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Depressed patients with early traumatic experiences may represent a clinically distinct subtype with worse clinical outcome. Since early traumatic experiences alter the development of systems that regulate the stress response, certain personality features may influence coping strategies, putting individuals with depression and a history of early traumatic experiences at greater risk of suicidal behaviour.
To determine whether impulsivity mediates the relationship between early traumatic experiences and suicidal behaviour in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
The sample included 190 patients [mean age (SD)=53.71 (10.37); females: 66.3%], with current MDD. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE), and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11) were used to assess childhood and adulthood adverse life events and impulsivity. We developed mediation models by bootstrap sampling methods.
81 (42.6%) patients had previous suicide attempts (SA). CTQ-SF-Total and BIS-11-Total scores were higher in MDD patients with previous SA. Correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between the CTQ-SF-Total and BIS-11-Total, CTQ-SF-Total and HDRS-Total, and BIS-11-Total and HDRS-Total scores. Regression models found that CTQ-SF-Total, BIS-11-Total, and HDRS-Total scores were associated with SA. Mediation analyses further revealed the association between CTQ-SF-Total and SA was mediated by the indirect effect of the BIS-11-Total score (b=0.007, 95% CI=0.001, 0.015), after controlling for sex, HDRS-Total, and LTE-Total.
Impulsivity could mediate the influence of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour. This will help understand the role of risk factors in suicidal behaviour and aid in the development of prevention interventions focused on modifiable mediators when risk factors are non-modifiable.
Suicidal behavior has a great impact on world public health. The literature describes the possible existence of an association between neurobiological, clinical and cognitive factors in suicidal behavior.
To determine the possible relationship between clinical variables (history of abuse/maltreatment in childhood), psychopathology (impulsivity traits) and cognitive (decision-making) with a history of suicide attempt and/or current suicidal idea in patients with major depressive disorder.
Cross-sectional study in a sample of adult patients with major depressive disorder in which two types of comparisons are made. In the first case, two groups were compared based on the presence or absence of history of suicide attempt. In the second case, two groups were compared based on the presence or absence of suicidal ideation in the same sample of patients. Finally, sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables were evaluated in that population sample.
When the joint influence of sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive characteristics are present, it can be said that being single/divorced/separated, a history of sexual abuse in childhood and an alteration in decision-making, specifically a lower number of choices of deck D in the IGT test, are associated with a higher probability of a personal history of suicide attempt. While a higher score on the Barrat impulsivity scale is associated with a greater probability of presenting current suicidal ideation once the influence of sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables has been taken into account.
Different sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive factors are associated with the presence of a history of suicide attempt and/or current suicidal ideation.
The aging process is associated with a deterioration of the physiological systems, especially the homeostatic (nervous, immune and endocrine) systems with the consequent increase in morbidity and mortality. With the aging population, increasing number of studies focus on lifestyle interventions to slow down these aging derangements. Here, animal models can be useful to assess their long-term effects and potential value taking into advantage their shorter life span. In a previous work, old animals beneficed of 2 months of continuous cohabitation with adult, with improvements on behaviour, immune function and redox state as well as a higher longevity. However, their adult counterparts showed impairments in these parameters. In the present study, this social strategy was modified with the aim to improve the homeostatic systems in both the old and the adult animals.) Animals of the experimental group with “two old ICR-CD1 female mice cohabiting 15 minutes each day for 2 months with five adult mic” were studied and compared to adult and old controls. After this time, mice were submitted to a behavioural battery of tests to analyse their sensorimotor abilities, anxiety-like behaviours, and exploratory capacities. Peritoneal leukocytes were collected and several immune functions, oxidative and inflammatory stress parameters as well as catecholamine concentrations were assessed. When the adult mice reached old age the same parameters were again analysed. The life span of each animal was also recorded. Several mice of each group were sacrificed to obtain plasma and the hormone oxytocin was evaluated. The results show that old mice presented an improvement of behavioural capacities, immune functions and lower oxidative and inflammatory stress after the two months of social interaction with adult animals, and consequently they exhibited an extended life span. Adult mice, in general, did not show any changes after social interaction, but when they achieved old age an improvement of all the parameters studied and of longevity was observed in comparison with those mice that never had a social interaction with old animals. In conclusion, a short social interaction between old and adult individuals can be an excellent strategy for improving in both the health state and longevity.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
One hypothesis proposed to underlie formal thought disorder (FTD), the incoherent speech is seen in some patients with schizophrenia, is that it reflects impairment in frontal/executive function. While this proposal has received support in neuropsychological studies, it has been relatively little tested using functional imaging. This study aimed to examine brain activations associated with FTD, and its two main factor-analytically derived subsyndromes, during the performance of a working memory task.
Seventy patients with schizophrenia showing a full range of FTD scores and 70 matched healthy controls underwent fMRI during the performance of the 2-back version of the n-back task. Whole-brain corrected, voxel-based correlations with FTD scores were examined in the patient group.
During 2-back performance the patients showed clusters of significant inverse correlation with FTD scores in the inferior frontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally, the left temporal cortex and subcortically in the basal ganglia and thalamus. Further analysis revealed that these correlations reflected an association only with ‘alogia’ (poverty of speech, poverty of content of speech and perseveration) and not with the ‘fluent disorganization’ component of FTD.
This study provides functional imaging support for the view that FTD in schizophrenia may involve impaired executive/frontal function. However, the relationship appears to be exclusively with alogia and not with the variables contributing to fluent disorganization.
The use of psychiatric services has been associated with a wide range of clinical variables. However, information about the impact of adolescent personality pathology related to hospital admissions is limited.
To analyze the different combination of personality pathology associated to variables of psychiatric hospital admissions (number of admissions, total of days spent as psychiatric inpatient, average of days for admission, and number of admissions in a day care hospital).
The ICD-10 and DSM-IV modules of the semi-structured interview IPDE (International Personality Disorders Examination) were administered, in a sample of 107 adolescent psychiatric patients (M=15.8, SD=0.8 years old; age rank 15-17; 79% female).
Personality pathology group identified by the IPDE showed significantly higher number (p< .001) of psychiatric admissions (M=1.48) than no personality pathology group (M=0.57), but not significant higher number of admissions in a day care hospital. Psychotic patients showed the highest rate of admissions (M=2.88). In present sample, between 30% and 38% of all hospital admitted patients showed a Cluster B personality disorder (PD).The users of psychiatric inpatient services with a complex PD (two o more PD from different clusters) presents in average: 2-2.5 admissions, 34-53 total days spent as psychiatric inpatient, and 11-16 days on each admission.
Patients with psychotic disorders or complex PD were the highest users of inpatients services, but not of day care hospital admissions.
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most widely distributed and highly expressed neurotrophin in the CNS. BDNF gene have been associated with increased risk psychiatric disorders. It has been described interaction between BDNF and serotonin system at a neural and genetic level. Neuroticism as a personality trait relevant in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has genetic inheritance and is associated with serotonergic dysfunction. Has been reported that BDNF Val66Met variant is associated with neuroticism in general population. The aim of this study is to test the association between Val66Met and neuroticism and evaluate if the presence of Val66Met allele interacts with polymorphism in promoter region of serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) for develop neuroticism in BPD. We evaluate personality with NEO PI R in 104 BPD subjects that did not meet criteria for axis I diagnoses and other personality disorders. Genetic analysis of BDNF was performed determining the presence of Val/Val Val/Met and Met/Met BDNF variants. 5-HTTLPR was performed determining the presence of L and S 5-HTTLPR alleles. Statistical analysis were tested with parametric and correlation method with Stata10. We did not found differences in neuroticism between BDNF variants, but when controlled by BDNF alleles we found that Met/Met modulate the expression of 5-HTTLPR, with S-carriers (LS+SS) having higher neuroticism than LL (F = 6.36, p = 0.0031). We found no differences in expression of 5-HTTLPR in other BDNF variants. We conclude that BDNF have a differential modulating effect of 5-HTTLPR in neuroticism in BPD.
Several studies have suggested that nicotine could have beneficial effects on cognitive functioning.
To explore the association between smoking and cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
Observational study. We analyzed data from 184 participants in 3 groups (61 healthy controls, 47 euthymic patients with bipolar-I disorder, 76 patients with clinically stable schizophrenia) assessed by a neuropsychological battery. Statistical analysis was performed comparing subgroups of smokers and non-smokers data. Both groups were demographic and clinically comparable.
Smoking rate was higher in participants with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia (X 2 = 26.8, p = 0.001). Bipolar Group: neuropsychological performance was similar in smokers (n = 28) and non-smokers (n = 19) except perseverative errors of the Wisconsin test, in which smokers performed significantly worse (t = −2.1, p = 0,03). Schizophrenia group: smokers (n = 46) performed significantly better than non-smokers (n = 30) in the verbal fluency test (t = −2.46, p = 0.046), finger tapping right (t = −2.19; p = 0.03) and immediate (t = −2.84, p = 0.006) and delayed recall (t = −2.59, p = 0.01) of Rey figure test.
This is the first study comparing these clinical groups. The global cognitive function in euthymic state was similar in both groups despite of smoking status. However, smoking could be associated with a worse executive function in bipolar disorder. In patients with schizophrenia smoking was associated with better performance in visual memory, verbal fluency and motor speed, but not attention.
Neuroticism is characterized by emotional instability and the tendency to experience negative emotions such as anger, anxiety and depressed mood. Subjects with borderline personality disorder (BPD) present this personality dimension as a temperamental core trait. There has been proposed that neuroticism can appropriately describe the most important characteristics of BPD. The polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has been implicated in depression, anxiety and suicide. It is estimated that 5-HTTLPR polymorphism account to 7 to 9% of inherited variance of neuroticism in personality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between neuroticism and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in BPD. We evaluate personality with NEO PI R inventory in 104 BPD subjects (76 female/28 male) that did not meet criteria for axis I diagnoses and other personality disorders. The genetic analysis of 5-HTTLPR were performed determining the presence of long and short alleles, subjects were grouped in long/long (LL) and S-carriers (LS+SS). Statistical analysis were tested with parametric and correlation method with Stata10. We found significant difference in neuroticism between the genotype groups (F = 8.57, p = 0.0004) and lower levels of neuroticism in LL than S-carriers. Female have higher neuroticism than male. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism explains 18.02% of inherited variance in neuroticism. The S-carriers had 11.9 times higher risk of presenting elevated neuroticism compared with LL. We conclude that there are relation between 5-HTTLPR polymorphism and neuroticism in BPD. These results should contribute to the genetic study of BPD.
The workshop will give an overview of distinct neurophysiological and brain imaging studies with patients suffering from Borderline personality disorder and from depressive affective disorder. The contribution of Jose Manuel De la Fuente will report findings of sleep EEG recordings of patients with Borderline personality disorder (BPD), Major Depression (MD), Recurrent Brief Depression (RBD), and of controls. It was detected that BPD patients expressed less slow wave sleep than MD and RBD patients without BPD. Oliver Pogarell performed a radioligand brain imaging study that revealed an increase of the availability of the specific serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hypothalamus and brain stem of BPD patients which is in contrast to the findings of a SERT decrease in patients with depression. Christine Norra recorded event-related auditory evoked potentials (AEP) obtained through the application of various loudness stimuli. The strong loudness dependency of AEP in patients with BPD correlated with aspects of impulsiveness which may point to a serotonin disturbance in this disorder. Thomas Zetzsche and his collegues performed a quantitative volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of temporolimbic regions in patients with BPD and MD. They found a significant increase of amygdala volume both in BPD patients with comorbid MD and in MD patients without BPD. Comparison of abnormal neurobiological findings between BPD and MD could provide a better insight into potential differences but also into similarities of the pathophysiology of these important psychiatric disorders.
Given the high prevalence, severity and difficulty recognizing psychiatric disorders in patients with TBI, it is necessary to conduct a detailed history, gathering information on the location of the lesion and its relationship with the table in the psychopathological examination.
Illustrated by a clinical case, the close relationship between the injury of specific brain areas and the emergence of psychopathology that allows us to deepen the understanding of the biological substrate of mental disorders.
Exposure of a clinical picture and brief literature review of the existing literature.
We report the case of a man of 49 years old, no personal or family history was admitted to the hospital after a traffic accident with severe TBI. Computed tomography (CT) scan shows intraparenquematoso right temporal hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma right, pneumocephalus front right, front left fracture of both orbits and right maxillary sinus.
The interest in the study and the relationship of psychiatric symptoms with the location of the lesions, we can provide improved understanding of the biological basis of mental disorders.
To quantify knowledge among the general Spanish population of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Material and method:
We developed a telephone-administered questionnaire to ask about ADHD (acronym and full name) on a spontaneous and suggested basis. Questions were asked relating to myths, symptoms, treatment, implications and healthcare professionals involved in the disease.The study sample was 770 adults (sample precision at national level 3.5) with no personal, familial or professional relationship to ADHD.
Only 4% of the subjects spontaneously answered the question about what ADHD means, while 85.3% identified the disease after we suggested what “ADHD” meant. Only 50% admitted that the disease represents a probably genetic brain disorder. A total of 39.6% believed that there was no treatment or healthcare intervention for ADHD. the intervention most often cited as being adequate was psychological treatment (48%), followed by multimodal therapy (44%). Only 12% mentioned medication. Thus, psychological intervention was regarded as the most effective option, followed by psychoeducational measures. Most of the subjects identified the psychologist as the professional indicated to treat ADHD, followed by the pediatrician, psychiatrist and neuropediatrician. Reasonable knowledge was observed in reference to affirmations / myths in ADHD (78.3–95.3%).
There are areas for improvement among the general population regarding knowledge of ADHD, its implications and treatment.
We study the behaviour of the dynamical and stellar mass inside the effective radius as function of local density for early-type galaxies (ETGs). We use several samples of ETGs - ranging from 19000 to 98000 objects - from the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We consider Newtonian dynamics, different light profiles and different initial mass functions (IMF) to calculate the dynamical and stellar mass. We assume that any difference between these two masses is due to dark matter and/or a non-universal IMF. The main results are: (i) the amount of dark matter (DM) inside ETGs depends on the environment; (ii) ETGs in low-density environments span a wider DM range than ETGs in dense environments; (iii) the amount of DM inside ETGs in the most dense environments will be less than approximately 55-65 per cent of the dynamical mass; (iv) the accurate value of this upper limit depends on the impact of the IMF on the stellar mass estimation.
Adoption of better technologies is a crucial way for developing countries to close productivity gaps with leading economies. However, the possibility of growing through technological adoption depends decisively on the country’s absorptive capacity. We build a theoretical model of technology adoption that focuses on four factors that shape the countries’ technological absorptive capacity, namely: (i) years of education; (ii) quality of the educational system; (iii) barriers that impede the entry and exit of firms; and (iv) the institutions that enhance or impede the diffusion of new technologies. We calibrate the model for a sample of 86 economies. The USA is our benchmark leading economy. We disentangle the relative weight of each development factor in explaining per capita income differences and study patterns in relationships between the type of development barrier and the level of development. Our results show that in relative terms, years of education and education system quality along with high barriers to opening new firms are the main impediments that middle- to high-income economies face in closing the gap with the USA. Education as a whole (quality plus years of education) explains 50% of the gap between high-income countries (HICs) and the USA, while the entry costs account for nearly 25% of this gap. A remarkable result is the small effect that individual reforms have on steady-state productivity in low-income countries (LICs). Outside of institutional framework, the remaining three factors are individually responsible for less than 15% of the gap. This result is explained by poor global absorptive capacity that reduces the effect of each factor when implemented individually. In fact, there are significant nonlinearities between development level and the effects of individual reforms, which are due to the strong complementarities between the different development factors.
How did Africans become 'blacks' in the Americas? Becoming Free, Becoming Black tells the story of enslaved and free people of color who used the law to claim freedom and citizenship for themselves and their loved ones. Their communities challenged slaveholders' efforts to make blackness synonymous with slavery. Looking closely at three slave societies - Cuba, Virginia, and Louisiana - Alejandro de la Fuente and Ariela J. Gross demonstrate that the law of freedom - not slavery - established the meaning of blackness in law. Contests over freedom determined whether and how it was possible to move from slave to free status, and whether claims to citizenship would be tied to racial identity. Laws regulating the lives and institutions of free people of color created the boundaries between black and white, the rights reserved to white people, and the degradations imposed only on black people.