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Cyst fluid (CF) of Taenia solium metacestode (TsM) is an important source of serodiagnostic antigens. We have investigated the molecular characteristics of the 120 kDa protein complex in TsM CF purified by fast performance liquid chromatography. The structure of the purified protein was characterized by a variety of proteomic analyses. The protein was found to consist of 2 major components of 42–46 and 22–28 kDa, and shared 3 subunits of 14, 16 and 18 kDa. The 42–46 kDa component was determined to contain 3 additional subunits of 22, 28 and 38 kDa. These 6 subunits were shown to originate from either the 14 or 18 kDa precursor. We assessed the antibody reactivity of the native protein, its individual subunits and the recombinant 14 and 18 kDa proteins, and found that the 120 kDa protein, particularly 14 and 18 kDa subunits revealed high reliability for differentiation of active and mixed stage NC from chronic NC. The subunits of the 120 kDa protein complex identified herein represent some of the low-molecular weight glycoproteins which have been described in several previous studies. Recognizing and understanding the structural and immunological relationship of these proteins will facilitate the development of new serodiagnostic assays.
For ohmic contact on p GaN, palladium is one of the best candidates showing ohmic characteristics already without annealing. To be realized in devices, it is necessary to know the behavior of the ohmic contacts at accelerated conditions, especially for high temperatures and power. We report on the structural evolution of palladium layers (30 nm) deposited on GaN (0001) by electron beam evaporation without intentional annealing. They were next cut into various pieces which were individually submitted to rapid thermal annealing at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C for 10 sec. We investigate the differences in the microstructure and the location of interfacial phases and their relationships as determined by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, we then suggest the formation mechanism based on the relationship. It is shown that the interface is disrupted at annealing above 600°C and by 800°C only very small patches of Pd are still present, however they area completely imbedded in a matrix of intermetallic phases (gallides) formed by the reaction with GaN.
The microstructure of the amorphous, silicide, and crystalline Fe films grown on Si(001) substrates by a radio-frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering was studied in synchrotron x-ray scattering experiments. During the growth, iron-silicide interlayers were always formed. The silicide interlayer became crystalline β–FeSi2 at high rf power (⩾20 W/cm2) and at the substrate temperature of 100 °C. The formation of the β–FeSi2 was also promoted by postannealing to 300 °C. The Fe films grown on top of the silicide interlayer were amorphous at low substrate temperatures (⩽100 °C). It became crystalline only at high substrate temperature (300 °C) with the low rf power of 2 W/cm2. The crystalline Fe film was nonepitaxial but had the  preferred orientation.
This paper reports on the relationship between the microstructure and the device performance of Pt/4H-SiC schottky barrier diodes ( SBDs ). The evolution of microstructure in the metal/SiC interfaces annealed at different temperatures was characterized using X-ray scattering techniques. The reverse characteristics of the devices were degraded with annealing temperatures. The maximum breakdown voltages of as-deposited devices and 850 °C annealed devices are 1300 V and 626 V, respectively. However, the forward characteristics of the devices were found out to improve with annealing temperatures. X-ray scattering analysis showed that Pt-silicides were formed by annealing performed at or higher than 650 °C. The formation of silicides was shown to increase the roughness of the Pt/SiC interface. It is believed that the forward characteristics of the SBDs be strongly dependent on the crystallity of silicides formed in the Pt/SiC interface during the annealing process.
Two studies tested whether subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder could successfully use BT STEPS, a computer-aided system, to perform self-assessment for self-treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder by exposure and ritual prevention.
Subjects were given a self-guiding manual and could use a touch-tone telephone to access computer-controlled Interactive Voice Response interviews at their convenience from home. Using the BT STEPS system, patients rated themselves and worked out a plan for individually tailored self-exposure therapy.
Outcomes were similar in the two studies. Of the 63 subjects who used BT STEPS, 84% completed the self-assessment module. Most calls were made outside usual office hours. As expected, subjects did not improve merely by completing self-assessment. However, completion of self-assessment predicted later improvement with self-exposure therapy.
Most subjects successfully completed self-assessment using BT STEPS from their homes.
The surface-front oxidation mechanism of iron was investigated by time-resolved, glancingangle Fe K-edge fluorescence EXAFS measurements at various oxidation temperatures of 200-700 C. The glancing angle was chosen according to the depth of the oxide layer, roughly 1500-2000A. The oxidation behavior under rapid heating(up to 600°C within 10 minutes) was compared with the slowly heated oxidation process using the Quick-EXAFS measurements. In the slowly heated process, Fe3O4 was the dominating phase at a relatively low temperature (300-400 C) initially. However, at a relatively high temperature (above 600°C), the Fe2O3 and FeO crystalline phases are gradually enriched as the successive oxidation process involving intrusive oxygen proceeded. Remarkably under a prolonged heat treatment above 600°C, the stable FeO phase that exists in a deep-lying interface structure and Fe2O3 phase eventually dominates the thick front-surface structure. In a quickly heated process, however, Fe3O4 phase is less dominating, which is contradictory to the commonly accepted oxidation models. The EXAFS results are discussed in conjunction with the x-ray diffraction features under the same heat treatment conditions.
The paraelectric cubic to ferroelectric tetragonal phase transformation of thin Pb(Zr,Ti)O3/MgO(001) films was studied in synchrotron x-ray scattering experiments. As the thickness of the film decreases, the transition temperature and the amount of the tetragonal distortion were decreased continuously. The thinnest 250 Å thick film was purely composed of the c-type domains in the ferroelectric tetragonal phase. Based on this, we propose a model for the domain structure of the tetragonal PZT/MgO(001) film that is different from the ones suggested in literature. We attribute the suppression of the transition to the substrate effect that prefers the c-type domains near the interface, and reduces the tetragonal distortion to minimize the film-substrate lattice mismatch.
The orientational crossover phenomena in a radio-frequency (rf) sputtering growth of TiN films were studied in a real-time synchrotron x-ray scattering experiment. Following the initial random nucleation and growth stage, the growth was dominated by the grains with the (002) planes aligned with the substrate surface. Surprisingly, at later stages, the grains with the (002) growth front tilted away from the surface by about 60° became dominant. The tilting of the growth front resulted in a faceted surface topology that was confirmed by an ex situ AFM study. Our x-ray results suggest that the crossover was driven by the competition between the surface and the strain energy
The crystallization of amorphous BST thin films was studied in a synchrotron x-ray scattering experiment. At around 600°C, an intermediate phase, which was suspected to be a metastable pyrochlore phase, was formed. The x-ray reflectivity curves showed that the film-substrate interface became rough as the pyrochlore-like phase was formed. This suggests that the pyrochlore phase was nucleated near the interface area. Upon further annealing to higher temperatures, the film transformed to the crystalline perovskite phase. The crystallization was sensitive to the film thickness. In the thin 550Å thick film, the crystallization occurred at 750 °C with the <001> preferred orientation. On the other hand, the 5500Å thick film became crystalline even at 500°C with random crystalline orientation. The observed thickness dependence of the crystallization suggests that the crystalline perovskite phase was nucleated in the bulk of the film, rather than the near interface area.
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