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We study the bendocapillary instability of a liquid droplet that part fills a flexible walled channel. Inspired by experiments in which a periodic pattern emerges as droplets of liquid are condensed slowly into deformable microchannels, we develop a mathematical model of this instability. We describe equilibria of the system, and use a combination of numerical methods and asymptotic analysis in the limit of small channel wall deflections, to elucidate the key features of this instability. We find that configurations are unstable to perturbations of sufficiently small wavenumber regardless of parameter values, that the growth rate of the instability is highly sensitive to the volume of liquid in the channel, and that both wetting and non-wetting configurations are susceptible to the instability in the same channel. Insight into novel interfacial instabilities opens the possibility for their control and thus exploitation in processes such as microfabrication.
The causal impacts of recreational cannabis legalization are not well understood due to the number of potential confounds. We sought to quantify possible causal effects of recreational cannabis legalization on substance use, substance use disorder, and psychosocial functioning, and whether vulnerable individuals are more susceptible to the effects of cannabis legalization than others.
We used a longitudinal, co-twin control design in 4043 twins (N = 240 pairs discordant on residence), first assessed in adolescence and now age 24–49, currently residing in states with different cannabis policies (40% resided in a recreationally legal state). We tested the effect of legalization on outcomes of interest and whether legalization interacts with established vulnerability factors (age, sex, or externalizing psychopathology).
In the co-twin control design accounting for earlier cannabis frequency and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms respectively, the twin living in a recreational state used cannabis on average more often (βw = 0.11, p = 1.3 × 10−3), and had fewer AUD symptoms (βw = −0.11, p = 6.7 × 10−3) than their co-twin living in an non-recreational state. Cannabis legalization was associated with no other adverse outcome in the co-twin design, including cannabis use disorder. No risk factor significantly interacted with legalization status to predict any outcome.
Recreational legalization was associated with increased cannabis use and decreased AUD symptoms but was not associated with other maladaptations. These effects were maintained within twin pairs discordant for residence. Moreover, vulnerabilities to cannabis use were not exacerbated by the legal cannabis environment. Future research may investigate causal links between cannabis consumption and outcomes.
We use a mathematical model to investigate the effect of basal topography and ice surface slope on transport and deposition of sediment within a water-filled subglacial channel. In our model, three zones of different behaviour occur. In the zone furthest upstream, variations in basal topography lead to sediment deposition under a wide range of conditions. In this first zone, even very small and gradually varying basal undulations (~5 m amplitude) can lead to the deposition of sediment within a modelled channel. Deposition is concentrated on the downstream gradient of subglacial ridges, and on the upstream gradient of subglacial troughs. The thickness and steepness of the ice sheet has a substantial impact on deposition rates, with shallow ice profiles strongly promoting both the magnitude and extent of sediment deposition. In a second zone, all sediment is transported downstream. Finally, a third zone close to the ice margin is characterised by high rates of sediment deposition. The existence of these zones has implications for esker formation and the dynamics of the subglacial environment.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental health condition characterized by emotion dysregulation, interpersonal impairment, and high suicidality. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is the most widely studied psychotherapeutic treatment for BPD. To date, the vast majority of DBT research has focused on cisgender women, with a notable lack of systematic investigation of sex and/or gender differences in treatment response. In order to encourage effective, equitable treatment of BPD, further investigation into treatment targets in this population is critical. Here, we employed a systematic strategy to delineate gaps in the DBT literature pertaining to sex and gender differences and propose directions for future research. Findings demonstrate a significant discrepancy in measurement of sex and gender, particularly among gender-diverse individuals. Exploring DBT treatment response across the full spectrum of genders will facilitate the provision of more tailored, impactful care to all individuals who suffer from BPD.
Key learning aims
(1) To date, DBT treatment literature has focused almost exclusively on cisgender women, with only two of 253 DBT studies in current literature accounting for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals.
(2) Recognize how gender minority stress may impact the prevalence of BPD among TGD individuals.
(3) Learn how future research initiatives can be employed to rectify this gap in the DBT literature.
Several recent studies have proposed that according to Paul gentiles join Abraham's lineage in a quasi-physiological way by being infused with material πνɛῦμα. This article assesses that proposal, finding it to be an inaccurate description of Paul's language and rationale, and sets forth an alternative proposal based on Romans 4 and Paul's descriptions of baptism. This alternative proposal is that Paul understood the forging of an Abrahamic and divine pedigree for gentiles to be a divine act of creation from nothing, that is concomitant with believers’ proleptic death and resurrection in solidarity with the messiah.
Viscous contact problems describe the time evolution of fluid flows in contact with a surface from which they can detach and reattach. These problems are of particular importance in glaciology, where they arise in the study of grounding lines and subglacial cavities. In this work, we propose a novel numerical method for solving viscous contact problems based on a mixed formulation with Lagrange multipliers of a variational inequality involving the Stokes equations. The advection equation for evolving the geometry of the domain occupied by the fluid is then solved via a specially-built upwinding scheme, leading to a robust and accurate algorithm for viscous contact problems. We first verify the method by comparing the numerical results to analytical results obtained by a linearised method. Then we use this numerical scheme to reconstruct friction laws for glacial sliding with cavitation. Finally, we compute the evolution of cavities from a steady state under oscillating water pressures. The results depend strongly on the location of the initial steady state along the friction law. In particular, we find that if the steady state is located on the downsloping or rate-weakening part of the friction law, then the cavity evolves towards the upsloping section, indicating that the downsloping part is unstable.
Instability to Tollmien–Schlichting waves is one of the primary routes to transition to turbulence for two-dimensional boundary layers in quiet disturbance environments. Cancellation of Tollmien–Schlichting waves using surface heating was first demonstrated in the experiments of Liepmann et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 118, 1982, pp. 187–200) and Liepmann & Nosenchuck (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 118, 1982, pp. 201–204). Here we consider a similar theoretical formulation that includes the effects of localised (unsteady) wall heating/cooling. The resulting problem is closely related to that of Terent'ev (Prikl. Mat. Mekh., vol. 45, 1981, pp. 1049–1055; Prikl. Mat. Mekh., vol. 48, 1984, pp. 264–272) on the generation of Tollmien–Schlichting waves by a vibrating ribbon, but with thermal effects. The nonlinear receptivity problem based on triple-deck scales is formulated and the linearised version solved both analytically as well as numerically. The most significant result is that the wall heating/cooling function can be chosen such that there is no pressure response to the disturbance, meaning there is no generation of Tollmien–Schlichting waves. Numerical calculations substantiate this with an approximation based on the exact analytical result. Previous numerical studies of the unsteady triple-deck equations have shown difficulties in capturing the convective wave packet that develops in the initial-value problem and we show that these arise from the choice of time steps as well as the range of the Fourier modes taken.
A reduced model is presented for the dynamics of a slender sheet of a viscoelastic fluid. Starting with the Oldroyd-B constitutive model and exploiting an asymptotic analysis in the small aspect ratio of the sheet, equations are derived for the evolution of a ‘visco-elastica’. These depend on an elastic modulus, a creep viscosity and a solvent viscosity. They resemble standard equations for an elastica or a viscida, to which they reduce under the appropriate limits. The model is used to explore the effects of viscoelasticity on the dynamics of a curling ribbon, a drooping cantilever, buckling sheets, snap-through and a falling catenary. We then incorporate a yield stress, for a fluid that deforms by creep only above a critical stress, revisiting the curling and cantilever problems. This model generalises a number of previous theories for viscoelastic and viscoplastic ribbons.
Individuals with obesity tend to perform less well than their non-obese peers in tertiary education, but there is little evidence from non-Western countries and recent studies. The present study aimed to test whether academic attainment differed between female undergraduates with obesity (defined by body mass index (BMI)), and those who were non-obese in Kuwait, a country with very high obesity prevalence. In 400 female Kuwaiti first- and second-year Social Science students (mean age 18⋅0, sd 0⋅6 years), educational attainment was defined as the Grade Point Average (GPA) across all subjects (from 1⋅00 to 4⋅00). The mean GPA (2⋅51, sd 0⋅53) among students defined as obese by the BMI (n 163) was significantly lower than among the students defined as non-obese by the BMI (n 237; 2⋅80, sd 0⋅63; P < 0⋅001), and those defined as obese were more likely to be in the lowest quartile for the GPA (OR 3⋅03; 95% CI 1⋅90, 4⋅85), independent of socio-economic status. Similar differences were observed between students defined as having high versus normal body fatness. Female undergraduates in Kuwait with obesity have lower academic attainment than their non-obese peers, and universities should consider measures to mitigate reduced attainment among their female undergraduates.
Marine-terminating glaciers, such as those along the coastline of Greenland, often release meltwater into the ocean in the form of subglacial discharge plumes. Though these plumes can dramatically alter the mass loss along the front of a glacier, the conditions surrounding their genesis remain poorly constrained. In particular, little is known about the geometry of subglacial outlets and the extent to which seawater may intrude into them. Here, the latter is addressed by exploring the dynamics of an arrested salt wedge – a steady-state, two-layer flow system where salty water partially intrudes a channel carrying fresh water. Building on existing theory, we formulate a model that predicts the length of a non-entraining salt wedge as a function of the Froude number, the slope of the channel and coefficients for interfacial and wall drag. In conjunction, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to observe a salt wedge within a rectangular channel. For experiments conducted with laminar flow (Reynolds number $Re<800$), good agreement with theoretical predictions are obtained when the drag coefficients are modelled as being inversely proportional to $Re$. However, for fully turbulent flows on geophysical scales, these drag coefficients are expected to asymptote toward finite values. Adopting reasonable drag coefficient estimates for this flow regime, our theoretical model suggests that typical subglacial channels may permit seawater intrusions of the order of several kilometres. While crude, these results indicate that the ocean has a strong tendency to penetrate subglacial channels and potentially undercut the face of marine-terminating glaciers.
The Colorado Twin Registry (CTR) is a population-based registry formed from birth and school records including twins born between 1968 and the present. Two previous reports on the CTR [Rhea et al., (2006). Twin Research and Human Genetics, 9, 941–949; Rhea et al., (2013).Twin Research and Human Genetics, 16, 351–357] covered developments in the CTR through 2012. This report briefly summarizes previously presented material on ascertainment and recruitment and the relationships between samples and studies, discusses developments since 2012 for four previously described twin samples, describes two new samples and their complementary studies and expands on two subjects briefly mentioned in the last report: a history of genotyping efforts involving CTR samples, and a survey of collaborations and consortia in which CTR twins have been included. The CTR remains an active resource for both ongoing, longitudinal research and the recruitment of new twin samples for newly identified research opportunities.
Three related problems of viscoplastic flow around cylinders are considered. First, translating cylinders with no-slip surfaces appear to generate adjacent rotating plugs in the limit where the translation speed becomes vanishingly small. In this plastic limit, analytical results are available from plasticity theory (slipline theory) which indicate that no such plugs should exist. Using a combination of numerical computations and asymptotic analysis, we show that the plugs of the viscoplastic theory actually disappear in the plastic limit, albeit very slowly. Second, when the boundary condition on the cylinder is replaced by one that permits sliding, the plastic limit corresponds to a partially rough cylinder. In this case, no plasticity solution has been previously established; we provide evidence from numerical computations and slipline theory that a previously proposed upper bound (Martin & Randolph, Geotechnique, vol. 56, 2006, pp. 141–145) is actually the true plastic solution. Third, we consider how a prescribed surface velocity field can propel cylindrical squirmers through a viscoplastic fluid. We determine swimming speeds and contrast the results with those from the corresponding Newtonian problem.
Analysis of a recent surge of Morsnevbreen, Svalbard, is used to test predictions of the enthalpy balance theory of surging. High-resolution time series of velocities, ice thickness and crevasse distribution allow key elements of the enthalpy (internal energy) budget to be quantified for different stages of the surge cycle. During quiescence (1936–1990), velocities were very low, and geothermal heat slowly built-up enthalpy at the bed. Measurable mass transfer and frictional heating began in 1990–2010, then positive frictional heating-velocity feedbacks caused gradual acceleration from 2010 to 2015. Rapid acceleration occurred in summer 2016, when extensive crevassing and positive air temperatures allowed significant surface to bed drainage. The surge front reached the terminus in October 2016, coincident with a drop in velocities. Ice plumes in the fjord are interpreted as discharge of large volumes of supercooled water from the bed. Surge termination was prolonged, however, indicating persistence of an inefficient drainage system. The observations closely match predictions of the theory, particularly build-up of enthalpy from geothermal and frictional heat, and surface meltwater, and the concomitant changes in ice-surface elevation and velocity. Additional characteristics of the surge reflect spatial processes not represented in the model, but can be explained with respect to enthalpy gradients.
Currently no national guidelines exist for the management of scabies outbreaks in residential or nursing care homes for the elderly in the United Kingdom. In this setting, diagnosis and treatment of scabies outbreaks is often delayed and optimal drug treatment, environmental control measures and even outcome measures are unclear. We undertook a systematic review to establish the efficacy of outbreak management interventions and determine evidence-based recommendations. Four electronic databases were searched for relevant studies, which were assessed using a quality assessment tool drawing on STROBE guidelines to describe the quality of observational data. Nineteen outbreak reports were identified, describing both drug treatment and environmental management measures. The quality of data was poor; none reported all outcome measures and only four described symptom relief measures. We were unable to make definitive evidence-based recommendations. We draw on the results to propose a framework for data collection in future observational studies of scabies outbreaks. While high-quality randomised controlled trials are needed to determine optimal drug treatment, evidence on environmental measures will need augmentation through other literature studies. The quality assessment tool designed is a useful resource for reporting of outcome measures including patient-reported measures in future outbreaks.
Gilt progeny (GP) are born and weaned lighter than sow progeny (SP) and tend to have higher rates of mortality and morbidity. This study quantified the lifetime growth performance differences between GP and SP and, additionally, evaluated whether segregating GP and SP in the grower–finisher period compared to mixing them within common pens reduced this variation. It was hypothesised that GP would be lighter than SP at every stage and segregation would improve growth performance of both GP and SP. All piglets born to 61 gilts (parity 1) and 47 sows (parities 2 to 7; mean 3.5 ± 0.2) were allocated to four treatments at 10 weeks of age: (i) GP housed together (GG), (ii) GP mixed (M) with SP (GM), (iii) SP housed together (SS) and (iv) SP mixed with GP (SM). The GM and SM pigs were housed together in common pens after movement into the grower–finisher facility. Individual live weight of all progeny was recorded at birth, weaning (WWT), 10 weeks of age (10WT) and sale (SWT). Individual hot carcass weight (HCW), fat depth at the head of the last rib (P2) and dressing percentage were measured at slaughter. Gilt progeny were lighter at birth (P = 0.038), weaning (P < 0.001) and through to sale (P = 0.001) than SP. Nursery and grower–finisher performance differences in GP were highly attributable to their lower WWT compared to SP (P < 0.001 when fitted as a covariate). Segregation of GP and SP increased grower–finisher average daily gain (ADG) in SP but decreased ADG and SWT in GP (P < 0.10). Segregated SP had increased average daily feed intake but only in males (P = 0.007); HCW (P < 0.001) and P2 fat depth (P = 0.055) were higher in mixed female GP, but there was no difference (P > 0.10) in female SP, or in males. In conclusion, GP were lighter at every stage than SP and differences after weaning were highly related to the lighter WWT of GP. Under the conditions of this study, overall segregation of GP and SP showed no consistent advantages in growth performance for both groups and differed significantly between males and females.
In Gal 3.16 Paul asserts that Abraham's seed is the messiah. While some have suggested that the rationale for this assertion is Paul's identification of Abraham's seed with David's seed, few have identified evidence for this rationale in the immediate context of Galatians 3, and none have genuinely argued for it. Noting that the reappropriation of scriptural idioms is a common feature of ancient messiah discourse, I demonstrate that Gal 3.19 entails a reappropriation of the wording of Gen 49.10, an oracle often interpreted as Davidic-messianic, and thereby I elucidate the scriptural reasoning undergirding Gal 3.16.
Chloris spp. are warm-season grasses that outcompete crops for scarce resources throughout Australia. In Queensland, mild winters and increased adoption of conservation tillage practices have led to an increase of this warm-season grass family in winter crops. The objective of this study is to understand whether droplet size (nozzle type) effects herbicide efficacy of summer perennial grasses, as previous research found no effect of droplet size (nozzle type) on herbicide efficacy of winter annual grasses. A study to compare droplet-size (nozzle type) effects on control of windmillgrass and its domesticated relative, rhodesgrass, was conducted at the University of Queensland in Gatton, QLD, Australia. Results showed little difference in dry weight reductions for windmillgrass or rhodesgrass across droplet size (nozzle type). Paraquat applications with the TTI nozzle resulted in significantly lower dry weight reductions compared with other droplet-size sprays (nozzle types) for rhodesgrass. Glyphosate, imazamox plus imazapyr, and clodinafop resulted in commercially acceptable control for both species, regardless of the droplet size (nozzle type) selected, indicating droplet size (nozzle type) has relatively little impact on the efficacy of these herbicides. Proper nozzle selection can result in control of Chloris spp., a hard to control weed species, while reducing the occurrence of spray drift to nearby sensitive areas.
Recent advances in biotechnology have resulted in crops that are tolerant to the synthetic auxin 2,4-D, expanding the weed management versatility of this herbicide. With potential expansions of use, concerns have been raised about the increased risk of herbicide drift, leading to damage to nontarget crops. A field-scale study was conducted with the objective to measure drift deposition and the potential for drift reduction conferred by a proprietary pre-mixture formulation of 2,4-D choline salt plus glyphosate dimethylammonium salt compared to an in-tank mixture of 2,4-D dimethylamine salt plus glyphosate potassium salt. Treatments were made with field-scale spray equipment under typical application conditions in McCook, NE, using three widely used nozzle tips. Deposition was captured in triplicate downwind collector lines and assayed for tracer dye and 2,4-D. In comparison to the in-tank mixture, the pre-mixture formulation exhibited lower downwind depositions when applied through a flat-fan (TeeJet Extended Range; XR) and air induction (TeeJet Air Induction Extended Range; AIXR) nozzles, but not with a pre-orifice (TeeJet TurboTeeJet Induction; TTI) nozzle. Based upon median deposition at 30 m downwind, the pre-mixture formulation reduced drift by 62% and 91%, for the XR and AIXR nozzles, respectively. From a drift reduction perspective, the pre-mixture formulation performance with the AIXR nozzle was equivalent to a much coarser TTI nozzle while still offering sufficient foliar coverage for acceptable weed control.
The theory of slow viscous flow around a slender body is generalized to the situation where the ambient fluid has a yield stress. The local flow around a cylinder that is moving along or perpendicular to its axis, and rotating, provides a first step in this theory. Unlike for a Newtonian fluid, the nonlinearity associated with the viscoplastic constitutive law precludes one from linearly superposing solutions corresponding to each independent component of motion, and instead demands a full numerical approach to the problem. This is accomplished for the case of a Bingham fluid, along with a consideration of some asymptotic limits in which analytical progress is possible. Since the yield stress of the fluid strongly localizes the flow around the body, the leading-order slender-body approximation is rendered significantly more accurate than the equivalent Newtonian problem. The theory is applied to the sedimentation of inclined cylinders, bent rods and helices, and compared with some experimental data. Finally, the theory is applied to the locomotion of a cylindrical filament driven by helical waves through a viscoplastic fluid.