ACE index (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score). For DNA methylation, analyzed probes were restricted to those laying within promoters and first exons, and samples were grouped by CTQ scores terciles, to compare highly (ACE) with non-abused (control) cases. Comparison of control and ACE methylome profile did not retrieve differentially methylated CpG sites (DMCs) after correcting by false discovery rate < 0.05, and this was also observed when samples were separated by sex. In contrast, grouping by decade age ranges (i.e., the 20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s) showed a progressive increase in the number of DMCs and the intensity of changes, mainly related with hypomethylation. Comparison with transcriptome data for ACE subjects in the 40s, and 50s showed a similar age-dependent effect. This study provides evidence that epigenetic markers of ACE are age-dependent, but not defined in the long term. These differences among early, middle, and late adulthood epigenomic profiles suggest a window for interventions aimed to prevent the detrimental effects of ACE.
To explore impacts of a demonstration garden-based agricultural intervention on agricultural knowledge, practices and production, food security and preschool child diet diversity of subsistence farming households.
Observational study of households new to the intervention or participating for 1 or 5 years. Variables measured were agricultural techniques learned from the intervention and used, agricultural production, household food insecurity (FIS) and child diet diversity (DDS), over one agricultural cycle (during land preparation, growing and harvest months).
Fifteen rural subsistence farming communities in Panama.
Households participating in intervention (n 237) with minimum one preschool child.
After 1 year, participants had more learned and applied techniques, more staple crops produced and lower FIS and higher DDS during land preparation and growing months compared with those new to the intervention. After 5 years, participants grew more maize, chickens and types of crops and had higher DDS during growing months and, where demonstration gardens persisted, used more learned techniques and children ate more vitamin A-rich foods. Variables associated with DDS varied seasonally: during land preparation, higher DDS was associated with higher household durable asset-based wealth; during growing months, with greater diversity of vegetables planted and lower FIS; during harvest, with older caregivers, caregivers working less in agriculture, more diverse crops and receiving food from demonstration gardens.
The intervention improved food production, food security and diets. Sustained demonstration gardens were important for continued use of new agricultural techniques and improved diets.
In many cases, the use of damping technologies is the only option to reduce undesired vibrations. Despite various damping techniques available on the market, the design of a precise damping behaviour still needs a lot of experimental testing and engineering experience. This is also the case for particle damping. However, for lightweight structures, technologies such as particle damping provide an opportunity to improve the structural dynamic behaviour without a large mass gain. With respect to this conflict, a hybrid numerical and experimental design approach is presented based on frequency based substructuring (FBS). With this technique, the use of experimental data for design optimization is possible and detailed modelling of the nonlinear particle damping system can be avoided. Moreover, based on the FBS, an approach to optimize damping and weight is proposed. All results are compared to experiments, and a subsequent discussion shows that the predictions for particle damping with FBS are accurate for defined operating points from which realistic designs can be derived. Generally, it is shown that methodical design approaches may strongly improve not only product development processes but also structural mechanical design.
A targeted development of safe medical products can be supported by design methods. This paper analyses which design methods are applied in the development of medical devices and whether they are adapted for considering medical devices’ special features (legal, human and technical issues). In particular, variety management, risk assessment and user-centered design for medical devices are examined. Typically, interdisciplinary risk assessment is methodically supported. Additionally, user-centered design methods for requirements assessment, design verification and design validation are applied.
Modular product structuring has been proven an effective way to satisfy a high sales variety with low internal product and process complexity but is usually carried out on existing structures. To support the modular new product development, this contribution shows the initial structuring of integrated product and assembly structures based on a variance-oriented product structure. With help of a perspective-based modularization approach, consolidating the product life phases of procurement, assembly and sales, modular product and process structures are developed within an industry case study.
In methodical product development, numerous data are used and linked with each other, especially variant-related data. This paper presents a model-based solution for avoiding inconsistencies in the development of product families with many variants and extends it to modular lightweight design. In addition, the inconsistencies in methodical product development were classified and solution approaches were shown. Thus, inconsistencies can be avoided with the presented elaborated data model for an integrated product and process model based on the presented procedure.
Postoperative cognitive impairment is among the most common medical complications associated with surgical interventions – particularly in elderly patients. In our aging society, it is an urgent medical need to determine preoperative individual risk prediction to allow more accurate cost–benefit decisions prior to elective surgeries. So far, risk prediction is mainly based on clinical parameters. However, these parameters only give a rough estimate of the individual risk. At present, there are no molecular or neuroimaging biomarkers available to improve risk prediction and little is known about the etiology and pathophysiology of this clinical condition. In this short review, we summarize the current state of knowledge and briefly present the recently started BioCog project (Biomarker Development for Postoperative Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly), which is funded by the European Union. It is the goal of this research and development (R&D) project, which involves academic and industry partners throughout Europe, to deliver a multivariate algorithm based on clinical assessments as well as molecular and neuroimaging biomarkers to overcome the currently unsatisfying situation.
To determine if constraints on agricultural production were a novel construct in the Panama Food Security Questionnaire (FSQ) and to characterize agricultural and economic determinants of food insecurity during the planting, growing and harvesting time periods in subsistence farming communities.
This longitudinal study followed households during land preparation, growing and harvest periods in one agricultural cycle. Agricultural production and economic variables were recorded and the Panama FSQ was administered. Exploratory factor analysis was used to verify construct validity of the FSQ. A food insecurity score (FIS), ranging from 0 to 42, was derived. Multiple regression analyses of FIS were conducted for each agricultural period.
Fifteen rural villages in Panama.
Subsistence farming households (n 237).
The FSQ contained four constructs: (i) ability to buy food; (ii) decreased amount/number of meals; (iii) feeling hungry; and (iv) lower agricultural production because of weather or lack of resources. Although most households were mildly food insecure in all time periods, determinants of food insecurity differed in each. Higher FIS was associated during land preparation with less rice and legumes planted and lower asset-based wealth; during growing months with less rice, more maize and pigeon peas planted and not selling produce; and during harvest with less rice planted, fewer chickens and lower income.
Constraints on agriculture was a novel construct of the Panama FSQ. Different income-related variables emerged in each agricultural period. Planting staple foods and raising chickens were associated with food security, but some crop choices were associated with food insecurity.