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We numerically and theoretically investigate the Boussinesq Eady model, where a rapidly rotating density-stratified layer of fluid is subject to a meridional temperature gradient in thermal wind balance with a uniform vertically sheared zonal flow. Through a suite of numerical simulations, we show that the transport properties of the resulting turbulent flow are governed by quasigeostrophic (QG) dynamics in the rapidly rotating strongly stratified regime. The ‘vortex gas’ scaling predictions put forward in the context of the two-layer QG model carry over to this fully three-dimensional system: the functional dependence of the meridional flux on the control parameters is the same, the two adjustable parameters entering the theory taking slightly different values. In line with the QG prediction, the meridional heat flux is depth-independent. The vertical heat flux is such that turbulence transports buoyancy along isopycnals, except in narrow layers near the top and bottom boundaries, the thickness of which decreases as the diffusivities go to zero. The emergent (re)stratification is set by a simple balance between the vertical heat flux and diffusion along the vertical direction. Overall, this study demonstrates how the vortex-gas scaling theory can be adapted to quantitatively predict the magnitude and vertical structure of the meridional and vertical heat fluxes, and of the emergent stratification, without additional fitting parameters.
To identify preventable factors that contribute to the cross transmission of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to patients in healthcare facilities.
A case–control study was conducted among inpatients on a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak unit.
This study was conducted in a medical-surgical unit of a tertiary-care hospital in Nova Scotia in May 2021.
Patients hospitalized on the unit for at least 12 hours and healthcare workers (HCW) working on the unit within 2 weeks of outbreak declaration were included.
Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection were analyzed using simple and multiple logistic regression. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed to identify SARS-CoV-2 strain relatedness. Network analysis was used to describe patient accommodation.
SARS-CoV-2 infections were identified in 21 patients (29.6%) and 11 HCWs (6.6%). WGS data revealed 4 distinct clades of related sequences. Several factors likely contributed to the outbreak, including failure to identify SARS-CoV-2, a largely incomplete or unvaccinated population, and patient wandering behaviors. The most significant risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection was room sharing with an infectious patient, which was the only factor that remained statistically significant following multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 9.2l; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04–41.67; P = .004).
This outbreak likely resulted from admission of 2 patients with COVID-19, with subsequent transmissions to 17 patients and 11 staff. WGS and bioinformatics analyses were critical to identifying previously unrecognized nosocomial transmissions of SARS-CoV-2. This study supports strategies to reduce nosocomial transmissions of SARS-CoV-2, such as single-patient rooms, promotion of COVID-19 vaccination, and infection prevention and control measures including management of wandering behaviors.
The control of multiple-resistant wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) populations in no-till Australian wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crops has relied upon 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides over the last decade. Two R. raphanistrum populations identified as putatively resistant to pyrasulfotole + bromoxynil in an initial large-scale screening trial were characterized and confirmed to be 5- to 8-fold (comparison of LD50 values) less sensitive than the susceptible control population to the HPPD inhibitor pyrasulfotole when plants were treated at the 4-leaf stage. The two pyrasulfotole-resistant populations exhibited up to 4-fold resistance to the coformulated herbicide mixture pyrasulfotole + bromoxynil and up to 9- and 11-fold cross-resistance to mesotrione and topramezone postemergence, respectively. A small-plot trial was conducted in the field from which of one of the populations suspected of resistance was originally collected. Pyrasulfotole + bromoxynil or topramezone + bromoxynil applied postemergence delivered reduced R. raphanistrum control (79% to 87%), whereas mesotrione applied preemergence was >99% effective. We report here the first case of field resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides in R. raphanistrum, caused by 12 yr of continuous reliance on that mode of action. The mitigation of herbicide resistance in continuous no-till cropping requires a constant optimization of the herbicide technology via alternation and mixtures of multiple sites of action, use of preemergence herbicides, and ensuring postemergence herbicides are applied at the most sensitive plant growth stages.
Unresolved states of mind regarding experiences of loss/abuse (U/d) are identified through lapses in the monitoring of reasoning, discourse, and behavior surrounding loss/abuse in response to the Adult Attachment Interview. Although the coding system for U/d has been widely used for decades, the individual indicators of unresolved loss/abuse have not been validated independently of the development sample. This study examined the psychometric validity of U/d, using individual participant data from 1,009 parent–child dyads across 13 studies. A latent class analysis showed that subsets of commonly occurring U/d indicators could differentiate interviewees with or without unresolved loss/abuse. Predictive models suggested a psychometric model of U/d consisting of a combination of these common indicators, with disbelief and psychologically confused statements regarding loss being especially important indicators of U/d. This model weakly predicted infant disorganized attachment. Multilevel regression analysis showed no significant association between ratings of unresolved other trauma and infant disorganized attachment, over and above ratings of unresolved loss/abuse. Altogether, these findings suggest that the coding system of U/d may have been overfitted to the initial development sample. Directions for further articulation and optimization of U/d are provided.
While declarative learning is dependent on the hippocampus, procedural learning and repetition priming can operate independently from the hippocampus, making them potential targets for behavioral interventions that utilize non-declarative memory systems to compensate for the declarative learning deficits associated with hippocampal insult. Few studies have assessed procedural learning and repetition priming in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI).
This study offers an overview across declarative, conceptual repetition priming, and procedural learning tasks by providing between-group effect sizes and Bayes Factors (BFs) comparing individuals with aMCI and controls. Seventy-six individuals with aMCI and 83 cognitively unimpaired controls were assessed. We hypothesized to see the largest differences between individuals with aMCI and controls on declarative learning, followed by conceptual repetition priming, with the smallest differences on procedural learning.
Consistent with our hypotheses, we found large differences between groups with supporting BFs on declarative learning. For conceptual repetition priming, we found a small-to-moderate between-group effect size and a non-conclusive BF somewhat in favor of a difference between groups. We found more variable but overall trivial differences on procedural learning tasks, with inconclusive BFs, in line with expectations.
The current results suggest that conceptual repetition priming does not remain intact in individuals with aMCI while procedural learning may remain intact. While additional studies are needed, our results contribute to the evidence-base that suggests that procedural learning may remain spared in aMCI and helps inform behavioral interventions that aim to utilize procedural learning in this population.
Mixed flora in urine cultures usually occur due to preanalytic contamination. In our outpatient urology clinic, we detected a high prevalence of mixed flora (46.2%), which was associated with female sex and older age. Patient education did not influence the rate of mixed flora. Future efforts should target high-risk patients.
Astrophysical flows are often subject to both rotation and large-scale background magnetic fields. Individually, each is known to two-dimensionalize the flow in the perpendicular plane. In realistic settings, both of these effects are simultaneously present and, importantly, need not be aligned. In this work, we numerically investigate three-dimensional forced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence subject to the competing effects of global rotation and a perpendicular background magnetic field. We focus on the case of a strong background field and find that increasing the rotation rate from zero produces significant changes in the structure of the turbulent flow. Starting with a two-dimensional inverse energy cascade at zero rotation, the flow first transitions to a forward cascade of kinetic energy, then to a shear-layer dominated regime and finally to a second shear-layer regime where the kinetic energy flux is strongly suppressed and the energy transfer is mediated by the induced magnetic field. We show that the first two transitions occur at distinct values of the Rossby number, and the third occurs at a distinct value of the Lehnert number. The three-dimensional results are confirmed using an asymptotic two-dimensional, three-component model, which allows us to extend our results to the planetary-relevant case of an arbitrary angle between the rotation vector and guide field. More generally, our results demonstrate that, when considering the simultaneous limits of strong rotation and a strong guide field, the order in which those limits are taken matters in the misaligned case.
In an era of complex, multi-institutional, team-based science, there is little guidance for the successful creation of effective, collaborative, multisite training programs.
We designed, implemented, and evaluated a multi-institutional Tobacco Regulatory Science (TRS) fellowship representing a scalable program that may be customized for other research areas.
Using a mixed-methods approach, we analyzed program evaluations from trainees enrolled in the first 7 years of the American Heart Association (AHA) Tobacco Regulation and Addiction Center (A-TRAC) fellowship (2014–2021). We also reported the program outcomes, including published TRS manuscripts, independent grant funding, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Docket comments submitted on TRS topics, TRS oral and poster presentations, research awards, and promotions in the TRS field.
Thirty-five unique trainees (49% [n = 17] female, 29% [n = 10] Black) from eight institutions within the A-TRAC network participated in the fellowship since its inception. The trainees reported 74 TRS publications, 78 TRS oral or poster presentations, 25 FDA Docket comment submissions, and 13 funded grant awards. Participant evaluations indicated six areas of programmatic strength: 1) blended instruction medium with webinars and in-person meetings, 2) curricular emphasis on theories of experiential learning, 3) focus on career and professional development, 4) integrated mentorship model, 5) culture of feedback and feedforward to foster successful learning, and 6) focus on recruiting diverse participants. The A-TRAC model stresses experiential education, feedback and feedforward, and peer learning.
Our resource-effective, needs-driven program is a reproducible model for institutions interested in developing multisite, virtual research education programs in the era of team science.
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) are major public health concerns among adolescents, and research is needed to identify how risk is conferred over the short term (hours and days). Sleep problems may be associated with elevated risk for STBs, but less is known about this link in youth over short time periods. The current study utilized a multimodal real-time monitoring approach to examine the association between sleep problems (via daily sleep diary and actigraphy) and next-day suicidal thinking in 48 adolescents with a history of STBs during the month following discharge from acute psychiatric care. Results indicated that specific indices of sleep problems assessed via sleep diary (i.e., greater sleep onset latency, nightmares, ruminative thoughts before sleep) predicted next-day suicidal thinking. These effects were significant even when daily sadness and baseline depression were included in the models. Moreover, several associations between daily-level sleep problems and next-day suicidal thinking were moderated by person-level measures of the construct. In contrast, sleep indices assessed objectively (via actigraphy) were either not related to suicidal thinking or were related in the opposite direction from hypothesized. Together, these findings provide some support for sleep problems as a short-term risk factor for suicidal thinking in high-risk adolescents.
The surgical treatment of insular gliomas requires specialized knowledge. Over the last three decades, increased momentum in surgical resection of insular gliomas shifted the focus from one of expectant management to maximal safe resection to establish a diagnosis, characterize tumor genetics, treat preoperative symptoms (i.e., seizures), and delay malignant transformation through tumor cytoreduction. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed regarding insular glioma classification/genetics, insular anatomy, surgical approaches, and patient outcomes. Modern large, published series of insular resections have reported a median 80% resection, 80% improvement in preoperative seizures, and postsurgical permanent neurologic deficits of less than 10%. Major complication avoidance includes recognition and preservation of eloquent cortex for language and respecting the lateral lenticulostriate arteries.
Lifestyle modifications for those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may promote functional stability, lesson disease severity, and improve well-being outcomes such as quality of life. The current analysis of our larger comparative effectiveness study evaluated which specific combinations of lifestyle modifications offered as part of the Mayo Clinic Healthy Action to Benefit Independence in Thinking (HABIT) program contributed to the least functional decline in people with MCI (pwMCI) over 18 months.
We undertook to compare evidence-based interventions with one another rather than to a no-treatment control group. The interventions were five behavioral treatments: computerized cognitive training (CCT), yoga, Memory Support System (MSS) training, peer support group (SG), and wellness education (WE), each delivered to both pwMCI and care partners, in a group-based program. To compare interventions, we randomly withheld one of the five HABIT® interventions in each of the group sessions. We conducted 24 group sessions with between 8 and 20 pwMCI–partner dyads in a session.
Withholding yoga led to the greatest declines in functional ability as measured by the Functional Activities Questionnaire and Clinical Dementia Rating. In addition, memory compensation (calendar) training and cognitive exercise appeared to have associations (moderate effect sizes) with better functional outcomes. Withholding SG or WE appeared to have little effect on functioning at 18 months.
Overall, these results add to the growing literature that physical exercise can play a significant and lasting role in modifying outcomes in a host of medical conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases.
Although non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an issue of major concern to colleges worldwide, we lack detailed information about the epidemiology of NSSI among college students. The objectives of this study were to present the first cross-national data on the prevalence of NSSI and NSSI disorder among first-year college students and its association with mental disorders.
Data come from a survey of the entering class in 24 colleges across nine countries participating in the World Mental Health International College Student (WMH-ICS) initiative assessed in web-based self-report surveys (20 842 first-year students). Using retrospective age-of-onset reports, we investigated time-ordered associations between NSSI and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-IV) mood (major depressive and bipolar disorder), anxiety (generalized anxiety and panic disorder), and substance use disorders (alcohol and drug use disorder).
NSSI lifetime and 12-month prevalence were 17.7% and 8.4%. A positive screen of 12-month DSM-5 NSSI disorder was 2.3%. Of those with lifetime NSSI, 59.6% met the criteria for at least one mental disorder. Temporally primary lifetime mental disorders predicted subsequent onset of NSSI [median odds ratio (OR) 2.4], but these primary lifetime disorders did not consistently predict 12-month NSSI among respondents with lifetime NSSI. Conversely, even after controlling for pre-existing mental disorders, NSSI consistently predicted later onset of mental disorders (median OR 1.8) as well as 12-month persistence of mental disorders among students with a generalized anxiety disorder (OR 1.6) and bipolar disorder (OR 4.6).
NSSI is common among first-year college students and is a behavioral marker of various common mental disorders.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Despite its importance in systemic diseases such as diabetes, the eye is notably difficult to examine for non-specialists; this study introduces a fully automated approach for eye disease screening, coupling a deep learning algorithm with a robotically-aligned optical coherence tomography system to improve eye care in non-ophthalmology settings. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This study aims to develop and test a deep learning (DL) method to classify images acquired from a robotically-aligned optical coherence tomography (OCT) system as normal vs. abnormal. The long-term goal of our study is to integrate artificial intelligence and robotic eye imaging to fully automate eye disease screening in diverse clinical settings. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Between August and October 2020, patients seen at the Duke Eye Center and healthy volunteers (age ≥18) were imaged with a custom, robotically-aligned OCT (RAOCT) system following routine eye exam. Using transfer learning, we adapted a preexisting convolutional neural network to train a DL algorithm to classify OCT images as normal vs. abnormal. The model was trained and validated on two publicly available OCT datasets and two of our own RAOCT volumes. For external testing, the top-performing model based on validation was applied to a representative averaged B-scan from each of the remaining RAOCT volumes. The model’s performance was evaluated against a reference standard of clinical diagnoses by retina specialists. Saliency maps were created to visualize the areas contributing most to the model predictions. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The training and validation datasets included 87,697 OCT images, of which 59,743 were abnormal. The top-performing DL model had a training accuracy of 96% and a validation accuracy of 99%. For external testing, 43 eyes of 27 subjects were imaged with the robotically-aligned OCT system. Compared to clinical diagnoses, the model correctly labeled 18 out of 22 normal averaged B-scans and 18 out of 21 abnormal averaged B-scans. Overall, in the testing set, the model had an AUC for the detection of pathology of 0.92, an accuracy of 84%, a sensitivity of 86%, and a specificity of 82%. For the correctly predicted scans, saliency maps identified the areas contributing most to the DL algorithm’s predictions, which matched the regions of greatest clinical importance. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: This is the first study to develop and apply a DL model to images acquired from a self-aligning OCT system, demonstrating the potential of integrating DL and robotic eye imaging to automate eye disease screening. We are working to translate this technology for use in emergency departments and primary care, where it will have the greatest impact.
Major progress has recently been made regarding the biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy and isotope chemostratigraphy of the lower Cambrian successions in South Australia, in particular of the Arrowie Basin, which has facilitated robust global stratigraphic correlations. However, lack of faunal and sedimentological data from the lower Cambrian Normanville Group in the eastern Stansbury Basin, South Australia – particularly the transition from the Fork Tree Limestone to the Heatherdale Shale – has prevented resolution of the age range, lithofacies, depositional environments and regional correlation of this succession. Here we present detailed sedimentologic, biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic data through this transition in the eastern Stansbury Basin. Three lithofacies are identified that indicate a deepening depositional environment ranging from inner-mid-shelf (Lithofacies A and B) to outer shelf (Lithofacies C). New δ13C chemostratigraphic data capture global positive excursion III within the lower Heatherdale Shale. Recovered bradoriid Sinskolutella cuspidata supports an upper Stage 2 (Micrina etheridgei Zone). The combined geochemistry and palaeontology data reveal that the lower Heatherdale Shale is older than previously appreciated. This integrated study improves regional chronostratigraphic resolution and interbasinal correlation, and better constrains the depositional setting of this important lower Cambrian package from the eastern Stansbury Basin, South Australia.
A framework to critically consider the ecological sustainability messaging in children’s literature is presented to authors, illustrators and editors, as well as teachers, parents and students/children. We have applied this framework to three books from the Children’s Book Council of Australia (CBCA) 2015 Notables list using critical discourse analysis (CDA). Findings suggest that there are themes and images in these award-winning texts that do not support ecological sustainability and we argue that children’s literature should be judged with criteria including ecological sustainability. Our hope is that ecological sustainability principles and practices lead to changes in social discourse through intergenerational storytelling.
The Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) is a widely used measure in developmental science that assesses adults’ current states of mind regarding early attachment-related experiences with their primary caregivers. The standard system for coding the AAI recommends classifying individuals categorically as having an autonomous, dismissing, preoccupied, or unresolved attachment state of mind. However, previous factor and taxometric analyses suggest that: (a) adults’ attachment states of mind are captured by two weakly correlated factors reflecting adults’ dismissing and preoccupied states of mind and (b) individual differences on these factors are continuously rather than categorically distributed. The current study revisited these suggestions about the latent structure of AAI scales by leveraging individual participant data from 40 studies (N = 3,218), with a particular focus on the controversial observation from prior factor analytic work that indicators of preoccupied states of mind and indicators of unresolved states of mind about loss and trauma loaded on a common factor. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that: (a) a 2-factor model with weakly correlated dismissing and preoccupied factors and (b) a 3-factor model that further distinguished unresolved from preoccupied states of mind were both compatible with the data. The preoccupied and unresolved factors in the 3-factor model were highly correlated. Taxometric analyses suggested that individual differences in dismissing, preoccupied, and unresolved states of mind were more consistent with a continuous than a categorical model. The importance of additional tests of predictive validity of the various models is emphasized.
Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <50 nmol/l) is recognised as a public health problem globally. The present study details the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in a nationally representative sample (n 3250) of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged ≥18 years. We used data from the 2012–2013 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (AATSIHS). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Survey-weighted logistic regression models were used to determine the independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency. Approximately 27 % of adult AATSIHS participants were vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in remote areas (39 %) than in non-remote areas (23 %). Independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency included assessment during winter (men, adjusted OR (aOR) 5·7; 95 % CI 2·2, 14·6; women, aOR 2·2; 95 % CI 1·3, 3·8) and spring (men, aOR 3·3; 95 % CI 1·4, 7·5; women, aOR 2·6; 95 % CI 1·5, 4·5) compared with summer, and obesity (men, aOR 2·6; 95 % CI 1·2, 5·4; women, aOR 4·3; 95 % CI 2·8, 6·8) compared with healthy weight. Statistically significant associations were evident for current smokers (men only, aOR 2·0; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·4), remote-dwelling women (aOR 2·0; 95 % CI 1·4, 2·9) and university-educated women (aOR 2·4; 95 % CI 1·2, 4·8). Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this population, strategies to maintain adequate vitamin D status through safe sun exposure and dietary approaches are needed.
Small carpenter bees (Ceratina calcarata Robertson) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) build their nests in both sunny and shady sites, so maternal decisions about nest sites influence the thermal environment experienced by juveniles throughout development. A previous study demonstrated that when larvae and pupae were raised in the laboratory at room temperature, those from sunny nests developed more slowly than those from shady nests. This suggested that bees developing in sunny nests slowed their metabolism or that bees developing in shady nests increased their metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we performed a field experiment in which bees nested in full sun, full shade, or semi-shade. We brought larvae and pupae into the laboratory to be raised to adulthood at room temperature and measured their metabolic rates (VCO2) at 10 °C, 25 °C, and 40 °C. As expected, bees had higher VCO2 at higher test temperatures, but significant interaction also occurred between test temperature and field treatment, such that bees from sunny nests exhibited higher metabolic rates at 40 °C. Because small carpenter bees frequently nest in full sun, adaptation to high nest temperatures may involve activation of thermal protection mechanisms at the cost of slower development.