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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the main anthelmintics used for the control of trematodes in cattle in an endemic area in the humid Mexican tropics. A diagnostic study was carried out in nine cattle farms to determine the prevalence of flukes through faecal examination. Only three farms with more than 20 cows positive to trematodes were chosen to determine the effectiveness of commercial anthelmintics (triclabendazole, TCBZ; ivermectin + closantel, (IVM + CLOS); IVM + clorsulon, (CLORS); nitroxynil, NITROX). The prevalence of Fasciola hepatica was 27.1% and 29.6% of paramphistomes. The faecal egg count of trematodes ranged from 0.0 to 12.2 eggs per gram of faeces. The highest effectiveness against F. hepatica was 96.7%, and 92.7% against paramphistomes. NITROX was the most effective in the control of trematodes, while other products, such as IVM + CLORS and TCBZ obtained values lower than 90%, which puts sustainable trematode control at risk. The presence of trematodes was observed on most farms, although the prevalence per herd was highly variable, which indicates that the trematodes F. hepatica and paramphistomes are endemic to the region and a suitable management programme is suggested to control infections caused by these parasites.
We revisit the age and typological character of “Pox Pottery” that was reported in the 1960s by Charles Brush who considered it to be uniquely early (~2440 BC). Investigating the same two sites in coastal Guerrero where Brush excavated, we recovered Early Formative ceramics, some with the “pox” attribute. Here, we report potsherd frequencies for these deposits at both sites according to regional ceramic typologies, as well as AMS 14C dates used to establish a Bayesian stratigraphic chronology for each site to better constrain the age of these Early Formative period deposits. We argue that “Pox Pottery” is not a ceramic type per se and that the “pox” attribute occurs in multiple Early Formative period ceramic types. The earliest pottery is similar to other Red-on-Buff ceramic traditions from the Central Mexican Highlands and west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Our chronological work demonstrates that these ceramics date between 1820 and 1400 cal BC, consistent with other recent studies indicating an early age of Red-on-Buff ceramics and suggesting shared cultural traditions distinct from the contemporary Locona interaction sphere that emerged in parallel.
This study has two main objectives: to describe the prevalence of undetected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a clinical sample of smokers with severe mental illness (SMI), and to assess the value of the Tobacco Intensive Motivational Estimated Risk tool, which informs smokers of their respiratory risk and uses brief text messages to reinforce intervention.
A multicenter, randomized, open-label, and active-controlled clinical trial, with a 12-month follow-up. Outpatients with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder were randomized either to the experimental group—studied by spirometry and informed of their calculated lung age and degree of obstruction (if any)—or to the active control group, who followed the 5 A’s intervention.
The study sample consisted of 160 patients (71.9% SZ), 78.1% of whom completed the 12-month follow-up. Of the patients who completed the spirometry test, 23.9% showed evidence of COPD (77.8% in moderate or severe stages). TIMER was associated with a significant reduction in tobacco use at week 12 and in the long term, 21.9% of patients reduced consumption and 14.6% at least halved it. At week 48, six patients (7.3%) allocated to the experimental group achieved the seven-day smoking abstinence confirmed by CO (primary outcome in terms of efficacy), compared to three (3.8%) in the control group.
In this clinical pilot trial, one in four outpatients with an SMI who smoked had undiagnosed COPD. An intensive intervention tool favors the early detection of COPD and maintains its efficacy to quit smoking, compared with the standard 5 A’s intervention.
In recent years, an international consensus has emerged claiming that developing nations must now, more than ever, merge the fields of foreign policy and health. To that end, in 2006, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs from Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, South Africa, and Thailand established a ministerial accord agreement in Oslo, Norway, emphasizing that healthcare become an integral component of foreign policy (Amorim et al., 2006). Whereas improved diplomatic relations in health, also commonly referred to as global health diplomacy, has led to increased communication between nations, technical assistance, and disease preparedness (Long, 2011), unfortunately, it also has led to an increase in domestic healthcare inequalities and policy shortcomings. As I explain in this chapter, this shortcoming mainly has to do with how global health diplomacy has shifted politicians’ focus away from prioritizing domestic healthcare needs.
Among older people with cognitive impairment and mild dementia, relatively little is known about the factors that predict preferences for everyday living activities and experiences and that influence the relative importance of those activities and experiences.
Participants were recruited from the Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (MADRC) Clinical Core longitudinal cohort.
The sample included 62 community-dwelling older adults with cognitive impairment (Clinical Dementia Rating global score ≥ 0.5).
We used the Preferences for Everyday Living Inventory (PELI) to assess preferences for activities and lifestyle experiences among persons with cognitive impairment. Within-subjects analysis of variance was used to test for significant differences in the mean ratings of importance for four domains of the PELI (“autonomous choice,” “social engagement,” “personal growth,” and “keeping a routine”). Multiple regression models were used to relate predictors, including neuropsychiatric symptoms, to importance ratings for each domain.
Significant differences were noted in the mean importance ratings of the preferences domains: “social engagement” preferences were rated as most important, followed by “autonomous choice,” “personal growth,” and “keeping a routine.” For the “social engagement” preferences domain, female sex was significantly associated with higher importance of “social engagement,” while depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale-15 scores) were significantly associated with lower importance.
This study adds novel insight into the everyday preferences of community-dwelling older adults with cognitive impairment and highlights the impact of a number of factors, particularly level of depression, on how important various everyday experiences are perceived.
Previous research has shown that individuals suffering from depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) seem to have inhibitory control deficits compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have been conducted in Spanish-speaking countries. Thus, this study aims to analyze the performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) between groups of Colombian participants with clinical levels of depression and GAD symptoms and a nonclinical control group. According to previous research, we expected to find significant differences in inhibitory control among groups. An ex post facto design was implemented. The SCWT was administered to a total sample of 105 individuals (64.8% women, M = 22.94 years, SD = 4.62), including 27 depressed and 15 anxious participants according to their scores on the Personal Health Questionnaire–9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7, respectively. Bayesian t-tests showed that depressed participants showed the same processing speed but lower scores on inhibitory control than healthy controls, BF = 13.70, δ = 0.50, 95% CI [0.08, 0.94]. Conversely, anxious participants showed deficits in processing speed, SCWT-Word: BF = 16.19, δ = 0.68, 95% CI [0.15, 1.24]; SCWT-Color: BF = 5.98, δ = 0.50, 95% CI [–0.01, 1.04], but not in inhibitory control compared with the nonanxious counterparts. This study provides preliminary evidence concerning the inhibitory control deficits in Colombian depressed individuals and processing speed deficits in those experiencing clinical levels of GAD symptoms.
Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is a key factor in the creation and development of companies. This study examines the CEO's personal background (personality, proactivity and resistance to change) and its influence on the EO of the organization to determine which factors enhance or weaken EO. We achieve this goal through quantitative research, developing a structural equations model with partial least squares to analyse a sample of 358 Spanish SMEs from different sectors. The results suggest that specific personality dimensions exert substantial influence on the organization's EO. We also analyse individual proactivity and resistance to change as conduits for the effect of personality dimensions on the company's EO.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Determination of antibodies against ToRCH antigens at the beginning of pregnancy allows assessment of both the maternal immune status and the risks to an adverse pregnancy outcome. Age-standardised seroprevalences were determined in sera from 1009 women of childbearing age residing in Mexico, Brazil, Germany, Poland, Turkey or China using a multiparametric immunoblot containing antigen substrates for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2), Bordetella pertussis, Chlamydia trachomatis, parvovirus B19, Treponema pallidum and varicella zoster virus (VZV). Seroprevalences for antibodies against HSV-1 were >90% in samples from Brazil and Turkey, whereas the other four countries showed lower mean age-adjusted seroprevalences (range: 62.5–87.9%). Samples from Brazilian women showed elevated seroprevalences of antibodies against HSV-2 (40.1%), C. trachomatis (46.8%) and B. pertussis (56.6%) compared to the other five countries. Seroprevalences of anti-T. gondii antibodies (0.5%) and anti-parvovirus B19 antibodies (7.5%) were low in samples from Chinese women, compared to the other five countries. Samples from German women revealed a low age-standardised seroprevalence of anti-CMV antibodies (28.8%) compared to the other five countries. These global differences in immune status of women in childbearing age advocate country-specific prophylaxis strategies to avoid infection with ToRCH pathogens.
Background: Annual flu vaccination is the most effective way to prevent the disease and its complications. Vaccine effectiveness (EV) varies from season to season, requiring annual re-evaluation. The objective of this study was to estimate the preliminary effectiveness of the influenza vaccine until epidemiological week 4 of the 2019–2020 season, in patients admitted to a tertiary-level hospital. Method: We conducted a case-control study at University General Hospital, Alicante, Spain, during the 2019–2020 season. We included all patients hospitalized with influenza confirmed by laboratory test (ie, PCR positive for influenza) during the period between epidemiological week 40 of 2019 and epidemiological week 4 of 2020. These were considered cases, and those with clinical suspicion of influenza and negative RT-PCR were considered controls. Vaccination coverage was calculated in cases and in controls, determining the odds ratio. We calculated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) and its 95% confidence interval using the following formula: VE = (1 − odds ratio) ×100. Result: We included 545 patients: 61 cases and 484 controls. The overall EV for influenza cases prevention was 40.7% (95% CI, −17.1 to 70.1), and for those >1 year of age, the overall EV was 56.9% (95% CI, 13.9–78.5). Conclusion: The 2019–2020 Influenza vaccine was effective in preventing influenza cases in patients admitted up to week 4 of the 2019–2020 season. These results are preliminary and may vary; they should be re-evaluated at the end of the season.
Background: Loss of a spouse is a frequent occurrence in later life, with about 10% of the individuals finding themselves unable to cope and progressing to prolonged grief, risking further mental and physical problems.
Objective: The development and implementation of an online grief program, such as LEAVES (optimizing the menta L hEalth and resilience of older Adults that haVe lost th Eir spou Se via blended, online therapy), intends to improve prevention and treatment of prolonged grief, so that elderly mourners can continue to lead an active, meaningful and dignified life.
Methods: The LEAVES program, a project under AAL (Active and Assisted Living) 2019 Call for Sustainable Smart Solutions for Ageing Well, is in development by an international consortium and integrates academical, clinical and technical experts. The project will take place between February 2020 and January 2023 and involve real-life evaluation of 315 end-users. The Psychiatric Department at the Health Unit of Baixo Alentejo (ULSBA) will offer the service to its primary users, blending online services with telephone, video calls and face-to-face sessions. Widowed older adults >65 that express the need for help in mourning their spouse will be recruited in the community as well as via the geriatric psychiatry team and primary care.
Results: With LEAVES program we aim for older adults to process the loss of a spouse in a blended online/presential environment, detecting olders at risk for complications, reveal negative trends in their emotional life, and act to counter such trends. The evaluation will focus on wellbeing and involve several measures to assess grief symptoms, loneliness, hopelessness, satisfaction and quality of life. Conclusions: ULSBA will use LEAVES to improve clinical practice on preventing and managing prolonged grief as well as, after testing and validating it in this project, to save economical costs and improve effectiveness, both to hospital and patients.
Agency refers to the human capacity to choose, initiate, and control actions to influence events in the world. The experience of agency is fundamental to our sense of self but may be altered in certain neurological conditions and forms of psychopathology. In this chapter, we review recent work in cognitive neuroscience that shows how agency depends on sensorimotor loops between the body and the environment as well as higher-order processes of attribution and interpretation. The sensorimotor loops that contribute to the sense of agency and ownership of the body and its actions can be manipulated in laboratory experiments to give rise to startling illusions like being out of one’s body, having a rubber hand, or controlling random events. Religious experiences like spirit possession and dissociative symptoms like conversion disorder may depend on attributing action to agencies other than the self. Even everyday actions depend on interpretive processes that draw from cultural affordances and ontologies as well as social and political structures. Embodied experience grounds to the sense of agency, but culturally mediated attributions can alter bodily experience. Far from being simply a consequence of individual cognition or ability, therefore, agency is rooted in ongoing engagement with the social–cultural world.
Close double neutron stars (DNSs) have been observed as Galactic radio pulsars, while their mergers have been detected as gamma-ray bursts and gravitational wave sources. They are believed to have experienced at least one common envelope episode (CEE) during their evolution prior to DNS formation. In the last decades, there have been numerous efforts to understand the details of the common envelope (CE) phase, but its computational modelling remains challenging. We present and discuss the properties of the donor and the binary at the onset of the Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) leading to these CEEs as predicted by rapid binary population synthesis models. These properties can be used as initial conditions for detailed simulations of the CE phase. There are three distinctive populations, classified by the evolutionary stage of the donor at the moment of the onset of the RLOF: giant donors with fully convective envelopes, cool donors with partially convective envelopes, and hot donors with radiative envelopes. We also estimate that, for standard assumptions, tides would not circularise a large fraction of these systems by the onset of RLOF. This makes the study and understanding of eccentric mass-transferring systems relevant for DNS populations.
In 1990, Latin American countries committed to psychiatric reforms including psychiatric bed removals. Aim of the study was to quantify changes in psychiatric bed numbers and prison population rates after the initiation of psychiatric reforms in Latin America.
We searched primary sources to collect numbers of psychiatric beds and prison population rates across Latin America between the years 1991 and 2017. Changes of psychiatric bed numbers were compared against trends of incarceration rates and tested for associations using fixed-effects regression of panel data. Economic variables were used as covariates. Reliable data were obtained from 17 Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, El Salvador, Uruguay and Venezuela.
The number of psychiatric beds decreased in 15 out of 17 Latin American countries (median −35%) since 1991. Our findings indicate the total removal of 69 415 psychiatric beds. The prison population increased in all countries (median +181%). Panel data regression analyses showed a significant inverse relationship −2.70 (95% CI −4.28 to −1.11; p = 0.002) indicating that prison populations increased more when and where more psychiatric beds were removed. This relationship held up when introducing per capita income and income inequality as covariates −2.37 (95% CI −3.95 to −0.8; p = 0.006).
Important numbers of psychiatric beds have been removed in Latin America. Removals of psychiatric beds were related to increasing incarceration rates. Minimum numbers of psychiatric beds need to be defined and addressed in national policies.
In previous studies, we have identified several families of 5-nitroindazole derivatives as promising antichagasic prototypes. Among them, 1-(2-aminoethyl)-2-benzyl-5-nitro-1,2-dihydro-3H-indazol-3-one, (hydrochloride) and 1-(2-acetoxyethyl)-2-benzyl-5-nitro-1,2-dihydro-3H-indazol-3-one (compounds 16 and 24, respectively) have recently shown outstanding activity in vitro over the drug-sensitive Trypanosoma cruzi CL strain (DTU TcVI). Here, we explored the activity of these derivatives against the moderately drug-resistant Y strain (DTU TcII), in vitro and in vivo. The outcomes confirmed their activity over replicative forms, showing IC50 values of 0.49 (16) and 5.75 μm (24) towards epimastigotes, 0.41 (16) and 1.17 μm (24) against intracellular amastigotes. These results, supported by the lack of toxicity on cardiac cells, led to better selectivities than benznidazole (BZ). Otherwise, they were not as active as BZ in vitro against the non-replicative form of the parasite, i.e. bloodstream trypomastigotes. In vivo, acute toxicity assays revealed the absence of toxic events when administered to mice. Moreover, different therapeutic schemes pointed to their capability for decreasing the parasitaemia of T. cruzi Y acute infected mice, reaching up to 60% of reduction at the peak day as monotherapy (16), 79.24 and 91.11% when 16 and 24 were co-administered with BZ. These combined therapies had also a positive impact over the mortality, yielding survivals of 83.33 and 66.67%, respectively, while untreated animals reached a cumulative mortality of 100%. These findings confirm the 5-nitroindazole scaffold as a putative prototype for developing novel drugs potentially applicable to the treatment of Chagas disease and introduce their suitability to act in combination with the reference drug.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To develop feasible screening methods for activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with point of care applicability. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Current knowledge establishes the relevance of G6PD as a critical therapeutic determinant for effective antimalarial therapy due to the occurrence of mutations that lead to post-treatment severe adverse effects. We present our findings on development of cost effective point-of-care screening methodologies to ascertain G6PD deficiency. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Using Patient Cohort Explorer and data from the Department of Pathology, we established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS as high as 11.8% (African-American males in all population, n = 2518). Next, for selection of potential target groups, we set up a protocol for recruitment of volunteers based on ethnic background, parental ethnicity, and medical history. G6PD activity was evaluated using point of care methods [Trinity Biotech test or CareSTART Biosensor], and Gold Standard quantitative spectrophotometric assay (LabCorp). Determinations in >20 subjects have showed comparable concordance. If used with a conservative interpretation of the signal, the Trinity Biotech test showed superior potential for use in the field relative to the CareSTART Biosensor. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in our medical center. We have also setup tests for point-of-care assessment of G6PD. Pending evaluation of the relative tests performance, we will be in position to screen individuals and select them for a prospective clinical trial to evaluate the safety of antimalarial agents on scope of G6PD deficiency.
Rewetting is the establishment of water–surface contact that occurs during quenching of high temperature surfaces by water jet impingement. Rewetting is an unexpectedly complex phenomenon that has been reported to occur at surface temperatures significantly higher than the superheating limit of water. The presence of intermittently wet and dry episodes, and in particular the occurrence of so-called explosive boiling, is one of the theories to explain the contact of water with high temperature surfaces. However, there is a lack of experimental data in the literature to prove the presence of explosive boiling and intermittent wetting due to the small duration and scale of the rewetting phenomenon. In this study, recordings of the jet stagnation zone during rewetting are provided at a frame rate of 81 kfps. The high-speed recordings show a flashing regime consisting of intermittent (dry) bubble-rich and (wet) bubble-free periods at frequencies up to 40 kHz when the rewetted surface temperature exceeds the water superheat limit. As far as the authors know, these are the first direct observations of intermittent dry–wet periods occurring in the jet stagnation zone during quenching by water jet impingement. The dependency of the flashing frequency on initial surface temperature is quantified. A correlation between the size of the rewetting patch and the flashing frequency is found. Finally, a hypothesis to explain the role of water subcooling in maintaining the water–surface contact at surface temperatures well above the superheating limit of water is presented.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
This systematic review examines the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural health integration into primary healthcare in the management of depression and unhealthy alcohol use in low- and middle-income countries. Following PRISMA guidelines, this review included research that studied patients aged ≥18 years with unhealthy alcohol use and/or depression of any clinical severity. An exploration of the models of integration was used to characterise a typology of behavioural health integration specific for low- and middle-income countries.
Fifty-eight articles met inclusion criteria. Studies evidenced increased effectiveness of integrated care over treatment as usual for both conditions. The economic evaluations found increased direct health costs but cost-effective estimates. The included studies used six distinct behavioural health integration models.
Behavioural health integration may yield improved health outcomes, although it may require additional resources. The proposed typology can assist decision-makers to advance the implementation of integrated models.