To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This is the first article in a two-part series describing subject and family perspectives from the central thalamic deep brain stimulation for the treatment of traumatic brain injury using the Medtronic PC + S first-in-human invasive neurological device trial to achieve cognitive restoration in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, with subjects who were deemed capable of providing voluntary informed consent. In this article, we report on interviews conducted prior to surgery wherein we asked participants about their experiences recovering from brain injury and their perspectives on study enrollment and participation. We asked how risks and benefits were weighed, what their expectations and fears were, and how decisions were reached about trial participation. We found that informed consent and enrollment decisions are fraught. Subjects and families were often split, with subjects more focused on putative benefits and families concerned about incremental risk. Both subjects and families viewed brain injury as disruptive to personal identity and relationships. As decisions were made about study enrollment, families struggled with recognizing the re-emergent agency of subjects and ceding decision-making authority to subjects who had previously been dependent upon them for protection and guidance. Subjects and family members reported a hope for the relief of cognitive disabilities, improved quality of life, normalization of interpersonal interactions, and a return to work or school as reasons for study participation, along with altruism and a desire to advance science. Despite these aspirations, both subjects and families appreciated the risks of the intervention and did not suffer from a therapeutic misconception. A second essay to be published in the next issue of Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics—Clinical Neuroethics will describe interviews conducted after surgery, the effects of cognitive restoration for subjects, families, and challenges presented to the social structures they will call upon to support them through recovery. This subsequent article will be available online prior to its formal publication in October 2023.
Lake settlements, particularly crannogs, pose several contradictions—visible yet inaccessible, widespread yet geographically restricted, persistent yet vulnerable. To further our understanding, we developed the integrated use of palaeolimnological (scanning XRF, pollen, spores, diatoms, chironomids, Cladocera, microcharcoal, biogenic silica, SEM-EDS, stable-isotopes) and biomolecular (faecal stanols, bile acids, sedaDNA) analyses of crannog cores in south-west Scotland and Ireland. Both can be effective methods sets for revealing occupation chronologies and identifying on-crannog activities and practices. Strong results from sedaDNA and lipid biomarker analyses demonstrate probable on-site animal slaughter, food storage and possible feasting, suggesting multi-period, elite site associations, and the storage and protection of valuable resources.
The dawn of COVID-19 brought new rules, restrictions, and lockdowns but this led to the unlikely fall of many sectors, including the charitable sector. There has been a significant decline in funding received by mental health charities, especially during the pandemic. This study looks at the subsequent impact on fundraisers and mental health promotion during COVID-19.
The main aim was to uncover how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the way that mental health charities fundraise, raise awareness, and promote mental health. This aimed to look at the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on fundraisers supporting mental health charities and their opinion on whether fundraising has either helped or hindered mental health promotion.
Accounts from fundraisers and local representatives for mental health charities during the COVID-19 pandemic were analysed. Common themes looked at the impact, adaptation, and reasons why fundraisers decided to help during a tough period for the charitable sector.
Mental health charities expressed difficulty in sourcing funds to support their users, especially in a vulnerable time. Fundraisers tried innovative ways to promote mental health and raise money for charities.
Altruism and understanding how precious services such as mental health charities are for the population was the main driver for fundraisers. Mental health charities adapted by turning to online communication and reached out to fundraisers to continually highlight the importance of mental health to their users and fundraisers.
Headucate: University of East Anglia, a university student-led society, was founded almost 10 years ago by medical students to promote mental health education and raise awareness and funds for mental health causes.
Headucate aims to spread mental health awareness and reduce stigma by working with schools, universities, other societies and charities internationally.
Headucate delivers workshops for children aged 4-18 in primary and secondary schools, community and youth groups and university students. These sessions were delivered in-person pre-COVID and online as interactive webinars since 2020, to spark discussion around mental health, and provide information about the variety of supports available for young people.
In the past decade, Headucate UEA has grown to become one of UEA’s largest student-led groups boasting over 175 members in 2020-2021 from all courses. Within the online world, Headucate’s events have reached worldwide. The initiative has received national recognition, won national student awards and has expanded to set up three further Headucate branches nationwide. Outreach has accelerated and the school workshops reached over 1,000 students in the past year.
Headucate has grown from strength to strength and has plans to continue to develop, with passionate student drivers behind the project. Expansion of the project could include a national mental health university directory, bringing together like-minded mental health advocate students around the country and creating new Headucate branches across the country. To further develop, Headucate could expand outreach to the elderly community as discussed by previous committee.
Waiting times for gender identity services, even before the Covid-19 pandemic, have been a cause of concern. Despite the waiting time standard for planned elective care in the NHS being a maximum of 18 weeks, the average waiting time for a first appointment with a gender identity clinic is 18 months. This study aims to analyse the effect that these timings have on the transgender community, and whether they impact the risk of developing mental health conditions such as depression or anxiety.
This study’s main aim is to analyse the correlation between waiting times and mental health burden in the transgender community.
A literature review and analysis on a transgender individual’s mental health and waiting times for Gender Identity Clinics; looking at any key themes and conclusions. Research papers were taken from MEDLINE, The International Journal of Transgender Health, Oxford Academic, SpringerLink and Emerald Insight, with studies publishing date ranging from 2014 – 2021.
The transgender population were found to have higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression and self harm compared to the general population. Longer waiting times were found to contribute to feelings of low mood and suicidal ideation, as well as decreasing overall quality of life.
Longer waiting times can decrease a transgender individual’s quality of life and impact their overall mental wellbeing: especially with the impact of COVID-19 and the rise in referrals.
TikTok is a free mobile application, that enables users to create short videos. TikTok has an estimated one billion monthly active users, comprised of a mostly younger audience. There has been a noticed rise in content discussing ADHD – hashtag ADHD on TikTok has 6.3 billion views. The discussions continue on Twitter, where users are reporting watching TikTok content explaining ADHD symptomatology, subsequently relating to the condition and requesting referrals to specialist psychiatry services. This study aims to identify key themes in discussions around TikTok and ADHD, and its ramifications.
This study’s objective is to discuss the relationship between viewing ADHD content of TikTok and self-diagnoses of ADHD in young people.
In our study, Twitter posts were identified with the words ‘ADHD’ and ‘TikTok’ and established key themes relating to self-diagnosis of ADHD.
Numerous tweets were found discussing individual’s experiences of self-diagnosis of ADHD after watching TikTok videos and relating with the symptomology. Furthermore, many users discussed their efforts to seek diagnosis from psychiatrists. These posts highlighted positive discussion of mental health, and the improvement in quality of life since diagnosis.
Many young people are self-diagnosing ADHD after viewing TikTok videos. This may improve mental health stigma, however the expertise of the video creators should be scrutinised. Furthermore, the impact on already stretched waiting lists should be considered, with individuals who’s perceived ADHD traits are not impacting on their quality of life.
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted medical students in many ways. They are not exempt from personal struggles caused by the health crisis, and many have faced similar challenges adapting to a new learning experience. The University of East Anglia (UEA) has initiatives in place to support medical students including the society Headucate UEA and the Wellbeing Champions scheme established by Norwich Medical School (NMS).
Headucate aims to improve mental wellbeing by educational online webinars and social events aimed at university students. NMS Wellbeing Champions offer support and signpost students to resources and the wider student support system at the UEA.
Headucate was established in 2012 by NMS students that began running workshops at local secondary schools. Their work has expanded to include wellbeing workshops, social events for students and mental health first aid training, so members can provide peer support. Wellbeing Champions are medical student representatives responsible for completing mental health first aid training, communication between students and faculty, providing resources and signposting, creating mental health bulletin newsletters, and running socials exclusively for medical students.
100% of Headucate workshop attendees who completed anonymous feedback agreed that they enjoyed it and that it was useful. No feedback has been collected regarding the success of the Wellbeing Champions. This should be carried out to assess and enhance the project further.
More data is needed to establish the success of the initiatives at NMS and their impact on medical student’s wellbeing.
To examine the costs and cost-effectiveness of mirtazapine compared to placebo over 12-week follow-up.
Economic evaluation in a double-blind randomized controlled trial of mirtazapine vs. placebo.
Community settings and care homes in 26 UK centers.
People with probable or possible Alzheimer’s disease and agitation.
Primary outcome included incremental cost of participants’ health and social care per 6-point difference in CMAI score at 12 weeks. Secondary cost-utility analyses examined participants’ and unpaid carers’ gain in quality-adjusted life years (derived from EQ-5D-5L, DEMQOL-Proxy-U, and DEMQOL-U) from the health and social care and societal perspectives.
One hundred and two participants were allocated to each group; 81 mirtazapine and 90 placebo participants completed a 12-week assessment (87 and 95, respectively, completed a 6-week assessment). Mirtazapine and placebo groups did not differ on mean CMAI scores or health and social care costs over the study period, before or after adjustment for center and living arrangement (independent living/care home). On the primary outcome, neither mirtazapine nor placebo could be considered a cost-effective strategy with a high level of confidence. Groups did not differ in terms of participant self- or proxy-rated or carer self-rated quality of life scores, health and social care or societal costs, before or after adjustment.
On cost-effectiveness grounds, the use of mirtazapine cannot be recommended for agitated behaviors in people living with dementia. Effective and cost-effective medications for agitation in dementia remain to be identified in cases where non-pharmacological strategies for managing agitation have been unsuccessful.
Despite extensive paleoenvironmental research on the postglacial history of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, uncertainties remain regarding the region's deglaciation, vegetation development, and past hydroclimate. To elucidate this complex environmental history, we present new proxy datasets from Hidden and Kelly lakes, located in the eastern Kenai lowlands at the foot of the Kenai Mountains, including sedimentological properties (magnetic susceptibility, organic matter, grain size, and biogenic silica), pollen and macrofossils, diatom assemblages, and diatom oxygen isotopes. We use a simple hydrologic and isotope mass balance model to constrain interpretations of the diatom oxygen isotope data. Results reveal that glacier ice retreated from Hidden Lake's headwaters by ca. 13.1 cal ka BP, and that groundwater was an important component of Kelly Lake's hydrologic budget in the Early Holocene. As the forest developed and the climate became wetter in the Middle to Late Holocene, Kelly Lake reached or exceeded its modern level. In the last ca. 75 years, rising temperature caused rapid changes in biogenic silica content and diatom oxygen isotope values. Our findings demonstrate the utility of mass balance modeling to constrain interpretations of paleolimnologic oxygen isotope data, and that groundwater can exert a strong influence on lake water isotopes, potentially confounding interpretations of regional climate.
I have been thinking a lot about environmental pedagogy in American studies, especially since I started teaching a third-year interdisciplinary course, Climate Change & Culture Wars, which focusses on the post-1970s US. I wanted to know more about how others are approaching the topic as we face up to looming climate and ecological collapse. University teachers and learners across disciplines are reckoning with it, but what's going on in American studies in Britain, and what can we learn from each other and from teachers elsewhere? How is the crisis impacting on the framing of our disciplinary fields and how are we incorporating its intellectual and practical demands into pedagogic spaces and syllabi?
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease and affects about 1% of the population over the age of 60 years in industrialised countries. The aim of this review is to examine nutrition in PD across three domains: dietary intake and the development of PD; whole body metabolism in PD and the effects of PD symptoms and treatment on nutritional status. In most cases, PD is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors and although there has been much research in the area, evidence suggests that poor dietary intake is not a risk factor for the development of PD. The evidence about body weight changes in both the prodromal and symptomatic phases of PD is inconclusive and is confounded by many factors. Malnutrition in PD has been documented as has sarcopaenia, although the prevalence of the latter remains uncertain due to a lack of consensus in the definition of sarcopaenia. PD symptoms, including those which are gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal, are known to adversely affect nutritional status. Similarly, PD treatments can cause nausea, vomiting and constipation, all of which can adversely affect nutritional status. Given that the prevalence of PD will increase as the population ages, it is important to understand the interplay between PD, comorbidities and nutritional status. Further research may contribute to the development of interventional strategies to improve symptoms, augment care and importantly, enhance the quality of life for patients living with this complex neurodegenerative disease.
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted lives and livelihoods, and people already experiencing mental ill health may have been especially vulnerable.
Quantify mental health inequalities in disruptions to healthcare, economic activity and housing.
We examined data from 59 482 participants in 12 UK longitudinal studies with data collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Within each study, we estimated the association between psychological distress assessed pre-pandemic and disruptions since the start of the pandemic to healthcare (medication access, procedures or appointments), economic activity (employment, income or working hours) and housing (change of address or household composition). Estimates were pooled across studies.
Across the analysed data-sets, 28% to 77% of participants experienced at least one disruption, with 2.3–33.2% experiencing disruptions in two or more domains. We found 1 s.d. higher pre-pandemic psychological distress was associated with (a) increased odds of any healthcare disruptions (odds ratio (OR) 1.30, 95% CI 1.20–1.40), with fully adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.24 (95% CI 1.09–1.41) for disruption to procedures to 1.33 (95% CI 1.20–1.49) for disruptions to prescriptions or medication access; (b) loss of employment (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.06–1.21) and income (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 –1.19), and reductions in working hours/furlough (odds ratio 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09) and (c) increased likelihood of experiencing a disruption in at least two domains (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.18–1.32) or in one domain (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07–1.16), relative to no disruption. There were no associations with housing disruptions (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.97–1.03).
People experiencing psychological distress pre-pandemic were more likely to experience healthcare and economic disruptions, and clusters of disruptions across multiple domains during the pandemic. Failing to address these disruptions risks further widening mental health inequalities.
This consensus statement by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine (AMDA), the Association for Professionals in Epidemiology and Infection Control (APIC), the HIV Medicine Association (HIVMA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), and the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP) recommends that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination should be a condition of employment for all healthcare personnel in facilities in the United States. Exemptions from this policy apply to those with medical contraindications to all COVID-19 vaccines available in the United States and other exemptions as specified by federal or state law. The consensus statement also supports COVID-19 vaccination of nonemployees functioning at a healthcare facility (eg, students, contract workers, volunteers, etc).
Family carers supporting an individual with psychosis often experience poorer mental health, however, little is known about specific risk factors among these carers. We investigated the associations between demographic, caregiving characteristics and mental health outcomes in family carers supporting an individual with psychosis and compared carers' outcomes with general population norms.
We analysed baseline data from the COPe-support randomised controlled trial of online psychoeducation and peer support for adult carers supporting an individual with psychosis between 2018 and 2020. We collected carers' demographic and health outcome data, including wellbeing using Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS as primary outcome), quality of life using EQ-5D-5L and caregiving experience assessed with Experience of Caregiving Inventory. We tested associations between carers' demographic and caregiving characteristics for each outcome in turn and meta-analysed carers' WEMWBS and EQ-5D-5L with Health Survey England (HSE) general population data from 2016 and 2017, respectively.
The 407 carers of people with psychosis had a mean WEMWBS score of 42.2 (s.d. 9.21) and their overall weighted pooled WEMWBS score was 7.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) −8.6 to −6.0, p < 0.01) lower than the HSE general population sample, indicating carers have poorer mental wellbeing by more than double the minimum clinically important difference of 3 points on WEMWBS. Among all caring relationships, partners had poorer wellbeing compared to parents with lower WEMWBS score (−6.8, −16.9 to 3.3, p = 0.03). Single carers had significantly poorer wellbeing (−3.6, −5.6 to −1.5, p < 0.01) and a more negative caregiving experience than those who were cohabiting. Spending more than 35 h per week caregiving increased carers' negative experience significantly (p = 0.01).
Carers of people with psychosis have poorer mental health than non-carers. Partners, lone carers and those spending more than 35 h per week on caring were found to be most at risk of poor mental health. Based on the results, we advocate that the details of carers for individuals with psychosis should be added to the existing carers or severe mental illness registers at all general practitioner surgeries and for their wellbeing screened routinely. Future large-scale prospective studies are needed to develop a predictive model to determine risk factors, hence to aid early identification of carers' support needs. Such understandings are also useful to inform tailored intervention development.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasing cause of chronic liver disease that accompanies obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Excess fructose consumption can initiate or exacerbate NAFLD in part due to a consequence of impaired hepatic fructose metabolism. Preclinical data emphasized that fructose-induced altered gut microbiome, increased gut permeability, and endotoxemia play an important role in NAFLD, but human studies are sparse. The present study aimed to determine if two weeks of excess fructose consumption significantly alters gut microbiota or permeability in humans.
We performed a pilot double-blind, cross-over, metabolic unit study in 10 subjects with obesity (body mass index [BMI] 30–40 mg/kg/m2). Each arm provided 75 grams of either fructose or glucose added to subjects’ individual diets for 14 days, substituted isocalorically for complex carbohydrates, with a 19-day wash-out period between arms. Total fructose intake provided in the fructose arm of the study totaled a mean of 20.1% of calories. Outcome measures included fecal microbiota distribution, fecal metabolites, intestinal permeability, markers of endotoxemia, and plasma metabolites.
Routine blood, uric acid, liver function, and lipid measurements were unaffected by the fructose intervention. The fecal microbiome (including Akkermansia muciniphilia), fecal metabolites, gut permeability, indices of endotoxemia, gut damage or inflammation, and plasma metabolites were essentially unchanged by either intervention.
In contrast to rodent preclinical findings, excess fructose did not cause changes in the gut microbiome, metabolome, and permeability as well as endotoxemia in humans with obesity fed fructose for 14 days in amounts known to enhance NAFLD.