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Dietary interventions did not prevent depression onset nor reduced depressive symptoms in a large multi-center randomized controlled depression prevention study (MooDFOOD) involving overweight adults with subsyndromal depressive symptoms. We conducted follow-up analyses to investigate whether dietary interventions differ in their effects on depressive symptom profiles (mood/cognition; somatic; atypical, energy-related).
Baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up data from MooDFOOD were used (n = 933). Participants received (1) placebo supplements, (2) food-related behavioral activation (F-BA) therapy with placebo supplements, (3) multi-nutrient supplements (omega-3 fatty acids and a multi-vitamin), or (4) F-BA therapy with multi-nutrient supplements. Depressive symptom profiles were based on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology.
F-BA therapy was significantly associated with decreased severity of the somatic (B = −0.03, p = 0.014, d = −0.10) and energy-related (B = −0.08, p = 0.001, d = −0.13), but not with the mood/cognition symptom profile, whereas multi-nutrient supplementation was significantly associated with increased severity of the mood/cognition (B = 0.05, p = 0.022, d = 0.09) and the energy-related (B = 0.07, p = 0.002, d = 0.12) but not with the somatic symptom profile.
Differentiating depressive symptom profiles indicated that food-related behavioral interventions are most beneficial to alleviate somatic symptoms and symptoms of the atypical, energy-related profile linked to an immuno-metabolic form of depression, although effect sizes were small. Multi-nutrient supplements are not indicated to reduce depressive symptom profiles. These findings show that attention to clinical heterogeneity in depression is of importance when studying dietary interventions.
We introduce the concept of social sustainability, intertwined with ecological and economic aspects, to the field of service robots and comparable automation technology. It takes a first step towards a comprehensive guideline that operationalizes and applies social sustainability. By applying this guideline to the project MURMEL we offer a concept that collects and rates social key issues to visualize their individual importance. Social sustainability is an important and often overlooked aspect of sustainable technology development which should be considered in the early development phase.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in schizophrenia found altered brain activation patterns during Theory of Mind (ToM) task performance in the so-called ToM-network, recently focusing on over- rather than under-activation. Even though most fMRI-studies applied tasks that might gradually activate the ToM-network, no study so far has investigated the time-course of ToM-performance. Some of the varying activation results might thus be due to time-course of performance.
Our aim was to investigate neural activation over time in schizophrenia compared with a healthy control sample.
Using a block design in fMRI, we presented a sophisticated paradigm that depicts moving geometrical shapes interacting in social patterns. 14 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy controls participated in the study. Functional activation patterns were investigated for the first and second half of the videos separately.
Both groups activated brain areas related to the ToM-network during performance of ToM videos as compared to a baseline condition. Most importanly, schizophrenia patients showed activation in ToM-related brain areas only in the second part, while healthy controls activated the ToM-network in the first part of the video presentation.
Results confirm recent findings of an increased activation in ToM-related brain areas in schizophrenia. Moreover, patients activated ToM-related brain areas later than healthy controls. This delay might be due to a general cognitive slowing, symptom-related inhibition of cognition-associated processes or specific delay in task processing. As this is the first study to investigate this time-course of ToM, more research is needed to classify results.
To understand how foraging decisions impact individual fitness of herbivores, nutritional ecologists must consider the complex in vivo dynamics of nutrient–nutrient interactions and nutrient–toxin interactions associated with foraging. Mathematical modeling has long been used to make foraging predictions (e.g. optimal foraging theory) but has largely been restricted to a single currency (e.g. energy) or using simple indices of nutrition (e.g. fecal nitrogen) without full consideration of physiologically based interactions among numerous co-ingested phytochemicals. Here, we describe a physiologically based model (PBM) that provides a mechanistic link between foraging decisions and demographic consequences. Including physiological mechanisms of absorption, digestion and metabolism of phytochemicals in PBMs allows us to estimate concentrations of ingested and interacting phytochemicals in the body. Estimated phytochemical concentrations more accurately link intake of phytochemicals to changes in individual fitness than measures of intake alone. Further, we illustrate how estimated physiological parameters can be integrated with the geometric framework of nutrition and into integral projection models and agent-based models to predict fitness and population responses of vertebrate herbivores to ingested phytochemicals. The PBMs will improve our ability to understand the foraging decisions of vertebrate herbivores and consequences of those decisions and may help identify key physiological mechanisms that underlie diet-based ecological adaptations.
We performed a new series of measurements on samples that were part of early measurements on radiocarbon (14C) dating made in 1948–1949. Our results show generally good agreement to the data published in 1949–1951, despite vast changes in technology, with only two exceptions where there was a discrepancy in the original studies. Our new measurements give calibrated ages that overlap with the known ages. We dated several samples at four different laboratories, and so we were also able to make a small intercomparison at the same time. In addition, new measurements on samples from other Egyptian materials used by Libby and co-workers were made at UC Irvine. Samples of tree rings used in the original studies (from Broken Flute Cave and Centennial Stump) were obtained from the University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research archive and remeasured. New data were compared to the original studies and other records.
Salmonella is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness. We report the collaborative investigative efforts of US and Canadian public health officials during the 2013–2014 international outbreak of multiple Salmonella serotype infections linked to sprouted chia seed powder. The investigation included open-ended interviews of ill persons, traceback, product testing, facility inspections, and trace forward. Ninety-four persons infected with outbreak strains from 16 states and four provinces were identified; 21% were hospitalized and none died. Fifty-four (96%) of 56 persons who consumed chia seed powder, reported 13 different brands that traced back to a single Canadian firm, distributed by four US and eight Canadian companies. Laboratory testing yielded outbreak strains from leftover and intact product. Contaminated product was recalled. Although chia seed powder is a novel outbreak vehicle, sprouted seeds are recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness; firms should follow available guidance to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination during sprouting.
This case of a 65-year-old male with dermatillomania, diffuse anxiety symptoms, and avoidant personality disorder (PD) illustrates the interference of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the diagnostic process and during schema-focused therapy. In conclusion, ADHD in older adults and interference with PD is a subject of clinical importance and worth further investigation.
Stable, catalytically active, and inexpensive halogen electrodes are essential for the success of the regenerative hydrogen-halogen fuel cell as a competitive means of large-scale electricity storage. We report the synthesis and electrochemical testing of two novel electrode materials — ruthenium-cobalt and ruthenium-manganese alloy oxides. These alloys were fabricated by wet chemical synthesis methods as a coating on a titanium metal substrate and tested for chloride and bromide oxidation and for chlorine and bromine reduction. These alloy oxides exhibit high catalytic potency and good electrical conductivity good stability, while having a significantly reduced precious metal composition compared to commercial chloride oxidation electrodes made of the oxide of a ruthenium-titanium alloy. We tested alloys with Ru content as low as 1% that maintained good electrochemical activity. Stability tests indicate immeasurably small mass loss.
In this work, we investigated the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of vertically aligned, single-layer, carbon-free, and single crystal Pt nanorod arrays utilizing cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating-disk electrode (RDE) techniques. A glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique was used to fabricate 200 nm long Pt nanorods, which corresponds to Pt loading of 0.16 mg/cm2, on glassy carbon (GC) electrode at a glancing angle of 85° as measured from the substrate normal. An electrode comprised of conventional carbon-supported Pt nanoparticles (Pt/C) was also prepared for comparison with the electrocatalytic ORR activity and stability of Pt nanorods. CV results showed that the Pt nanorod electrocatalyst exhibits a more positive oxide reduction peak potential compared to Pt/C, indicating that GLAD Pt nanorods are less oxophilic. In addition, a series of CV cycles in acidic electrolyte revealed that Pt nanorods are significantly more stable against electrochemically-active surface area loss than Pt/C. Moreover, room temperature RDE results demonstrated that GLAD Pt nanorods exhibit higher area-specific ORR activity than Pt/C. The enhanced electrocatalytic ORR activity of Pt nanorods is attributed to their larger crystallite size, single-crystal property, and the dominance of (110) crystal planes on the large surface area nanorods sidewalls, which has been found to be the most active plane for ORR. However, the Pt nanorods showed lower mass specific activity than the Pt/C electrocatalyst due to the large diameter of the Pt nanorods.
We report the quasistatic tensile and impact penetration properties (falling dart test) of injection-molded polycarbonate samples, as a function of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) concentration (0.0–2.5%). The MWNT were incorporated by dilution of a commercial MWNT/polycarbonate masterbatch. The stiffness and quasistatic yield strength of the composites increased approximately linearly with MWNT concentration in all measurements. The energy absorbed in fracture was, however, a negative function of the MWNT concentration, and exhibited different dependencies in quasistatic and impact tests. Small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) showed that the dispersion of the MWNT was similar at all concentrations. The negative effects on energy absorption are attributed to agglomerates remaining in the samples, which were observed in optical microscopy and SAXS. Overall, there was a good correspondence between static and dynamic energy absorption.
The gastrointestinal tract is a complex milieu as a result of interaction between dietary ingredients and the intestinal bacteria. Following the European ban on the use of in-feed antibiotics, research has focused mainly on the potentially beneficial activities of the intestinal microbiota. Fermentable carbohydrates, or ‘prebiotics’, such as non-digestible oligosaccharides, are considered to have beneficial effects on the composition and activity of the indigenous microbiota, which can enhance the resistance of the host against colonisation of pathogenic bacteria in the GIT. Only a limited number of prebiotics has been tested in broilers that include fructo-oligosaccharides, inulin, mannan-oligosaccharides, alpha gluco-oligosaccharides, isomalto-oligosaccharides, different kestoses and lactose along with its derivatives. This review provides an overview pertaining to the potential impact of prebiotics on the intestinal bacterial population in broilers and summarizes the data regarding the role of prebiotics in preventing the colonisation of enteropathogens especially Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Clostridium spp. Moreover, the influence of prebiotics on the intestinal bacterial fermentation profile, particularly short chain fatty acids, ammonia and lactate, is also discussed. Prebiotics have been found to affect the intestinal bacterial population particularly elevating the caecal count of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. The effect of prebiotics on the intestinal bacteria is also evident in terms of change in the total concentration or relative proportion of short chain fatty acids. The ability of prebiotics in controlling the colonisation of different enterpathogens especially Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens or Campylobacter spp. showed inconsistent results depending upon the available literature.
The dynamics of competitive colonisation of necrotic cyclamen tissue by the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea and the saprophytic fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum were studied immuno-histologically, while sporulation was studied macroscopically. The effect of different time intervals between inoculation of both fungi on resource capture by each species was explored. Colonisation and sporulation were used as indicators for competitive resource capture and the effectiveness of biological control of B. cinerea, using U. atrum. Mycelial biomass and sporulation showed logistical time courses in both species, in monocultures as well as in mixed cultures. Final colonisation and sporulation levels were lowered by competition, indicating competitive resource capture. Analysis of the extent to which sporulation of either fungus could be reduced by co-inoculation with the other fungus at different times, showed that B. cinerea can be completely excluded by ‘early’ pre-inoculation with U. atrum, but not vice versa, indicating that U. atrum can exploit resources in the leaf that are not accessible to B. cinerea. A model of competitive substrate colonisation and resource capture was developed on the basis of the experimental results. Model results confirm that competition for resources provides a sufficient biological explanation for the dynamic interactions between the fungi. The model provides a tool to optimise dose and timing of U. atrum applications providing effective biological control of B. cinerea.
This paper describes the first industrial application of the new DYNAFLEX oscillator developed by VAI
on the two billet casting machines at Lech-Stahlwerke (Germany). Its main features are : no
servohydraulic components, a system of leaf-springs arranged in cascade, simplicity of adjustment of
stroke, frequency and wave form during casting. These factors suppress the need for maintenance of
the oscillator, prevent mechanical backlash and result in a significant increase in machine availability
and product quality, as well as in reduced maintenance costs.
We present here a method for fabrication of air-gaps between Cu-interconnects to achieve low intralevel dielectric constant, using a sacrificial polymer as a ‘place holder’. IC compatible metallization and CMP processes were used in a single damascene process. The air-gap occupies the entire intralevel volume between the copper lines with fully densified SiO2 as the planer interlevel dielectric. The width of the air-gaps was 286 nm and the width of the copper lines was 650 nm. The effective intralevel dielectric constant was calculated to be 2.19. The thickness of the interlevel SiO2 and copper lines were 1100 nm and 700 nm, respectively. Further reduction in the value of intralevel dielectric constant is possible by optimization of the geometry of the metal/air-gap structure, and by use of a low k interlevel dielectric material.
In this method of forming air-gaps, the layer of sacrificial polymer was spin-coated onto the substrate and formed into the desired pattern using an oxide or metal mask and reactive-ion-etching. The intralevel Cu trench is then inlaid using a damascene process. After the CMP of copper, interlevel SiO2 is deposited by plasma-CVD. Finally, the polymer place-holder is thermally decomposed with the decomposition products permeating through the interlevel dielectric material. The major advantages of this method over other reported methods of formation of air-gaps are excellent control over the geometry of the air-gaps; no protrusion of air-gaps into the interlevel dielectric; no deposition of SiO2 over the side-walls, and no degradation of the interlevel dielectric during the formation of air-gap.
Three stands of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel
were investigated regarding the relationship between
the number of efflux culms and convective ventilation efficiency affecting
the hypoxic status of roots and rhizomes.
The lack of old (efflux) culms after mowing the preceding winter caused
a significantly higher counterpressure
within the rhizome, thereby diminishing air flushing rate, i.e. oxygen
supply, of rhizomes. The levels of alanine
and c-aminobutyric acid in basal culm internodes increased significantly.
Both amino acids indicate the hypoxic
status of the root and rhizome metabolism of P. australis. Amino
acid patterns of the basal culm internodes are
discussed with respect to the maintenance of aerobic root metabolism and
Nitrate contamination of surface water resulting from inputs of agricultural drainage water is a widespread problem. To learn whether alternative agricultural practices might ameliorate this problem, we measured NO-3 in water draining from three neighboring fields from 1970 to 1992. Drainage water from two fields fertilized with N exclusively as composted and liquid manure had NO-3 concentrations less than 2 ppm (20% of the Public Health Service recommended limit for drinking water). When these fields were converted to a corn/soybean rotation fertilized with anhydrous ammonia, NO-3 concentration increased about 7- to 10-fold. On a third field, corn was always fertilized with anhydrous ammonia. Changing this field from a rotation of corn, oats and hay to corn/soybean and increasing the rate of N fertilization by about 18% almost doubled the NO-3 concentration in the drainage water. The corn/soybean rotation most prevalent in the Corn Belt today resulted in high NO-3 concentrations in the drainage water, while the alternative system prevented NO-3 problems.
The use of purified hydrazine cyanurate as a solid source of hydrazine in the low temperature nitridation of GaAs (100) and (111) and sapphire (0001) is demonstrated. Thenitridated surfaces were analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for chemical composition and Atomic Force Microscopy for surface morphology. The GaAs surfaces were composed primarily of GaN, GaAs, and Ga2O3, and were as smooth as unprocessed standards. The nitridated sapphire surfaces were composed of A1NxO1-x and exhibited three-dimensional growth for long nitridation times.
A coronal mass ejection (CME) event was observed on December 23, 1996 with the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer in both ultraviolet and visible light channels at 0.5 R⊙ over the solar limb. The CME was followed during its evolution in the bright lines of Lyα (1216Å), Lyβ (1026Å), Lyγ (972Å), C III (977Å) and the OVI doublet (1032, 1037Å) and in several weaker lines. The Lyα peak intensity shows an excursion of two orders of magnitude during the CME evolution, and blue shifts up to 0.8Å (~200 km/sec). The data provide the emission measure in the Log T range 4.0–5.5 with a 0.3 sampling. Line intensities and profiles have been measured, providing important diagnostics for a detailed study of the CME’s physical and dynamical parameters.
Improvements in the properties of Parylene may enable their use in high performance integrated circuits. Parylenes are a class of polymers formed by chemical vapor deposition which nearly meet the high standards of the low-k triumvirate, namely, 1) adhesion, particularly to SiO2, 2) thermal stability above 400 Celsius, and 3) permittivity less than 2.7. Parylene-N has been incorporated into both aluminum-1 and copper-2 based metallization schemes, however, improvements in the adhesion and thermal stability are still needed to simplify and increase the robustness of the integration schemes. Additionally, a reduction in the permittivity would be beneficial from both device performance and extendibility points-of-view. We have synthesized various Parylene-N-based copolymers with improved adhesion, thermal stability, and permittivity. We discovered that a copolymer of tetravinyl-tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane and Parylene-N has a permittivity of close to 2.1 and both the adhesion to SiQ2 and thermal stability are measurably improved compared to the homopolymer.