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This study aimed to investigate mother–infant interaction and infant development in women at-risk of postpartum psychosis (PP), with and without a postpartum relapse.
103 women (and their offspring) were included, 43 at-risk-of-PP because of a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder or previous PP, and 60 with no current/previous mental illness or family history of PP. Of the at-risk women, 18 developed a psychiatric relapse within 4 weeks after delivery (AR-unwell), while 25 remained symptom-free (AR-well). Mother–infant interaction was assessed using the CARE-Index at 8 weeks' and 12 months' postpartum and infant development using the Bayley-III at 12 months' postpartum.
Women at-risk-of-PP as a group, regardless of whether they developed a psychiatric relapse within 4 weeks after delivery, had less synchronous mother–infant interactions and had infants with less optimal cognitive, language, motor and socio-emotional development than healthy controls. In particular, boys of at-risk women had the lowest scores in cognitive, language and motor development and in mother–infant interaction, while girls of the at-risk women had the lowest scores in socio-emotional development. The synchrony in the dyad predicted infant cognitive and language development. There was no evidence for a difference in mother–infant interaction nor in infant development between the AR-unwell and AR-well groups.
These results suggest that, while there is a lack of evidence that an early postpartum relapse in women at-risk-of-PP could represent a risk for the infant per se, maternal risk for PP may be associated with less optimal mother–infant interaction and infant development.
This article introduces a special volume of Advances in Archaeological Practice dedicated to the interpretation and presentation of archaeology. It provides an overview of several essays that came out of a session at the European Association of Archaeology Conference in 2017, which focused upon how interpretation can be implemented within daily practices of (cultural resource management) archaeology in a way that provides heritage value. We bring the arguments together into a call for a creative, interpretive archaeology that does not take compliance or academic publications as its end goal but will speak to a far wider range of audiences through the development and presentation of stories and narratives that truly engage and inspire people. We argue that this can be achieved by implementing “emotion design” methods that dynamically differentiate between information, message, emotion, and media, by working closely together with creatives, interpretive experts, communities, and partners and, ultimately, by integrating interpretation firmly at the core of planning processes, archaeological workflows, and our daily practices.
Anxiety disorders are common, and cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is a first-line treatment. Candidate gene studies have suggested a genetic basis to treatment response, but findings have been inconsistent.
To perform the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of psychological treatment response in children with anxiety disorders (n = 980).
Presence and severity of anxiety was assessed using semi-structured interview at baseline, on completion of treatment (post-treatment), and 3 to 12 months after treatment completion (follow-up). DNA was genotyped using the Illumina Human Core Exome-12v1.0 array. Linear mixed models were used to test associations between genetic variants and response (change in symptom severity) immediately post-treatment and at 6-month follow-up.
No variants passed a genome-wide significance threshold (P=5×10–8) in either analysis. Four variants met criteria for suggestive significance (P<5×10–6) in association with response post-treatment, and three variants in the 6-month follow-up analysis.
This is the first genome-wide therapygenetic study. It suggests no common variants of very high effect underlie response to CBT. Future investigations should maximise power to detect single-variant and polygenic effects by using larger, more homogeneous cohorts.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous
Five forest plots of differing disturbance levels were sampled qualitatively for termites in the Mbalmayo Forest Reserve, southern Cameroon, using 100 m belt transects. Results showed a large reduction in species richness in two severely disturbed plots compared with a Near Primary plot, but little difference in two less disturbed regenerating plots; there is some evidence for a slight increase in species richness in the regenerating plots. Soil-feeders predominate in the primary and regenerating plots, but are greatly reduced in the severely disturbed plots. Wood-feeders appear to be more resilient to disturbance than soil-feeders, although their species richness is low in the most disturbed plots. The Termitinae are the dominant taxonomic group in the Near Primary plot, the Apicotermitinae in the less disturbed regenerating plots and the Macrotermitinae in the clear felled areas. There appears to be no secondary invasion of plots by savanna-associated species, and the small apparent increase in species richness in the less disturbed regenerating plots appears to be due to the influx of forest species usually associated with natural gaps.
Ion-neutral chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere (~ 1000 km altitude) is an unexpectedly prodigious source of hydrocarbon-nitrile compounds. We report observations from the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS; Waite et al. 2004) and Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS; Young et al. 2004) that allow us to follow the formation of the organic material from the initial ionization and dissociation of nitrogen and methane driven by several free energy sources (extreme ultraviolet radiation and energetic ions and electrons) to the formation of negative ions with masses exceeding 10,000 amu.
The development of the vitellaria of Fasciola hepatica within the liver of its rat host was studied by means of whole-mount stained preparations and transmission electron microscopy, together with light and electron immunocytochemistry using an antibody to vitelline protein B, an eggshell precursor protein synthesized by F. hepatica. No vitelline cells could be identified in flukes recovered from the liver parenchyma, by any of the methods used. In contrast, follicles were present in flukes at the earliest time of recovery from the bile duct, namely, 5 weeks 3 days post-infection. The vitellaria in these flukes formed a row of small follicles on either side of the body. Development of the follicles was rapid: by 6 weeks 3 days, the vitellaria resembled those in the adult fluke and eggs were present in the uterus. Immunolabelling was confined to the shell protein globules in the vitelline cells, confirming the packaging of the eggshell protein within the shell globule clusters.
Pangea Resources International AG, Switzerland, has put forward the concept of an international geological repository in an Australian desert area, for final disposal of certain of the world's high-level radioactive wastes and surplus fissile materials. Already publicly contentious in Australia, the concept raises unusual issues in safety and environmental assessment. It is timely, therefore, to consider why and how an initial case for such a repository might be made, in comparison with national options for high-level waste disposal that it might displace.
There are several stages ahead of development of a formal safety case for an international repository. The first, and almost certainly the most challenging, is winning of public and political acceptance in the host country that such a repository is the ‘best’ solution to a global problem.
We consider the basic need to identify and encompass the concerns of widely disparate stakeholders — industry, governments, national and international regulators, environmental interest groups and the public at large — so that public and political debates can be informed effectively. Many key issues will require comparison both of risks arising from very different operations, and of dissimilar prospective safety performances of complete disposal systems over periods spanning thousands of generations. Nevertheless, we conclude that the validity of such a comparative assessment could be assured by consistent application of a judicious blend of assessment techniques across the alternatives. We also conclude that its usefulness as a vehicle for public discussion would be enhanced by careful attention to public concerns, and by transparently independent review by scientific, technical, sociological and ethical specialists.
Using four brief assessment scales, profiles of mental health and psychological well-being were obtained from 507 old (aged 65–74 years) and 535 very old (aged 75 +) individuals randomly sampled from the community. Assessments of dementia and depression were subsequently validated against diagnostic ratings made by experienced psycho-geriatricians. Levels of agreement between psychometric and clinical ratings of dementia x = 0.83) and depression (x = 0.66) were satisfactory. The old and very old groups reported similar levels of anxiety and personal disturbance, and showed a similar prevalence of depression. However, those aged 75+ showed higher levels of dementia and significantly lower levels of social involvement and morale.
1. Three samples of spray-dried whole milk were made from milk pre-heated at 190, 230° and 230° F. with regenerative cooling to 190° F., in an A.P.V. H.M. Paraflow Heat Exchanger and dried in a Kestner plant. The powders were packed in plain tin-plate cans and stored at 17, 37 and 47° C. The keeping quality of the powders was determined by examination at intervals for palatability, absorption of oxygen and peroxide value of the fat. The biological value and true digestibility of the protein of the powders were estimated in rat-feeding experiments initially and after 6 months' storage. The breadmaking properties of the powders were also examined.
2. The keeping quality, biological and baking tests showed that the three milk powders were very much alike, and that no advantage was gained by raising the preheating temperature of the liquid milk from 190 to 230° F.
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