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The main objective of this study was to develop a dynamic energy balance model for dairy goats to describe and quantify energy partitioning between energy used for work (milk) and that lost to the environment. Increasing worldwide concerns regarding livestock contribution to global warming underscore the importance of improving energy efficiency utilization in dairy goats by reducing energy losses in feces, urine and methane (CH4). A dynamic model of CH4 emissions from experimental energy balance data in goats is proposed and parameterized (n = 48 individual animal observations). The model includes DM intake, NDF and lipid content of the diet as explanatory variables for CH4 emissions. An additional data set (n = 122 individual animals) from eight energy balance experiments was used to evaluate the model. The model adequately (root MS prediction error, RMSPE) represented energy in milk (E-milk; RMSPE = 5.6%), heat production (HP; RMSPE = 4.3%) and CH4 emissions (E-CH4; RMSPE = 11.9%). Residual analysis indicated that most of the prediction errors were due to unexplained variations with small mean and slope bias. Some mean bias was detected for HP (1.12%) and E-CH4 (1.27%) but was around zero for E-milk (0.14%). The slope bias was zero for HP (0.01%) and close to zero for E-milk (0.10%) and E-CH4 (0.22%). Random bias was >98% for E-CH4, HP and E-milk, indicating non-systematic errors and that mechanisms in the model are properly represented. As predicted energy increased, the model tended to underpredict E-CH4 and E-milk. The model is a first step toward a mechanistic description of nutrient use by goats and is useful as a research tool for investigating energy partitioning during lactation. The model described in this study could be used as a tool for making enteric CH4 emission inventories for goats.
Ketosis is a metabolic disease of dairy cows often characterized by high concentrations of ketone bodies and fatty acids, but low milk protein and milk production. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are central for the regulation of milk protein synthesis. The effect of high levels of fatty acids on these pathways and β-casein synthesis are unknown in dairy cows with clinical ketosis. Mammary gland tissue and blood samples were collected from healthy (n = 15) and clinically-ketotic (n = 15) cows. In addition, bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) were treated with fatty acids, methionine (Met) or prolactin (PRL), respectively. In vivo, the serum concentration of fatty acids was greater (P > 0.05) and the percentage of milk protein (P > 0.05) was lower in cows with clinical ketosis. The JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways were inhibited and the abundance of β-casein was lower in mammary tissue of cows with clinical ketosis (P > 0.05). In vitro, high levels of fatty acids inhibited the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways (P > 0.05) and further decreased the β-casein synthesis (P > 0.05) in BMEC. Methionine or PRL treatment, as positive regulators, activated the JAK2-STAT5 and mTOR signaling pathways to increase the β-casein synthesis. Importantly, the high concentration of fatty acids attenuated the positive effect of Met or PRL on mTOR, JAK2-STAT5 pathways and the abundance of β-casein (P > 0.05). Overall, these data indicate that the high concentrations of fatty acids that reach the mammary cells during clinical ketosis inhibit mTOR and JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathways, and further suppress β-casein synthesis.
Victimization in childhood may be associated with adult psychosis. This association was examined cross-sectional and longitudinal in the crucial developmental period of early adolescence.
Data were derived from standard health screenings of the Youth Health Care Divisions of the Municipal Health Services in Maastricht, the Netherlands. A self-report questionnaire was filled out by a total of 1290 adolescents to assess non-clinical psychotic experiences, as well as experiences of being bullied, sexual trauma and life events.
The cross-sectional study showed that unwanted sexual experiences and being bullied were strongly and independently associated with psychotic experiences. In the same sample, it was shown that sexual trauma increased the risk for psychotic symptoms two years later. Life events contributed to the risk for psychosis over time and psychosis in turn gave rise to new life events. No significant association with bullying was found after controlling for confounders.
These results suggest that reported associations between childhood victimization and adult psychosis can be understood in a developmental framework of onset of at-risk mental states in early adolescence. Early and later psychological stress, if severe, may impact on the risk for psychosis in adolescence trough mechanisms of person-environment interaction and correlation.
We established a mastitis model using exogenous infection of the mammary gland of Chinese Holstein cows with Staphylococcus aureus and extracted total RNA from S. aureus-infected and healthy mammary quarters. Differential expression of genes due to mastitis was evaluated using Affymetrix technology and results revealed a total of 1230 differentially expressed mRNAs. A subset of affected genes was verified via Q-PCR and pathway analysis. In addition, Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology was used to analyze profiles of miRNA in infected and healthy quarters. These analyses revealed a total of 52 differentially expressed miRNAs. A subset of those results was verified via Q-PCR. Bioinformatics techniques were used to predict and analyze the correlations among differentially expressed miRNA and mRNA. Results revealed a total of 329 pairs of negatively associated miRNA/mRNA, with 31 upregulated pairs of mRNA and 298 downregulated pairs of mRNA. Differential expression of miR-15a and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-like 2 (IRAK2), were evaluated by western blot and luciferase reporter assays. We conclude that miR-15a and miR-15a target genes (IRAK2) constitute potential miRNA–mRNA regulatory pairs for use as biomarkers to predict a mastitis response.
The work described in this research communication aimed to investigate whether rumen-protected methionine (Met) supplementation during the periparturient period would affect the expression of galectins in blood-derived neutrophils, and secretion of galectins, IL (interleukin)-1β, IL-6, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and glucose in plasma. Because supplementation of rumen-protected Met would alleviate inflammation and oxidative stress during the peripartal period, we hypothesized that enhancing Met supply would benefit the innate immune response at least in part by altering the expression of galectin genes associated with neutrophil activity and inflammation. Galectins (Gal) have an immuno-modulating effect acting like cell-surface receptors whose activation often results in signaling cascades stimulating cells such as neutrophils. This study revealed an association between Met supplementation and galectin expression and secretion. This implies that galectin expression and secretion can be modulated by Met supplementation. Further studies are needed to evaluate the regulation of galectin gene expression for therapeutic and dietary intervention in the peripartal cow.
Rumen-protected betaine (RPB) can enhance betaine absorption in the small intestine of ruminants, while betaine can alter fat distribution and has the potential to affect the meat quality of livestock. Hence, we hypothesized that RPB might also affect the meat quality of lambs. Sixty male Hu sheep of similar weight (30.47 ± 2.04 kg) were selected and randomly subjected to five different treatments. The sheep were fed a control diet (control treatment, CTL); 1.1 g/day unprotected-betaine supplemented diet (UPB); or doses of 1.1 g/day (low RPB treatment; L-PB), 2.2 g/day (middle RPB treatment; M-PB) or 3.3 g/day (high RPB treatment; H-PB) RPB-supplemented diet for 70 days. Slaughter performance, meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid content in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, shoulder muscle (SM) and gluteus muscle (GM) were measured. Compared with CTL, betaine (including UPB and RPB) supplementation increased the average daily weight gain (ADG) (P < 0.05) and average daily feed intake (P < 0.01) of lambs. Rumen-protected betaine increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with UPB. With increasing RPB doses, the eye muscle area of the lambs linearly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with CTL, betaine supplementation decreased water loss (P < 0.05) in SM and increased pH24 in the SM (P < 0.05) and GM (P < 0.05). Compared with UPB, RPB decreased water loss in the GM (P < 0.01), decreased shear force (P < 0.05) in the LD and SM and increased the pH of the meat 24 h after slaughter (pH24). With increasing RPB doses, the shear force and b* value in the LD linearly decreased (P < 0.05), and the pH24 of the meat quadratically increased (P < 0.05). Compared with CTL, betaine supplementation increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the GM (P < 0.05). Compared with UPB, RPB supplementation decreased the saturated fatty acid (SFA) content in the LD (P < 0.05) and increased the unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), mono-unsaturated fatty acids and UFA/SFA ratio in the LD (P < 0.05). Compared with CTL, the content of histidine in the LD increased with betaine supplementation. Compared with UPB, RPB supplementation increased the content of total free amino acids and flavor amino acids in the LD of lambs (P < 0.05). With increasing RPB, the isoleucine and phenylalanine contents in the LD linearly increased (P < 0.05). Overall, the data collected indicated that the meat quality of lambs (especially in the LD) improved as a result of betaine supplementation, and RPB showed better effects than those of UPB.
Enhancing the supply of arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid, has positive effects on immune function in dairy cattle experiencing metabolic stress during early lactation. Our objective was to determine the effects of Arg supplementation on biomarkers of liver damage and inflammation in cows during early lactation. Six Chinese Holstein lactating cows with similar BW (508 ± 14 kg), body condition score (3.0), parity (4.0 ± 0), milk yield (30.6 ± 1.8 kg) and days in milk (20 ± days) were randomly assigned to three treatments in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design balanced for carryover effects. Each period was 21 days with 7 days for infusion and 14 days for washout. Treatments were (1) Control: saline; (2) Arg group: saline + 0.216 mol/day l-Arg; and (3) Alanine (Ala) group: saline + 0.868 mol/day l-Ala (iso-nitrogenous to the Arg group). Blood and milk samples from the experimental cows were collected on the last day of each infusion period and analyzed for indices of liver damage and inflammation, and the count and composition of somatic cells in milk. Compared with the Control, the infusion of Arg led to greater concentrations of total protein, immunoglobulin M and high density lipoprotein cholesterol coupled with lower concentrations of haptoglobin and tumor necrosis factor-α, and activity of aspartate aminotransferase in serum. Infusion of Ala had no effect on those biomarkers compared with the Control. Although milk somatic cell count was not affected, the concentration of granulocytes was lower in response to Arg infusion compared with the Control or Ala group. Overall, the biomarker analyses indicated that the supplementation of Arg via the jugular vein during early lactation alleviated inflammation and metabolic stress.
High temperature is a major stress that negatively affects welfare, health, and productivity of dairy animals. Heat-stressed animals are more prone to disease, suggesting that their immunity is hindered. Although productive and physiologic responses of dairy animals to heat stress are well known, there is still limited information on the response at the transcriptome level. Our objective was to evaluate the changes in performance and blood transcriptomics of dairy goats under heat stress. Eight multiparous Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in mid-lactation were assigned to 1 of 2 climatic treatments for 35 d. Treatments and temperature-humidity index (THI) were: (1) thermal neutral (TN: n = 4; 15–20 °C, 40–45%, THI = 59–65), and (2) heat stress (HS: n = 4; 12 h at 37 °C–40%, THI = 86; 12 h at 30 °C–40%, THI = 77). Rectal temperature, respiratory rate, feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily. Additionally, milk composition was evaluated weekly. Blood samples were collected at d 35 and RNA was extracted for microarray analyses (Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Array). Differences in rectal temperature and respiratory rate between HS and TN goats were maximal during the first 3 d of the experiment, reduced thereafter, but remained significant throughout the 35-d experimental period. Heat stress reduced feed intake, milk yield, milk protein and milk fat contents by 29, 8, 12, and 13%, respectively. Microarray analysis of blood revealed that 55 genes were up-regulated, whereas 88 were down-regulated by HS. Bioinformatics analysis using the Dynamic Impact Approach revealed that 31 biological pathways were impacted by HS. Pathways associated with leukocyte transendothelial migration, cell adhesion, hematopoietic cell lineage, calcium signaling, and PPAR signaling were negatively impacted by HS, whereas nucleotide metabolism was activated. In conclusion, heat stress not only negatively affected milk production in dairy goats, but also resulted in alterations in the functionality of immune cells, which would make the immune system of heat-stressed goats less capable of fending-off diseases.
Due to their high energy requirements, high-yielding dairy cows receive high-grain diets. This commonly jeopardises their gastrointestinal health by causing subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and hindgut acidosis. These disorders can disrupt nutrient utilisations, impair the functionalities of gastrointestinal microbiota, and reduce the absorptive and barrier capacities of gastrointestinal epithelia. They can also trigger inflammatory responses. The symptoms of SARA are not only due to a depressed rumen pH. Hence, the diagnosis of this disorder based solely on reticulo-rumen pH values is inaccurate. An accurate diagnosis requires a combination of clinical examinations of cows, including blood, milk, urine and faeces parameters, as well as analyses of herd management and feed quality, including the dietary contents of NDF, starch and physical effective NDF. Grain-induced SARA increases acidity and shifts availabilities of substrates for microorganisms in the reticulo-rumen and hindgut and can result in a dysbiotic microbiota that are characterised by low richness, diversity and functionality. Also, amylolytic microorganisms become more dominant at the expense of proteolytic and fibrolytic ones. Opportunistic microorganisms can take advantage of newly available niches, which, combined with reduced functionalities of epithelia, can contribute to an overall reduction in nutrient utilisation and increasing endotoxins and pathogens in digesta and faeces. The reduced barrier function of epithelia increases translocation of these endotoxins and other immunogenic compounds out of the digestive tract, which may be the cause of inflammations. This needs to be confirmed by determining the toxicity of these compounds. Cows differ in their susceptibility to poor gastrointestinal health, due to variations in genetics, feeding history, diet adaptation, gastrointestinal microbiota, metabolic adaptation, stress and infections. These differences may also offer opportunities for the management of gastrointestinal health. Strategies to prevent SARA include balancing the diet for physical effective fibre, non-fibre carbohydrates and starch, managing the different fractions of non-fibre carbohydrates, and consideration of the type and processing of grain and forage digestibility. Gastrointestinal health disorders due to high grain feeding may be attenuated by a variety of feed supplements and additives, including buffers, antibiotics, probiotics/direct fed microbials and yeast products. However, the efficacy of strategies to prevent these disorders must be improved. This requires a better understanding of the mechanisms through which these strategies affect the functionality of gastrointestinal microbiota and epithelia, and the immunity, inflammation and ‘gastrointestinal-health robustness’ of cows. More representative models to induce SARA are also needed.
The recently sequenced cattle (Bos taurus) genome unraveled the unique genomic features of the species and provided the molecular basis for applying a systemic approach to systematically link genomic information to metabolic traits. Comparative analysis has identified a variety of evolutionary adaptive features in the cattle genome, such as an expansion of the gene families related to the rumen function, large number of chromosomal rearrangements affecting regulation of genes for lactation, and chromosomal rearrangements that are associated with segmental duplications and copy number variations. Metabolic reconstruction of the cattle genome has revealed that core metabolic pathways are highly conserved among mammals although five metabolic genes are deleted or highly diverged and seven metabolic genes are present in duplicate in the cattle genome compared to their human counter parts. The evolutionary loss and gain of metabolic genes in the cattle genome may reflect metabolic adaptations of cattle. Metabolic reconstruction also provides a platform for better understanding of metabolic regulation in cattle and ruminants. A substantial body of transcriptomics data from dairy and beef cattle under different nutritional management and across different stages of growth and lactation are already available and will aid in linking the genome with metabolism and nutritional physiology of cattle. Application of cattle genomics has great potential for future development of nutritional strategies to improve efficiency and sustainability of beef and milk production. One of the biggest challenges is to integrate genomic and phenotypic data and interpret them in a biological and practical platform. Systems biology, a holistic and systemic approach, will be very useful in overcoming this challenge.
Madin–Darby Bovine Kidney cells cultured with 150 μm of Wy-14 643 (WY, PPARα agonist) or twelve long-chain fatty acids (LCFA; 16 : 0, 18 : 0, cis-9–18 : 1, trans-10–18 : 1, trans-11–18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6, 18 : 3n-3, cis-9, trans-11–18 : 2, trans-10, cis-12–18 : 2, 20 : 0, 20 : 5n-3 and 22 : 6n-3) were used to uncover PPAR-α target genes and determine the effects of LCFA on expression of thirty genes with key functions in lipid metabolism and inflammation. Among fifteen known PPAR-α targets in non-ruminants, ten had greater expression with WY, suggesting that they are bovine PPAR-α targets. The expression of SPP1 and LPIN3 was increased by WY, with no evidence of a similar effect in the published literature, suggesting that both represent bovine-specific PPAR-α targets. We observed the strongest effect on the expression of PPAR-α targets with 16 : 0, 18 : 0 and 20 : 5n-3.When considering the overall effect on expression of the thirty selected genes 20 : 5n-3, 16 : 0 and 18 : 0 had the greatest effect followed by 20 : 0 and c9t11–18 : 2. Gene network analysis indicated an overall increase in lipid metabolism by WY and all LCFA with a central role of PPAR-α but also additional putative transcription factors. A greater increase in the expression of inflammatory genes was observed with 16 : 0 and 18 : 0. Among LCFA, 20 : 5n-3, 16 : 0 and 18 : 0 were the most potent PPAR-α agonists. They also affected the expression of non-PPAR-α targets, eliciting an overall increase in the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism, signalling and inflammatory response. Data appear to highlight a teleological evolutionary adaptation of PPAR in ruminants to cope with the greater availability of saturated rather than unsaturated LCFA.
The peripartal period is characterized by dramatic alterations in metabolism and function of key tissues such as liver, adipose and mammary. Metabolic regulation relies partly on transcriptional control of gene networks, a collection of DNA segments, which interact with a transcription factor or nuclear receptor, as a mechanism controlling the concentration of key enzymes in cells. These ‘global’ interactions can govern the rates at which genes in the network are transcribed into mRNA. The study of the entire genome, sub-networks or candidate genes at the mRNA level encompasses the broad field of genomics. Genomics of peripartal metabolic adaptations has traditionally been focused on candidate genes and more recently, using microarrays, on the broader transcriptome landscape. The candidate gene approach has expanded our knowledge on the functional adaptations of ureagenesis, fatty acid oxidation, gluconeogenesis, inflammation and growth hormone signaling in liver. More recent work with peripartal mammary tissue has used a gene network approach to study milk fat synthesis regulation as well as a candidate gene approach to study lipid transport, glucose uptake and inflammatory response. Network and pathway analysis of microarray data from cows fed different levels of dietary energy pre partum has revealed unique clusters encompassing functional categories including signal transduction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARγ) signaling, PPARα signaling, immune or inflammatory processes and cell death in subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as liver. Of interest from a nutritional perspective is the potential to alter PPARγ signaling in adipose and PPARα signaling in liver as a means to enhance insulin sensitivity as well as fatty acid oxidation post partum. Major advances in understanding the metabolic adaptations of peripartal cows will come from using a systems biology approach to integrate data generated at the mRNA, protein, metabolite and tissue level across different nutritional management approaches and with cows of different genetic merit. This will allow the assembly of the important components needed to improve existing metabolic models of the peripartal cow and provide the tools to manipulate complex processes that could have significant long-term economic impact including lactation persistency, fertility and efficiency. An important goal of the future will be to apply additional experimental tools (e.g. gene silencing) and bioinformatics (e.g. transcription factor binding site identification) to studies focused on peripartal cows.
Adipocyte differentiation is probably controlled by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Longissimus lumborum from Angus steers (aged 155 d; seven animals per diet) fed high-starch or low-starch diets for 112 d (growing phase) followed by a common high-starch diet for an additional 112 d (finishing phase) was biopsied at 0, 56, 112 and 224 d for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR of twenty genes associated with adipogenesis and energy metabolism. At 56 d steers fed high starch had greater expression of PPARγ as well as the lipogenic enzymes ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial (GPAM), and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase homologue 2 (DGAT2), and the adipokine adiponectin (ADIPOQ). Expression of insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) was also greater with high starch at 56 d. Steers fed low starch experienced a marked increase in FASN, FABP4, SCD, DGAT2 and thyroid hormone-responsive (SPOT14 homologue, rat) (THRSP) between 56 and 112 d of feeding. A greater expression of the transcription factors sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) and MLX interacting protein-like (MLXIPL) was observed at 224 d in steers fed high starch, suggesting a nutritional imprinting effect. Carryover effects of low starch feeding were discerned by greater expression at 224 d of THRSP, FABP4, SCD and DGAT2. These steers also had greater PPARγ at 224 d. Despite these responses, low starch led to greater expression at 224 d of nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2 (NR2F2), a known repressor of rodent adipocyte differentiation through its negative effects on PPARγ, ADIPOQ and FABP4. Results suggested that early exposure to high starch induced precocious intramuscular adipocyte proliferation and metabolic imprinting of lipogenic transcription regulators. Low starch might have blunted the PPARγ-driven adipogenic response through up-regulation of NR2F2 but the endogenous ligand for this nuclear receptor remains unknown.
The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in ruminal microorganisms and fermentation parameters due to dietary supplementation of soybean and linseed oil alone or in combination. Four dietary treatments were tested in a Latin square designed experiment using four primiparous rumen-cannulated dairy cows. Treatments were control (C, 60 : 40 forage to concentrate) or C with 4% soybean oil (S), 4% linseed oil (L) or 2% soybean oil plus 2% linseed oil (SL) in a 4 × 4 Latin square with four periods of 21 days. Forage and concentrate mixtures were fed at 0800 and 2000 h daily. Ruminal fluid was collected every 2 h over a 12-h period on day 19 of each experimental period and pH was measured immediately. Samples were prepared for analyses of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) by GLC and ammonia. Counts of total and individual bacterial groups (cellulolytic, proteolytic, amylolytic bacteria and total viable bacteria) were performed using the roll-tube technique, and protozoa counts were measured via microscopy in ruminal fluid collected at 0, 4 and 8 h after the morning feeding. Content of ruminal digesta was obtained via the rumen cannula before the morning feeding and used immediately for DNA extraction and quantity of specific bacterial species was obtained using real- time PCR. Ruminal pH did not differ but total VFA (110 v. 105 mmol/l) were lower (P < 0.05) with oil supplementation compared with C. Concentration of ruminal NH3-N (4.4 v. 5.6 mmol/l) was greater (P < 0.05) due to oil compared with C. Compared with C, oil supplementation resulted in lower (P < 0.05) cellulolytic bacteria (3.25 × 108v. 4.66 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml) and protozoa (9.04 × 104v. 12.92 × 104 cell/ml) colony counts. Proteolytic bacteria (7.01 × 108v. 6.08 × 108 CFU/ml) counts, however, were greater in response to oil compared with C (P < 0.05). Among oil treatments, the amount of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens in ruminal fluid was substantially lower (P < 0.05) when L was included. Compared to C, the amount of Ruminococcus albus decreased by an average of 40% regardless of oil level or type. Overall, the results indicate that some ruminal microorganisms, except proteolytic bacteria, are highly susceptible to dietary unsaturated fatty acids supplementation, particularly when linolenic acid rich oils were fed. Dietary oil effects on ruminal fermentation parameters seemed associated with the profile of ruminal microorganisms.
Cis 9, trans 11 (c 9, t11)-18: 2 and trans 10, cis 12 (t10, c12)-18: 2 are the major conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in dietary supplements which reduce milk fat content in nursing women. The present study evaluated the effects of each CLA isomer or vaccenic acid on body composition and tissue fatty acids during lactation in mice. Dams were fed 30 g rapeseed oil (control)/kg diet or 20 g control plus 10 g 18: 0, trans 11–18: 1 (t11–18: 1), c 9, t11–18: 2, or t10, c12–18: 2. Dietary t10, c12–18: 2 reduced food intake by 18 % and carcass fat weight of the dams by 49 % compared with the other treatments. Milk fat percentage ranked by treatment was 18: 0>t11–18: 1=c 9, t11–18: 2>t10, c12–18: 2. The sum of saturated 12: 0 to 16: 0 in milk fat was lower when c 9, t11–18: 2 was fed compared with the control, 18: 0, or t11–18: 1 treatments. Dietary t10, c12–18: 2 caused further reductions in milk fat 12: 0 to 16: 0. The proportion of CLA isomers was 3-fold greater in milk fat than in the carcasses of the dams. The pups nursing from the dams fed t10, c12–18: 2 had the lowest body weights and carcass fat, protein, and ash contents. Nursing from the dams fed c 9, t11–18: 2 also resulted in lower carcass fat compared with the 18: 0 or t11–18: 1 treatments. The ratios of cis 9–16: 1:16: 0 or cis 9–18: 1:18: 0, proxies for Δ9-desaturase activity, were markedly lower in the carcasses of the dams and pups fed t10, c12–18: 2. The ratio of 20: 4n-6:18: 2n-6, a proxy for Δ6- and Δ5-desaturase and elongase activity, in the liver of the dams and pups fed t10, c12–18: 2 also was lower. Dietary t11–18: 1 enhanced the content of c 9, t11–18: 2 in milk fat and carcasses. As in previous studies, the reduction in food intake by t10, c12–18: 2 could not entirely account for the marked decrease in carcass fat content and milk fat concentration. T10, c12–18: 2 probably had a negative effect on Δ9-desaturase and mammary de novo fatty acid synthesis. Although these effects need to be confirmed in lactating women, the results suggest that the consumption of supplements containing t10, c12–18: 2 should be avoided during the nursing period.
It has been proposed that tidal interaction is the mechanism which restored the circular orbits of X-ray binaries after the supernova explosions which produced the compact components in those systems. (Lea and Margon, 1973; Sutantyo, 1974). This implies that the primaries must possess large viscosity in order to provide large energy dissipation rates required in this process. At the end of this process the system reaches a stable synchronous and circular orbit. If this hypothesis is true, there will be further consequence of the strong tidal interaction during the later stages of evolution of the system. The gradually changing structure of the primary during the post main-sequence stages will continuously disturb the stability of the orbit. There will be transfer of angular momentum from the orbital motion into the rotation or vice versa through the tidal interaction. At a certain stage, the radius of the primary exceeds a critical radius, the orbit becomes unstable and synchronism becomes impossible. The compact component will be spiralling down onto and into the primary as proposed by Sparks and Stecher (1974).
It is well known that the outcome of case B evolution of the primaries of massive close binary systems (M1 ≥ 9 M⊙) depends on the initial primary mass. The most massive primaries finally ignite carbon, form iron cores and presumably end in a supernova explosion, whereas the lighter ones presumably end as white dwarfs, without carbon ignition. This paper derives an estimate of the mass boundary separating these two kinds of evolution.
As an example of the first case, the evolution of a 20 M⊙ + 14 M⊙ system was computed; after the mass exchange, the primary star (with M = 5.43 M⊙) evolves through the helium-burning (Wolf-Rayet) stage towards a supernova explosion; finally the system evolves into an X-ray binary (BWRX-evolution).
As a representative for the second case the evolution of a 10 M⊙ + 8 M⊙ system was examined. After the first stage of mass exchange, the primary (with a mass of 1.66 M⊙) approaches the helium main sequence; during later phases of helium burning the radius increases again, and a second stage of mass transfer starts; after this the star (with a mass of 1.14 M⊙) again evolves towards the left in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and ends as a white dwarf (BSWD-evolution). A system of 15 M⊙ + 8 M⊙ is found to evolve very similar to the 20 M⊙ + 14 M⊙ system. The mass Mu, separating the two types of evolution, must therefore be situated between 10 and 15 solar masses. An initial chemical composition X = 0.70, Z = 0.03 was used for all systems.
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