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Providing a detailed and pedagogical account of the rapidly-growing field of computational statistical physics, this book covers both the theoretical foundations of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics, and also modern, computational applications such as percolation, random walks, magnetic systems, machine learning dynamics, and spreading processes on complex networks. A detailed discussion of molecular dynamics simulations is also included, a topic of great importance in biophysics and physical chemistry. The accessible and self-contained approach adopted by the authors makes this book suitable for teaching courses at graduate level, and numerous worked examples and end of chapter problems allow students to test their progress and understanding.
Resolvent analysis identifies the most responsive forcings and most receptive states of a dynamical system, in an input–output sense, based on its governing equations. Interest in the method has continued to grow during the past decade due to its potential to reveal structures in turbulent flows, to guide sensor/actuator placement and for flow control applications. However, resolvent analysis requires access to high-fidelity numerical solvers to produce the linearized dynamics operator. In this work, we develop a purely data-driven algorithm to perform resolvent analysis to obtain the leading forcing and response modes, without recourse to the governing equations, but instead based on snapshots of the transient evolution of linearly stable flows. The formulation of our method follows from two established facts: (i) dynamic mode decomposition can approximate eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the underlying operator governing the evolution of a system from measurement data, and (ii) a projection of the resolvent operator onto an invariant subspace can be built from this learned eigendecomposition. We demonstrate the method on numerical data of the linearized complex Ginzburg–Landau equation and of three-dimensional transitional channel flow, and discuss data requirements. Presently, the method is suitable for the analysis of laminar equilibria, and its application to turbulent flows would require disambiguation between the linear and nonlinear dynamics driving the flow. The ability to perform resolvent analysis in a completely equation-free and adjoint-free manner will play a significant role in lowering the barrier of entry to resolvent research and applications.
This paper reviews the literature on risk management practices and methods in product design and development. Based on an expert workshop by the Risk Management Processes and Methods in Design Special Interest Group within the Design Society and literature review, three key areas are discussed: risk identification, assessment, and mitigation. In each area, researchers have described practices that are used in product development organizations, proposed new methods to support risk management processes and decision-making, and generated evidence to evaluate the effectiveness of these activities.
We examined leukocyte numbers, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CD34+, CD133+), circulating mesenychmal stem cells (CD105+) and circulating endothelial cells (CD146+) at the beginning, after 4 weeks and at the end of an inpatient antidepressant treatment.
24 insufficiently pretreated inpatients with major depression were included. At admission, after four weeks and at demission blood samples were obtained, and cell numbers were counted by flow cytometric analysis (FACS). At each examination the severity of the depression was evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We were especially interested in the changes of cell numbers during the antidepressant treatment. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 14.0.
The mean BDI score fell from 34 ± 7 at the beginning to 26.5 ± 6.6 after four weeks and 13.5 ± 5.7 at demission. The longer the overall duration of the depressive illness, the higher the number of leukocytes at admission (P < 0.0001). The lower the depression score at demission, the lower the final number of leukocytes (P < 0.001). During the antidepressant treatment the BDI depression score improved significantly (P < 0.0001). The number of CD146+ cells showed a significant decrease (P < 0.006). We did not find any significant changes of circulating CD34+, CD105+, or CD133+ cells during the antidepressant treatment.
The leukocyte results suggest an activation of the immune system in major depression and a deactivation due to antidepressant treatment.
Recently, the vagus nuclei in the brainstem have come into the focus of interest in psychiatric and neurological research mainly for two reasons: Firstly, their function is altered early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD; Parvizi et al., 2001). Secondly, in a small pilot study the electrical stimulation of the left vagus nerve in the neck by means of an implanted stimulator has shown to improve cognitive impairments in patients with AD (Sjogren et al., 2002).
Based on these findings a method for the non-ionvasive measurement of far-field potentials from the vagus nuclei evoked by means of an electrical stimulation via a peripheral branch of the nerve in the outer ear is a potentially interesting diagnostic procedure.
Vagus Sensory Evoked Potentials (VSEP) can be elicited in a reliable manner in younger and elderly healthy subjects. VSEP-latencies have been found to increase with age in healthy subjects. In a first clinical application, VSEP-latencies in patients with mild to moderate AD were found to be prolonged as compared to age-matched healthy participants.
This new, none-invasive measure is very easy to apply and may be a disease marker for AD, possibly also in preclinical stages. Further studies are necessary which systematically investigate changes in VSEP measures in patients with neurodegenerative disorders in order to elucidate their diagnostic specifity and validity.
Geophysical survey and excavations from 2010–2016 at Lawrenz Gun Club (11CS4), a late pre-Columbian village located in the central Illinois River valley in Illinois, identified 10 mounds, a central plaza, and dozens of structures enclosed within a stout 10 hectare bastioned palisade. Nineteen radiocarbon (14C) measurements were taken from single entities of wood charcoal, short-lived plants, and animal bones. A site chronology has been constructed using a Bayesian approach that considers the stratigraphic contexts and feature formation processes. The village was host to hundreds of years of continuous human activity during the Mississippi Period. Mississippian activity at the site is estimated to have begun in cal AD 990–1165 (95% probability), ended in cal AD 1295–1450 (95% probability), and lasted 150–420 yr (95% probability) in the primary Bayesian model with similar results obtained in two alternative models. The palisade is estimated to have been constructed in cal AD 1150–1230 (95% probability) and was continuously repaired and rebuilt for 15–125 yr (95% probability), probably for 40–85 yr (68% probability). Comparison to other studies demonstrates that the bastioned palisade at Lawrenz was one of the earliest constructed in the midcontinental United States.
The stress associated with care of patients with dementia has led to high nursing staff turnover. This study aims to explore patient factors that are related to nursing burden.
The present study examined nursing care burden related to 55 institutionalized dementia patients using the Modified Nursing Care Assessment Scale (M-NCAS). Cognition was assessed with the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), activities of daily living (ADLs) were measured with the Alzheimer's Disease Functional Assessment of Change Scale (ADFACS), aggression was measured with the Aggressive Behavior Scale (ABS), and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used to assess medical comorbidity. Finally, the Dementia Cognitive Fluctuation Scale (DCFS) was used to assess the presence and severity of cognitive fluctuations (CFs). Linear regression models were used to assess their relationships with nursing care burden.
The mean age of the patients was 90.41 years (SD=2.84) and 89.10% were males. ADFACS total score (B = 0.36, β = 0.42, p = 0.002) and ABS score (B = 2.933, β = 0.37, p = 0.002) significantly predicted the M-NCAS Attitude score. ABS score was the only significant predictor of M-NCAS Strain score (B = 2.57, β = 0.35, p = 0.009).
In the long-term care setting, aggressive behavior plays an important role in both subjective and objective nursing burden, while impaired ADLs increase the objective burden for nursing staff.
Panic disorder (PD) patients are constantly concerned about future panic attacks and exhibit general hypersensitivity to unpredictable threat. We aimed to reveal phasic and sustained brain responses and functional connectivity of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) during threat anticipation in PD.
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated 17 PD patients and 19 healthy controls (HC) during anticipation of temporally unpredictable aversive and neutral sounds. We used a phasic and sustained analysis model to disentangle temporally dissociable brain activations.
PD patients compared with HC showed phasic amygdala and sustained BNST responses during anticipation of aversive v. neutral stimuli. Furthermore, increased phasic activation was observed in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Insula and PFC also showed sustained activation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed partly distinct phasic and sustained networks.
We demonstrate a role for the BNST during unpredictable threat anticipation in PD and provide first evidence for dissociation between phasic amygdala and sustained BNST activation and their functional connectivity. In line with a hypersensitivity to uncertainty in PD, our results suggest time-dependent involvement of brain regions related to fear and anxiety.
Driving in persons with dementia poses risks that must be counterbalanced with the importance of the care for autonomy and mobility. Physicians often find substantial challenges in the assessment and reporting of driving safety for persons with dementia. This paper describes a driving in dementia decision tool (DD-DT) developed to aid physicians in deciding when to report older drivers with either mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment to local transportation administrators.
A multi-faceted, computerized decision support tool was developed, using a systematic literature and guideline review, expert opinion from an earlier Delphi study, as well as qualitative interviews and focus groups with physicians, caregivers of former drivers with dementia, and transportation administrators. The tool integrates inputs from the physician-user about the patient's clinical and driving history as well as cognitive findings, and it produces a recommendation for reporting to transportation administrators. This recommendation is translated into a customized reporting form for the transportation authority, if applicable, and additional resources are provided for the patient and caregiver.
An innovative approach was needed to develop the DD-DT. The literature and guideline review confirmed the algorithm derived from the earlier Delphi study, and barriers identified in the qualitative research were incorporated into the design of the tool.
Pulmonary lymphangiectasia associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome with an intact or restrictive atrial septum may result from increased left atrial pressure, and is associated with worse outcomes following staged reconstruction due to lung dysfunction and significant hypoxaemia. Our objective was to characterise the incidence of pulmonary lymphangiectasia in cases of early mortality following stage 1 reconstructions.
An institutional cardiac surgical database was retrospectively searched for patients who died within 30 days following a stage 1 reconstruction between 1 January, 1984 and 31 December, 2013. During that period, 1669 stage 1 procedures were performed. Autopsy lung specimens were reviewed by a paediatric pathologist. Patients who died of suspected technical issues were excluded.
A total of 54 patients were included, and of these seven cases (8.5%) of pulmonary lymphangiectasia were identified. The mean estimated gestational age was 38.2±2.4 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 3.0±0.6 kg. The median interval between surgery and death was 1 day (with a range from 0 to 18 days). The atrial septum was intact in one patient (14.3%), restrictive in three patients (42.9%), and unrestrictive in three patients (42.9%).
Pulmonary lymphangiectasia may develop in hypoplastic left heart syndrome with or without a restrictive atrial septum. As standard prenatal diagnostic evaluations and treatment methods for pulmonary lymphangiectasia are limited, this may be an important contributor to early and late mortality following stage 1 reconstruction for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
Field experiments were conducted in 2008 and 2010 to determine crop tolerance and weed control efficacy of the POST herbicides bentazon, flumioxazin, and oxyfluorfen applied to direct-seeded dry bulb onions on organic soil. Postemergence application of oxyfluorfen at 0.071 kg ai ha−1 resulted in less than 20% onion injury when applied at the 2 and 4 onion leaf stages and provided good control of ladysthumb and common lambsquarters. Oxyfluorfen EC caused slightly higher visual injury than oxyfluorfen SC, but there was no difference in onion yield among the treatments. Application of flumioxazin at 0.036 of 0.072 kg ai ha−1 alone or in combination with pendimethalin ACS resulted in minimal onion injury and no yield reduction. Combining flumioxazin in a tank mix with pendimethalin EC, dimethenamid-P EC, or S-metolachlor EC resulted in significant onion injury and yield reduction. Flumioxazin plus S-metolachlor, dimethenamid-P, or pendimethalin improved ladysthumb control in one of two years. Bentazon applied at 0.56 kg ai ha−1 produced moderate onion injury and did not control yellow nutsedge adequately. Bentazon applied at 1.12 kg ai ha−1 provided good control of yellow nutsedge but caused serious onion injury and yield loss.
Bacheeishdíio (“Place Where Men Pack Meat”), now called Grapevine Creek in English, is the subject of Crow oral traditions that document the cultural significance of the landscape and celebrate centuries of bison hunting in the drainage. We report an ongoing, community-based project that integrates archaeological field training and research goals into a collaborative indigenous archaeology project supporting the expressed goal of the Crow Tribal Historic Preservation Office to prepare a district-level nomination for the Grapevine Creek drainage basin. This paper describes findings from field investigations that document buffalo jump locales, a previously unreported bison bonebed, and associated archaeological features in the drainage, grounding Crow oral traditions that document buffalo jumps and large-scale bison hunts firmly into the landscape. We take a holistic approach that incorporates multiple lines of evidence to assess the archaeological record associated with bison jumps and bison hunting on the Crow Reservation in southern Montana. Results of this project include an enriched understanding of the Grapevine Creek archaeological record, greater awareness of buffalo hunting strategies on the northwest Plains, and, through field training, enhanced cultural resource management capabilities for the Crow Tribal Historic Preservation Office.
Studies have shown the clock-drawing test (CDT) to be a useful screening test that differentiates between normal, elderly populations, and those diagnosed with dementia. However, the results of studies which have looked at the utility of the CDT to help differentiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from other dementias have been conflicting. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility of the CDT in discriminating between patients with AD and other types of dementia.
A review was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase. Search terms included clock drawing or CLOX and dementia or Parkinson's Disease or AD or dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or vascular dementia (VaD).
Twenty studies were included. In most of the studies, no significant differences were found in quantitative CDT scores between AD and VaD, DLB, and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) patients. However, frontotemporal dementia (FTD) patients consistently scored higher on the CDT than AD patients. Qualitative analyses of errors differentiated AD from other types of dementia.
Overall, the CDT score may be useful in distinguishing between AD and FTD patients, but shows limited value in differentiating between AD and VaD, DLB, and PDD. Qualitative analysis of the type of CDT errors may be a useful adjunct in the differential diagnosis of the types of dementias.
Staphylococcus aureus carriage among healthcare workers (HCWs) is a concern in hospital settings, where it may provide a reservoir for later infections in both patients and staff. Earlier studies have shown that the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in HCWs is highly variable, depending notably on location, hospital department type, MRSA prevalence among patients, and type of contacts with patients. However, MRSA incidence in HCWs and its occupational determinants have seldom been studied.
A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted between May and October 2009 in a French rehabilitation center hospital. HCWs and patients were screened weekly for S. aureus nasal carriage. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and MRSA prevalence and incidence were estimated and factors associated with MRSA acquisition were identified using generalized estimating equation regression methods.
Among 343 HCWs included in the analysis, the average prevalence was 27% (95% CI, 24%–29%) for methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and 10% (8%–11%) for MRSA. We observed 129 MRSA colonization events. According to the multivariable analysis, high MRSA prevalence level among patients and HCW occupation were significantly associated with MRSA acquisition in HCWs, with assistant nurses being more at risk than nurses (odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4–3.6).
Our findings may help further our understanding of the transmission dynamics of MRSA carriage acquisition in HCWs, suggesting that it is notably driven by carriage among patients and by the type of contact with patients.
Sarcocystis spp. represent apicomplexan parasites. They usually have a heteroxenous life cycle. Around 200 species have been described, affecting a wide range of animals worldwide, including reptiles. In recent years, large numbers of reptiles have been imported into Europe as pets and, as a consequence, animal welfare and species protection issues emerged. A sample of pooled feces from four confiscated green pythons (Morelia viridis) containing Sarcocystis spp. sporocysts was investigated. These snakes were imported for the pet trade and declared as being captive-bred. Full length 18S rRNA genes were amplified, cloned into plasmids and sequenced. Two different Sarcocystis spp. sequences were identified and registered as Sarcocystis sp. from M. viridis in GenBank. Both showed a 95–97% sequence identity with the 18S rRNA gene of Sarcocystis singaporensis. Phylogenetic analysis positioned these sequences together with other Sarcocystis spp. from snakes and rodents as definitive and intermediate hosts (IH), respectively. Sequence data and also the results of clinical and parasitological examinations suggest that the snakes were definitive hosts for Sarcocystis spp. that circulate in wild IH. Thus, it seems unlikely that the infected snakes had been legally bred. Our research shows that information on the infection of snakes with Sarcocystis spp. may be used to assess compliance with regulations on the trade with wildlife species.