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Despite being identified as a pervasive emotion in the modern workplace (Pfeffer & Sutton, 2000), fear oddly has not received a corresponding amount of attention among management researchers. In fact, Kish-Gephart, Detert, Treviño, and Edmondson (2009, p. 163) observe that we still have much to learn about the nature of fear in workplace settings, including “what it is, how and why it is experienced, and to what effects.” Bennis (1966) notes further that fear has always been a part of the work environment (see also Connelly & Turner, 2018), but it remains an especially important issue in today’s workplaces because of the effects of rapid and ongoing organizational change, which are often linked to uncertain outcomes (Bordia, Hobman, Jones, Gallois, & Callan, 2004; Tiedens & Linton, 2001). Our aim in this chapter is to provide an overview of fear (arising from uncertainty) as a discrete emotion, to identify stimuli that may trigger fear at work, and to identify the potential positive and negative outcomes that can be linked to employees’ fear. We also outline potential pathways for future research on fear of uncertainty in the workplace.
Design & Manufacture Knowledge Mapping is a critical activity in medium-to-large organisations supporting many organisational activities. However, techniques for effective mapping of knowledge often employ interviews, consultations and appraisals. Although invaluable in providing expert insight, the application of such methods is inherently intrusive and resource intensive. This paper presents word co-occurrence graphs as a means to automatically generate knowledge maps from technical documents and validates against expert generated knowledge maps.
Gaining a deeper understanding into the underlying mechanisms associated with intestinal function and immunity during the weaning transition is critical to help shed new light into applied nutrition approaches to improve piglet performance and health during this critical life-stage transition. The transient anorexia triggered at weaning leads to compromised intestinal barrier function and a localized inflammatory response. Considering barrier function, specific nutrient fractions appear to have a significant impact on the development and function of the immune and microbial systems around weaning. Understanding the specific impact of nutrients in the small intestine and hindgut is important for helping to bring more focus and consistency to nutritional approaches to support health and immunity during the weaning transition period. The challenge continues to be how to translate these modes of action into practical and scalable approaches for swine nutrition. We will focus specifically on practical nutritional approaches to influence intestinal immunity through lipid, protein and antioxidant nutrition.
Early life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of depression in adolescence; the mediating neurobiological mechanisms, however, are unknown. In this study, we examined in early pubertal youth the associations among ELS, cortisol stress responsivity, and white matter microstructure of the uncinate fasciculus and the fornix, two key frontolimbic tracts; we also tested whether and how these variables predicted depressive symptoms in later puberty. A total of 208 participants (117 females; M age = 11.37 years; M Tanner stage = 2.03) provided data across two or more assessment modalities: ELS; salivary cortisol levels during a psychosocial stress task; diffusion magnetic resonance imaging; and depressive symptoms. In early puberty there were significant associations between higher ELS and decreased cortisol production, and between decreased cortisol production and increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus. Further, increased fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus predicted higher depressive symptoms in later puberty, above and beyond earlier symptoms. In post hoc analyses, we found that sex moderated several additional associations. We discuss these findings within a broader conceptual model linking ELS, emotion dysregulation, and depression across the transition through puberty, and contend that brain circuits implicated in the control of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis function should be a focus of continued research.
Foundations of the Global Value Chain Framework
Gary Gereffi, Professor of Sociology and Director of the Global Value Chains Center at Duke University, Durham, USA.,
John Humphrey, Honorary Professor at the Department of Business and Management at Sussex University.,
Timothy J. Sturgeon, Senior Researcher at the Industrial Performance Center at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The world economy has changed in significant ways during the past several decades, especially in the areas of international trade and industrial organization. Two of the most important new features of the contemporary economy are the globalization of production and trade, which have fueled the growth of industrial capabilities in a wide range of developing countries, and the vertical disintegration of transnational corporations, which are redefining their core competencies to focus on innovation and product strategy, marketing, and the highest value-added segments of manufacturing and services, while reducing their direct ownership over ‘non-core’ functions such as generic services and volume production. Together, these two shifts have laid the groundwork for a variety of network forms of governance situated between arm's length markets, on the one hand, and large vertically integrated corporations, on the other. The purpose of this chapter is to generate a theoretical framework for better understanding the shifting governance structures in sectors producing for global markets, structures we refer to as ‘global value chains’. Our intent is to bring some order to the variety of network forms that have been observed in the field.
The evolution of global-scale industrial organization affects not only the fortunes of firms and the structure of industries, but also how and why countries advance—or fail to advance—in the global economy. Global value chain research and policy work examine the different ways in which global production and distribution systems are integrated, and the possibilities for firms in developing countries to enhance their position in global markets. We hope that the theory of global value chain governance that we develop here will be useful for the crafting of effective policy tools related to industrial upgrading, economic development, employment creation, and poverty alleviation.
Fragmentation, Coordination, and Networks in the Global Economy
For us, the starting point for understanding the changing nature of international trade and industrial organization is contained in the notion of a value-added chain, as developed by international business scholars who have focused on the strategies of both firms and countries in the global economy. In its most basic form, a value-added chain is ‘the process by which technology is combined with material and labor inputs, and then processed inputs are assembled, marketed, and distributed.
Compensatory gain describes an accelerated growth seen in animals following a period of nutrient restriction. Methionine (Met) is the second limiting amino acid in typical swine diets and is essential for muscle growth. This study was conducted to determine (1) if a Met-deficient diet can cause growth retardation in growing pigs, (2) if returning to a normal feeding can yield compensatory gain in the pigs previously fed the Met-deficient diet, and (3) if this Met-deficiency followed by the normal feeding program affects carcass characteristics. Twenty individually-penned crossbred young barrows were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments (n = 10). One Met-deficient (D1) and one Met-adequate (D2) diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal and fed to respective pigs for 31 days. After that, all pigs were fed the same commercial grower-finisher diet until market weight (around 125 kg), then slaughtered, and carcass characteristics measured. The D1 and D2 pigs began with similar body weights (23.5 vs. 23.6 kg; P = 0.935), but after 31-days on the dietary treatments, D1 pigs were lighter than D2 pigs (51.6 vs. 55.0 kg; P = 0.102). After feeding the normal diet for 55 days, D1 and D2 pigs had similar body weights (122.7 vs. 122.6 kg; P = 0.989). In terms of carcass characteristics, however, D1 pigs had thicker back-fat (at 10th rib; 2.95 vs. 2.51 cm; P = 0.015), heavier belly weight (11.0 vs. 9.6 kg; P = 0.005), lighter ham weights (untrimmed: 20.8 vs. 21.6 kg; P = 0.043; trimmed: 19.6 vs. 20.6 kg; P = 0.016), lighter picnic shoulder weight (8.72 vs. 9.80 kg; P = 0.041), lighter total lean cut weight (51.8 vs. 53.8 kg; P = 0.055), and lower lean cut percentage (56.4 vs. 59.0%; P = 0.012). These results indicate that the Met-deficient diet produced growth-retarded pigs, which showed compensatory gain after the normal feeding. At slaughter, the pigs previously fed the Met-deficient diet had more fat and less lean tissue than their non-deficient counterparts.
This paper considers the manner in which turbulent premixed flames respond to a superposition of turbulent and narrowband disturbances. This is an important fundamental problem that arises in most combustion applications, as turbulent flames exist in hydrodynamically unstable flow fields and/or in confined systems with narrowband acoustic waves. This paper presents the first measurements of the sensitivity of the turbulent displacement speed to harmonically oscillating flame wrinkles. The flame is attached to a transversely oscillating, heated wire, resulting in the introduction of coherent, convecting wrinkles on the flame. The approach flow turbulence is varied systematically using a variable turbulence generator, enabling quantification of the effect of turbulent flow disturbances on the harmonic wrinkles. Mie scattering measurements are used to quantify the flame edge dynamics, while high speed particle image velocimetry is used to measure the flow field characteristics. By ensemble averaging the results, the ensemble-averaged flame edge and flow characteristics are recovered. For low turbulence intensities, sharp cusps are present in the negative curvature regions of the ensemble-averaged flame position, similar to laminar flames. These cusps are smoothed out at high turbulence intensities. The coherent, ensemble-averaged flame wrinkle amplitude decays with increasing turbulence intensity and with downstream distance. In addition, the ensemble-averaged turbulent flame speed is modulated in space and time. The most significant result of these measurements is the clear demonstration of the correlation between the ensemble-averaged turbulent flame speed and ensemble-averaged flame curvature, with the phase-dependent flame speed increasing in regions of negative curvature. These results have important implications on turbulent combustion physics and modelling, since quasi-coherent velocity disturbances are nearly ubiquitous in shear driven, high turbulent flows and/or confined systems with acoustic feedback. Specifically, these data clearly show that nonlinear interactions occur between the multi-scale turbulent disturbances and the more narrowband disturbances associated with coherent structures. In other words, conceptual models of the controlling physics in combustors with shear driven turbulence must account for the fundamentally different effects of spectrally distributed turbulent disturbances and more narrowband, quasi-coherent disturbances.
Early life stress (ELS) is a significant risk factor for the emergence of internalizing problems in adolescence. Beginning in adolescence, females are twice as likely as males to experience internalizing disorders. The present study was designed to examine sex differences in the association between ELS and internalizing problems in early pubertal adolescents, and whether and how corticolimbic function and connectivity may underlie these associations. Fifty-nine early pubertal males and 78 early pubertal females, ages 9–13 years (all Tanner Stage 3 or below) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging as they performed an emotion label task that robustly interrogates corticolimbic function. Participants were also interviewed about their experience of ELS. Females exhibited a positive association between ELS and internalizing problems, whereas males exhibited no such association. Whole-brain and amygdala region of interest analyses indicated that whereas females exhibited a positive association between ELS and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during implicit emotion regulation, males showed no such association. Activation in these regions was positively associated with internalizing problems in females but not males; however, activation in these regions did not mediate the association between ELS and internalizing problems. Finally, both boys and girls exhibited an association between ELS and increased negative connectivity between the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdala. Using a carefully characterized sample of early pubertal adolescents, the current study highlights important sex differences in the development of corticolimbic circuitry during a critical period of brain development. These sex differences may play a significant role in subsequent risk for internalizing problems.
To evaluate the efficacy of a multijet cold-plasma system and its efficacy in decontaminating 2 surfaces commonly found in hospitals
An in vitro study of common causes of healthcare-acquired infection
Log10 9 cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, extended spectrum β-lactamase–producing Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii were applied to 5-cm2 sections of stainless steel and mattress. Human serum albumin (HSA) was used as a proxy marker for organic material, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the impact on bacterial cell structure. The inoculated surfaces were exposed to a cold-air-plasma–generating multijet prototype for 15, 20, 30, and 45 seconds.
After 45 seconds, at least 3 to 4 log reductions were achieved for all bacteria on the mattress, while 3 to 6 log reductions were observed on stainless steel. The presence of HSA had no appreciable effect on bacterial eradication. The surfaces with bacteria exposed to AFM showed significant morphological changes indicative of “etching” due to the action of highly charged ions produced by the plasma.
This multijet cold-plasma prototype has the potential to augment current environmental decontamination approaches but needs further evaluation in a clinical setting to confirm its effectiveness.
Plasmodium knowlesi has risen in importance as a zoonotic parasite that has been causing regular episodes of malaria throughout South East Asia. The P. knowlesi genome sequence generated in 2008 highlighted and confirmed many similarities and differences in Plasmodium species, including a global view of several multigene families, such as the large SICAvar multigene family encoding the variant antigens known as the schizont-infected cell agglutination proteins. However, repetitive DNA sequences are the bane of any genome project, and this and other Plasmodium genome projects have not been immune to the gaps, rearrangements and other pitfalls created by these genomic features. Today, long-read PacBio and chromatin conformation technologies are overcoming such obstacles. Here, based on the use of these technologies, we present a highly refined de novo P. knowlesi genome sequence of the Pk1(A+) clone. This sequence and annotation, referred to as the ‘MaHPIC Pk genome sequence’, includes manual annotation of the SICAvar gene family with 136 full-length members categorized as type I or II. This sequence provides a framework that will permit a better understanding of the SICAvar repertoire, selective pressures acting on this gene family and mechanisms of antigenic variation in this species and other pathogens.
Conjugated polymers have been proposed as promising materials for scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. However, the restricted processability and biodegradability of conjugated polymers limit their use for biomedical applications. Here we synthesized a block-co-polymer of aniline tetramer and PCL (AT–PCL), and processed it into fibrous non-woven scaffolds by electrospinning. We showed that fibronectin (Fn) adhesion was dependent on the AT–PCL oxidative state, with a reduced Fn unfolding length on doped membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrated the cytocompatibility and potential of these membranes to support the growth and osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells over 21 days.
The 7 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) have reduced the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children in many countries. The objective of this work was to assess the impact of PCVs and potential herd-protection in older adults in Ireland. IPD notification and typing data from adults ⩾65 years of age from July 2007 to June 2016 was assessed using national surveillance data. There was a 94% reduction in PCV7 serotypes from 2007–2008 to 2015–2016, incidence rate ratio (IRR 0·05, P < 0·0001). However, there was no decline in the additional PCV13 (PCV13-7) serotypes over the same period (IRR 0·90) nor in comparison with the pre-PCV13 period 2009–2010 (IRR 0·92). The incidence of serotypes in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine only (PPV23-PCV13) and non-vaccine types (NVTs) increased significantly (IRR 2·17, P = 0·0002 and IRR 3·43, P = 0·0001 respectively). Consequently, the overall IPD incidence rate in adults has remained relatively unchanged (from 28·66/100 000 to 28·88/100 000, IRR 1·01, P = 0·9477). Serotype 19A and NVTs were mainly responsible for penicillin resistance in recent years. The decline of PCV7 serotypes indicate that the introduction of PCV7 resulted in herd-protection for adults. However, increases in PPV23-PCV13 and NVTs suggest that changes in vaccination strategy amongst older adults are needed to build on the success of PCVs in children.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial diarrhoeal disease worldwide, with raw and undercooked poultry meat and products the primary source of infection. Colonization of broiler chicken flocks with Campylobacter has proved difficult to prevent, even with high levels of biosecurity. Dipteran flies are proven carriers of Campylobacter and their ingress into broiler houses may contribute to its transmission to broiler chickens. However, this has not been investigated in the UK. Campylobacter was cultured from 2195 flies collected from four UK broiler farms. Of flies cultured individually, 0·22% [2/902, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0–0·53] were positive by culture for Campylobacter spp. Additionally, 1293 flies were grouped by family and cultured in 127 batches: 4/127 (3·15%, 95% CI 0·11-6·19) from three broiler farms were positive for Campylobacter. Multilocus sequence typing of isolates demonstrated that the flies were carrying broiler-associated sequence types, responsible for human enteric illness. Malaise traps were used to survey the dipteran species diversity on study farms and also revealed up to 612 flies present around broiler-house ventilation inlets over a 2-h period. Therefore, despite the low prevalence of Campylobacter cultured from flies, the risk of transmission by this route may be high, particularly during summer when fly populations are greatest.
A suite of surface and basal measurements during and after borehole drilling is used to perform in situ investigation of the local basal drainage system and pressure forcing in western Greenland. Drill and borehole water temperature were monitored during borehole drilling, which was performed with dyed hot water. After drilling, borehole water pressure and basal dye concentration were measured concurrently with positions in a GPS strain diamond at the surface. Water pressure exhibited diurnal changes in antiphase with velocity. Dye monitoring in the borehole revealed stagnant basal water for nearly 2 weeks. The interpretation of initial connection to an isolated basal cavity is corroborated by the thermal signature of borehole water during hot water drilling. Measurement-based estimates of cavity size are on the order of cubic meters, and analysis indicates that small changes in its volume could induce the observed pressure variations. It is found that longitudinal coupling effects are unable to force necessary volume changes at the site. Sliding-driven basal cavity opening and elastic uplift from load transfer are plausible mechanisms controlling pressure variations. Elastic uplift requires forcing from a hydraulically connected reach, which observations suggest must be relatively small and in close proximity to the isolated cavity.
Epidemiological studies have identified increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk with high red meat (HRM) intakes, whereas dietary fibre intake appears to be protective. In the present study, we examined whether a HRM diet increased rectal O6-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine (O6MeG) adduct levels in healthy human subjects, and whether butyrylated high-amylose maize starch (HAMSB) was protective. A group of twenty-three individuals consumed 300 g/d of cooked red meat without (HRM diet) or with 40 g/d of HAMSB (HRM+HAMSB diet) over 4-week periods separated by a 4-week washout in a randomised cross-over design. Stool and rectal biopsy samples were collected for biochemical, microbial and immunohistochemical analyses at baseline and at the end of each 4-week intervention period. The HRM diet increased rectal O6MeG adducts relative to its baseline by 21 % (P< 0·01), whereas the addition of HAMSB to the HRM diet prevented this increase. Epithelial proliferation increased with both the HRM (P< 0·001) and HRM+HAMSB (P< 0·05) diets when compared with their respective baseline levels, but was lower following the HRM+HAMSB diet compared with the HRM diet (P< 0·05). Relative to its baseline, the HRM+HAMSB diet increased the excretion of SCFA by over 20 % (P< 0·05) and increased the absolute abundances of the Clostridium coccoides group (P< 0·05), the Clostridiumleptum group (P< 0·05), Lactobacillus spp. (P< 0·01), Parabacteroides distasonis (P< 0·001) and Ruminococcus bromii (P< 0·05), but lowered Ruminococcus torques (P< 0·05) and the proportions of Ruminococcus gnavus, Ruminococcus torques and Escherichia coli (P< 0·01). HRM consumption could increase the risk of CRC through increased formation of colorectal epithelial O6MeG adducts. HAMSB consumption prevented red meat-induced adduct formation, which may be associated with increased stool SCFA levels and/or changes in the microbiota composition.
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with intellectual disability, but the risk pathways are poorly understood.
The Tuberous Sclerosis 2000 Study is a prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of TSC. One hundred and twenty-five UK children age 0–16 years with TSC and born between January 2001 and December 2006 were studied. Intelligence was assessed using standardized measures at ≥2 years of age. The age of onset of epilepsy, the type of seizure disorder, the frequency and duration of seizures, as well as the response to treatment was assessed at interview and by review of medical records. The severity of epilepsy in the early years was estimated using the E-Chess score. Genetic studies identified the mutations and the number of cortical tubers was determined from brain scans.
TSC2 mutations were associated with significantly higher cortical tuber count than TSC1 mutations. The extent of brain involvement, as indexed by cortical tuber count, was associated with an earlier age of onset and severity of epilepsy. In turn, the severity of epilepsy was strongly associated with the degree of intellectual impairment. Structural equation modelling supported a causal pathway from genetic abnormality to cortical tuber count to epilepsy severity to intellectual outcome. Infantile spasms and status epilepticus were important contributors to seizure severity.
The findings support the proposition that severe, early onset epilepsy may impair intellectual development in TSC and highlight the potential importance of early, prompt and effective treatment or prevention of epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis.