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Children with congenital heart disease are at high risk for malnutrition. Standardisation of feeding protocols has shown promise in decreasing some of this risk. With little standardisation between institutions’ feeding protocols and no understanding of protocol adherence, it is important to analyse the efficacy of individual aspects of the protocols.
Adherence to and deviation from a feeding protocol in high-risk congenital heart disease patients between December 2015 and March 2017 were analysed. Associations between adherence to and deviation from the protocol and clinical outcomes were also assessed. The primary outcome was change in weight-for-age z score between time intervals.
Increased adherence to and decreased deviation from individual instructions of a feeding protocol improves patients change in weight-for-age z score between birth and hospital discharge (p = 0.031). Secondary outcomes such as markers of clinical severity and nutritional delivery were not statistically different between groups with high or low adherence or deviation rates.
High-risk feeding protocol adherence and fewer deviations are associated with weight gain independent of their influence on nutritional delivery and caloric intake. Future studies assessing the efficacy of feeding protocols should include the measures of adherence and deviations that are not merely limited to caloric delivery and illness severity.
The primary aim of this study was to develop a FSH enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the bovine species. The newly developed EIA was validated for FSH determination in bovine plasma by comparison with an existing bovine FSH radioimmunoassay. The EIA detected bovine FSH with a high sensitivity (0.1 ng/ml). Cross-reactivity of the EIA was 0.01% with bovine LH, 51% with ovine FSH, <0.1% with porcine FSH and <0.01% with equine FSH. Using this EIA on different time series of plasma in cows, we have confirmed the presence of a FSH pre-ovulatory peak at estrus, of periodic FSH fluctuations accompanying the waves of terminal follicular development, and of FSH pulses, mainly asynchronous with LH ones, in the peri-ovulatory phase of the cycle. In a second objective, the EIA was used to assess the role of FSH in regulating the development of ovarian follicles up to the small antral stage in young calves. To answer this question, six calves were submitted to weekly blood sampling during their first 3 months of life, and FSH changes were studied concomitantly to those of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a well-established endocrine marker of the ovarian population of small antral follicles in cows. In the ovaries of 3-month calves, the population of 3 to 5 mm follicles contained the highest intra-follicular AMH amounts, and the number of 3 to 5 mm follicles on ovaries was closely correlated with AMH concentrations in the plasma of calves at this age (rs = 0.94). Before 3 months of age, only two out of six calves showed a clear postnatal FSH peak in plasma, and no correlation was found between plasma FSH and AMH concentrations. These results indicate that female calves undergo different patterns of FSH secretion and that postnatal activation of follicular growth up to the small antral stage appears independent and not directly related to circulating FSH levels.
This study investigated whether five positive psychological constructs (self-efficacy, gratitude, grit, hope and optimism) had a combined effect on levels of depression. The co-occurrence of these psychological factors, defined as an example of covitality, was examined in relation to predicting lower levels of depression. Participants were 278 retirees living in Brisbane, Australia. Each participant completed either an online or hard-copy self-report, related to positive psychological functioning. A standard multiple regression found that self-efficacy, grit, optimism and hope were individually all significant predictors of depression (small effect sizes); however, the combinatorial relation of all these four factors with depression was substantial (R2 = 0.34; large effect size). Gratitude was not a significant predictor. While no causality can be inferred from this cross-sectional study, having a combination of positive psychological factors might have an effect on levels of depression in retirement.
Considering the many positive outcomes associated with adolescents’ sense of school belonging, including psychological functioning, it is possible that including an assessment of school belonging within a complete mental health screening process could contribute to the prediction of students’ future mental health status. This exploratory study used complete mental health screening data obtained from a central California high school (N = 1,159). At Time 1 (T1) schoolwide screening was used to identify complete mental health groups by applying a dual-factor strategy and concurrently measuring students’ school belonging. One year later at Time 2 (T2), social-emotional wellbeing and internal distress were assessed. Cross-sectional T1 results indicated that there were significant differences in school belonging between students who reported low global life satisfaction and those who reported average or high global life satisfaction, regardless of reported level of psychological distress. A comparison of T1 to T2 data revealed that global life satisfaction and psychological distress were predictive of wellbeing and internal distress. However, contrary to study expectations, school belonging at T1 added little to the prediction of T2 psychological distress beyond the information already provided by the T1 dual-factor screening framework. Implications for practice and future directions are discussed.
One of the approaches to fabrication of MEMS involves surface micromachining to define dies on single crystal silicon wafers, dicing of the wafers to separate the dies, and electronic packaging of the individual dies. Dicing and packaging of MEMS accounts for a large fraction of the fabrication costs, therefore, nondestructive evaluation at the wafer level, before dicing, can have significant implications on improving production yield and costs. In this paper, advances in development of optoelectronic holography (OEH) techniques for nondestructive, noninvasive, full-field of view evaluation of MEMS at the wafer level are described. With OEH techniques, quantitative measurements of shape and deformation of MEMS, as related to their performance and integrity, are obtained with sub-micrometer spatial resolution and nanometer measuring accuracy. To inspect an entire wafer with OEH techniques, measurements of overlapping regions of interest (ROI) on a wafer are recorded and adjacent ROIs are stitched together through efficient 3D correlation analysis algorithms.
Advancements in microelectromechanical technologies have lead to progressive design of small footprint, low dynamic mass and actuation power, and high-resolution MEMS inertial sensors. In this paper, development of instrumentation and methodologies for wireless health monitoring of structures using MEMS inertial sensors is presented. A dedicated experimental setup is developed to characterize specific MEMS inertial sensors and structures. Studies presented in this paper include development and characterization of a prototype wireless data acquisition system to transmit analog and digital signals. Results show that the frequency response of the prototype wireless data acquisition system is compatible with the frequency response of the MEMS inertial sensors utilized. The prototype wireless MEMS inertial system is applied to perform tilt and rotation measurements. It is shown that with the wireless MEMS system it is possible to achieve an angular resolution of 1.8 mrad.
In this paper, we describe confocal optoelectronic holography microscopy (COEHM) technique specifically being developed for characterizing the shape of MEMS and microelectronics. This is particularly important because shape is directly related to the functionality, performance, and integrity of the microstructures of interest. A specific feature of COEHM is that it allows characterization of high aspect ratio MEMS and microelectronics. Representative applications demonstrating the capabilities of COEHM are presented. It is shown that measurement resolution is highly dependent on the numerical aperture (NA) of the optical components comprising COEHM and on the quality of image digitization. By utilizing optical components characterized by a magnification factor of 50x and a NA of 0.45, measurement resolution of 25 nm is achieved. The resolution is increased to 8 nm when utilizing optical components characterized by a magnification factor of 100x and a NA of 0.73.
With the electronic industry being one of the most dynamic, in terms of new technologies, electronic packages have to be designed and optimized for new and ever more demanding applications in relatively short periods of time. This, in turn, indicates a need for effective quantitative testing methodologies. In this paper, a novel hybridized use of nondestructive, noninvasive, remote, full field of view, quantitative opto-electronic holography techniques with computational modeling is presented. The hybridization is illustrated with a representative application, which shows that the combined use of opto-electronic holography techniques and computational modeling provides an effective engineering tool for nondestructive study of electro-mechanical components.
Chalcogenide semiconductors have been deposited epitaxially from aqueous solutions either chemically or electrochemically at growth rates of up to 0.7 μmhr−1. After recalling the basic principles of these deposition processes, results are presented concerning chemically deposited CdS on InP, GaP and CuInSe2 substrates, electrodeposited CdTe on InP, and CdSAnP heterostructures. Characterisation of these structures by RHEED, TEM, HRTEM, and glazing angle X ray diffraction allows to analyse the effects of substrate orientation, polarity, lattice match plus the influence of temperature on epitaxial growth. These results are discussed in terms of self organisation and a site selective growth mechanisms due to the free enegy of formation of each compound.
The effectiveness of a sex pheromone trap designed specifically to deliver conidia (infective fungal propagules) of the entomopathogenic fungus Zoophthora radicans Brefeld (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) to male Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) was investigated. In field experiments in the Cameron Highlands of Malaysia, synthetic pheromone lures attracted adult males P. xylostella at all times of the day whereas lures of virgin female moths attracted males only between the hours of dusk and dawn, when females are known to produce their pheromone. Adult male moths attracted to traps baited with synthetic pheromone spent a geometric mean time of 88 seconds within the inoculation chamber, a time compatible with the period adults must spend within a shower of Z. radicans conidia produced by uniform mycelial mats in order to become infected. The field longevity of male and female P. xylostella adults was found to be similar, with individuals living for a mean time of 4.9 days. This was sufficient time for male moths to respond to the pheromone, enter the trap, become infected with Z. radicans and succumb to that infection in the field (3–3.5 days) thereby releasing infective conidia into the cabbage crop.
This study investigates the mechanisms of action for the hypocholesterolaemic effects of sugar-beet fibre (SBF) and gum gum. Four groups of ten male Wistar rats were fed ad lib. on test diets containing either 100 g SBF or guar/kg, or control diets containing 100 g cellulose or wheat bran/kg for 28 d. Food intake, weight gain and food consumption ratios were unaffected by the diets. Circulating cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in both SBF- and guar-fed groups compared with either cellulose- or bran-fed animals. Circulating triacylglycerol concentrations were significantly lower in SBF- and guar-fed animals, but total hepatic lipid concentrations and hepatic and adipose tissue lipogenesis rates were unaffected by the diets. Hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (EC188.8.131.52) activities were significantly higher in the guar-fed animals compared with cellulose or bran control groups. Hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-metbylglutaryl-CoA reductase (EC184.108.40.206) activities were unaffected. Circulating bile acid concentrations were significantly lower in SBF- and guar-fed animals and faecal bile acid output was significantly higher in the guar-fed group compared with bran- or cellulose-fed groups. This study supports the hypothesis that guar exerts its hypocholesterolaemic effect via intraluminal bile acid binding and loss of cholesterol from increased faecal bile acid excretion. The mechanism of action for the hypocholesterolaemic effect of SBF is less clear; the results of the present study point to a mechanism involving disruption of the enterohepatic bile acid circulation, possibly via changes in the rate of absorption of dietary lipid.
The nacreous (mother-of-pearl) sections of molluscan shells are natural laminates of aragonitic calcium carbonate platelets and an organic matrix. The multi-edged platelets are sub-micrometer thick and surrounded on all sides by 10–20 nm-thick organic matrix that contains several proteins and polysaccharides. Our goal is to identify the components and structure of the organic matrix and determine their function in shell formation and organization. We have extracted organic material from red abalone-Haliotis rufescens, and chambered nautilus-Nautilus pompilius. From the soluble portion, we have partially purified two proteins and determined their amino acid compositions.
The priorities accorded severely disabled or disturbed long-stay patients in Regional and District planning strategies vary enormously. A scheme to cater for the needs of this group is described. The scheme includes: non-stigmatising housing; a domestic regime, daytime occupation and leisure activities offering forms of enabling and caring that foster the highest possible levels of functioning; a secure home; private and peaceful outdoor space; and graduated steps towards independence that allow for the possibility of relapse. The central concept is the establishment of a Community for people with severe difficulties in making social contacts. The importance of integrating the scheme into a comprehensive District psychiatric service is emphasised.