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The innermost relationship of the borderline concept and psychosis has been historically intertwined and can be traced back to the 20th century, but remarkably, to date, they have not been the focus of many empirical studies. Likewise, the contributions of empirical research on the DSM-5 dimensional approach to this topic are also uncommon.
In this study the framework of psychosis superspectrum were put closely in relation to both DSM-5 psychoticism/detachment domains, personality traits and psychopathological symptoms features in borderline personality disorder (PD).
A cross-sectional study of a borderline PD sample of 58 participants (Mage=39.76 years, SD=11.37; Mschooling=9 years), mainly male (58.5%). Self-reported assessment: PID-5; BSI; NEO-FFI. A multiple linear regression was computed.
In borderline PD, the PID-5 disinhibition (β=.51), BSI psychoticism (β=.43), BSI depression (β=-.24) and NEO neuroticism (β=.29) predicted psychosis superspectrum, explaining 94% of the variance. Also, stands out as a complement that, the BSI psychoticism was predicted by PID-5 detachment and PID-5 psychoticism, explaining 82% of the variance.
Evidence appears to be emerging for the underlying psychosis superspectrum trough borderline PD. There is a closer dialogue between the state-of-art view of a dimensional pathological personality-symptoms and the borderline pathology.
State-of-the-art research highlights that borderline personality disorder have high rates of comorbid Axis I disorders, which imply uncertainty in establishing an accurate diagnosis and can be some of the most challenging patients for clinicians and researchers.
This study seeks to observe the diagnostic stability in borderline personality disorder patients, in order to increase empirical knowledge through a retrospective look at the historical line of diagnoses.
A twenty-year retrospective study at a psychiatric hospital, searching at the electronic clinical records for all patients with borderline personality disorder diagnosis, under the code 301.83 from World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (WHO ICD9). A 346 patients’ sample was identified aged between 18 and 83 years (Mage=44.14 years, SD=11.18; predominantly female 73.70%; Mschooling=9.31years; Madmissions=4.72times, SD=9.21; 2nd-5th comorbid diagnosis, a 75.72% sample with three diagnosis); excluding organic cerebral syndrome and no comorbidity besides drug abuse, or no comorbidity at all.
As a general observation, the following diagnoses are indicated: 44.09% major depressive disorder, 33.16% affective disorder, 13.05% schizophrenia, and 9.70% mania. As a spectrums disorders analysis (Figure 1), differential percentage occurrences are identified in patients with borderline personality disorder.
Based on clinical diagnoses records of borderline personality disorder patients, some spectrums disorders are highlighted, to be reported in descending order of incidence: depressive, affective, schizoaffective and schizophrenia spectrums.
Recent evidence has questioned modern psychiatric clinical practice, specifically the prescribing of “atypical” antipsychotics. Our Pan-European Research Group wished to ascertain clinical practice amongst European trainees, which treatments trainees would desire for themselves, and factors influencing this.
A semi-structured survey was constructed from prior literature, piloted, and a homogenous sample size of at least 50 was agreed upon from each country, with 50% minimum response rate. It was distributed via web-link, with questions on preference of antipsychotic for patients in given scenarios, and factors influencing choice. Physicians were asked for their preference should they develop psychosis.
i) Treatment choice of antipsychotic for patients
93% (n=600) of respondents chose to prescribe “atypical” antipsychotics (excluding Clozapine), 6% (n=42) choosing “typical” antipsychotics, 1% (n=6) choosing Clozapine as first-line therapy.
ii) Treatment choice if trainees developed psychosis
89% (n=530) of responders chose to prescribe “atypical” antipsychotics (excluding Clozapine), 7% (n=40) choosing “typical” antipsychotics, 4% (n=23) choosing Clozapine as first-line therapy.
iii) Factors influencing choice
These mapped onto three domains: cost, efficacy and side-effect profile (less than 5% other reasons). 79% (n=458) of those who responded felt efficacy most important, 46% (n=270) felt side-effect profile most important and 3% (n=16) considered cost of paramount importance.
38% (n=272) of those who responded to the survey stated that the CATIE trial had influenced their decision-making.
Psychiatry trainees’ choice of antipsychotic medication for both patients and themselves is based on perceived benefits, as opposed to evidence base and recent literature.
Guidelines produced for management of Bipolar Disorder illustrate change in evidence-base for treatment of acute and maintenance phases of illness. Our Pan-European Research Group assessed clinical practice and desired treatments amongst amongst Psychiatry trainees.
A semi-structured survey was piloted, and homogenous sample size (at least 50) agreed upon from each country, with 50% minimum response rate. It was distributed via web-link, questioning preference of mood stabiliser for patients, trainees themselves and factors influencing choice.
Tables 1 summarise choices.
Lithium and Sodium Valproate
2nd Generation Atypical antipsychotics
[Choice of mood stabiliser for patient/themselves]
Factors influencing decision-making mapped onto cost, efficacy and side-effect profile (less than 4% other reasons). 66% (n=538) of respondents felt efficacy most important, 25% (n=202) felt side-effect profile most important and 3% (n=24) considered cost of most importance.
No clear difference exists in choice of mood stabiliser for European trainees and their patients, and decisions based on perceived efficacy are generally in keeping with established guidelines.
There is growing concern about the influence of the pharmaceutical industry on psychiatric teaching and psychiatric professionalism as a whole. As a consequence, several national and international medical and psychiatric associations have issued guidelines to regulate the interactions between physicians and industry.
The EFPT-PRIRS study aims to provide the lacking data on the extent and nature of these interactions among psychiatric trainees across Europe.
Study objectives were determined by the EFPT research group (EFPT-RG), after discussion with national and international experts. A survey was then devised compiling previously published questionnaires extending them by questions with specific relevance to psychiatric trainees. The resulting questionnaire was piloted amongst members of the EFPT-RG, modified accordingly and subsequently distributed to the national study coordinators. All 24 EFPT member countries were invited to participate in the study and data collection is currently ongoing.
Preliminary analysis reveals the vast differences in industry - trainee relationships across European countries as well as major differences in personal attitudes towards these interactions.
EFPT-PRIRS will potentially have an impact on the regulation of the interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatric trainees.
In the last decades, psychiatric training has undergone a major transformation due to the contribution of recent scientific developments in psychiatry. Nowadays, the information acquired during the Psychiatric training seems considerably variable in content and quality between different countries. However, data concerning access to information and also about the educational resources available to the trainees in Europe is very limited.
Objectives and aims
The ATIIPT survey aimed to evaluate Psychiatric trainees’ access to published, online, senior's or industry's information in Europe.
A short paper questionnaire constituted of 7 questions (Appendix 1) was created by the members of the EFPT Research Working Group and passed to each delegate of the 32 countries represented at the 19th EFPT Forum in Prague, Czech Republic, on the 2nd of July 2011.
According to the ATIIPT results, access to information among Psychiatric trainees in Europe is heterogeneous. The most available resources are books and websites, and the most preferable resource is journals. Most of the trainees find their resources sufficient, with the main obstacles being related to low availability of journals and books, lack of time and help from seniors.
Better access to information and more evidence in practice is warranted, since the introduction of novel approaches to access to information may create better psychiatrists in the future, encourage medical students to consider psychiatry as a potential career, and help reduce negative attitudes towards mental illness.
The influence of pharmaceutical industry (PI) on clinical practice and research in psychiatry has been considered a serious problem. Strict rules and guidelines were developed to regulate the interactions between doctors and PI. However, there is an ongoing debate whether these were thoroughly implemented in practice and internalized by physicians. The objective of our study was to assess the attitudes and behaviors of trainees in psychiatry and child & adolescent psychiatry toward PI across Europe. Methodologically, a validated questionnaire with additional items was administered to1444 trainees in 20 European countries. The minimum response rate was set at 60%. We found a high variation across countries in number of interactions between trainees and PI representatives; Portugal and Turkey had the highest number of interactions. The majority (59.76%) agreed that interactions with PI representatives have an impact on physicians’ prescribing behavior; whereas only 29.26% and 19.79% agreed interactions with PI representatives and gifts from PI have impact on their own prescribing behavior, respectively. Most of the gifts were considered appropriate by the majority, except tickets to vacation spot and social dinner at a restaurant. Of the sample, 70.76% think they have not been given sufficient training regarding how to interact with PI representatives. Only less than 20% indicated they have guidelines at institutional or national level. In conclusion, there is substantial interaction between trainees and PI across countries. The majority feel inadequately trained regarding professional interaction with PI, and believes they are immune to the influence of PI.
The Olfactory Reference Syndrome (ORS) is a clinical condition in which patients are convinced that they exude an unpleasant odor that is noticed by others. It was described for the first time in 1891, but became relevant in the nosology with Phillips in 1971. Since then discussion remains about diagnostic framework of this clinical entity.
About a clinical case series, the authors intend to review clinical features, nosological framework and response to treatment of the ORS.
Review of literature collected from online medical databases. Report of a case series of five patients with ORS.
The literature on the ORS consists mainly of case reports, and there are few controlled studies and systematic reviews. It was found that in most cases the complaints relate to a typical body odor, more often fecal, genital or halitosis. These beliefs range from overvalued ideas to delusions with strong conviction and they are usually accompanied by ideas of self-reference. Patients do not always smell the odor that they believe to emanate. The disturbance has high social, family and work impact. The response to treatment is variable and it was observed at different rates when antipsychotics, antidepressants and psychotherapy are used.
Although it was proposed for integration in DSM-5 as an independent entity, the ORS was not so defined, remaining as a disorder whose characteristics overlap other diagnoses, including delusional disorder, in which is usually included, but also disorders from the obsessive-compulsive spectrum and social anxiety, given the variability of morbid consciousness. We also discuss the possible relationship of the ORS with symptoms of olfactory expression in other psychiatric disorders. The ORS deserves the attention of psychiatrists since it brings great suffering for the patient, as well as high demand for non-psychiatric care and the consequent delay in diagnosis and treatment.
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a treatable autoimmune disease of the CNS with prominent neuropsychiatric features that primarily affects young adults and children.
To present the diagnosis course of a case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in a patient with previous diagnosis of Schizophrenia.
Analysis of the patient's clinical records and of a PubMed database review, using “anti-NMDAR encephalitis” as keywords.
We report a single case of a 33-year-old man diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia in 2009 that after 1 year of treatment abandoned follow-up. Six years later, the patient presented to the psychiatric emergency department with persistent headaches, abnormal behavior and loss of motor skill. He was admitted to the psychiatric ward with a presumptive diagnosis of “Catatonic Schizophrenia” and began to manifest fluctuating catatonic symptoms (captured in video). Neuroleptics and benzodiazepines were tried without success. There was a clinical deterioration with autonomic dysfunction, breathing instability and seizures. Complementary exams revealed: EEG with slow base activity; brain MRI with right temporal pole and right frontobasal lesions compatible with head trauma; CSF with pleocytosis; and positive anti-NMDAR antibodies. Occult neoplasm was excluded. Treatment with high-dose steroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, followed by cyclophosphamide resulted in relevant clinical improvement.
As early detection of antibodies may allow for earlier treatment of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, which is associated with better outcomes, we believe the present case underscores the importance of clinicians maintaining vigilance for neuropsychiatric symptoms that have not adequately responded to therapy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The aim of this paper was to assess the prevalence of suicide ideation and attempts in Portuguese psychiatry trainees (adult, child and adolescence), and compare the data with the general population and other European countries.
Material and Methods
A structured and anonymous questionnaire was sent by email to 159 Portuguese trainees of adult psychiatry, child and adolescence psychiatry with questions about personal history of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, as well as family history of suicide attempts and completed suicides. This is part of the BoSS Study (Burnout Syndrome Study) performed in 21 countries worldwide. Data was analyzed in SPSS v.19.
From the inquired population, 62 trainees (40.3%) partially responded, and 46 (29%) were complete responders - these entered the final analysis. There was a ratio of 2:1 (female: male) and a mean age of 29 years. The suicidal ideation was present in passive form in 44% and in active form in 33%; also, 4.3% of respondents had previous suicide attempts. In first-degree relatives, 22% had attempted suicide and 13% completed suicide.
The results are worrying and may be associated with some factors to which this population is exposed.
It is necessary further research to better understand this phenomenon, its causes and potential modifiers.
Disclosure of interest
The author has not supplied his declaration of competing interest.
Hypergraphia is an extensive writing tendency sometimes coupled with hyperreliogiosity and atypical sexuality, completing a syndrome described by Waxman and Geschwind in 1975 during interictal phases of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Nevertheless, it may arise from any temporolimbic lesion, usually in the right hemisphere, in contrast to the schizophreniform psychosis more often seen in left-sided lesions.
A review on the lateralizing significance of temporolimbic lesions, highlighting the (un)specificity of hypergraphia, after a case report concerning a patient with both hypergraphia and schizophreniform psychosis.
Analyse patient's clinical records and PubMed review, using hypergraphia, epilepsy and psychosis as keywords.
We report a 74-year-old male admitted due to aggressiveness. The patient had a traumatic brain injury in his 20s with secondary left temporal epilepsy. He lived in a psychiatric asylum, for almost 40 years, with the diagnosis of schizophrenia, showing fluctuant atypical sexual behavior. After being transinstitutionalized to community nursing-home he developed meningoencephalitis, leading to medication change and behavior relapse. He showed viscosity, circumstantiality, soliloquy, euthymic mood and normal cognition. He wrote profusely, e.g. lists of various categories and letters to eminent clerics and politics. His diary was scanned for illustrative purpose.
Hypergraphia is an uncommon but easy to find symptom that deserves the full attention of the clinician, especially in the differential diagnosis between schizophreniform psychosis and temporal epilepsy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
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