Rush skeletonweed is an invasive weed in winter wheat (WW)/summer fallow (SF) rotations in the low to intermediate rainfall areas of the inland Pacific Northwest. Standard weed control practices are not effective, resulting in additional SF tillage or herbicide applications. The objective of this field research was to identify herbicide treatments that control rush skeletonweed during the SF phase of the WW/SF rotation. Trials were conducted near LaCrosse, WA, in 2017–2019 and 2018–2020, and near Hay, WA, in 2018–2020. The LaCrosse 2017–2019 trial was in tilled SF; the other two trials were in no-till SF. Fall postharvest applications in October included clopyralid, clopyralid plus 2,4-D, clopyralid plus 2,4-D plus chlorsulfuron plus metsulfuron, aminopyralid, picloram, and glyphosate plus 2,4-D. Spring treatments of clopyralid, aminopyralid, and glyphosate were applied to rush skeletonweed rosettes. Summer treatments of 2,4-D were applied when rush skeletonweed initiated bolting. Plant density was monitored through the SF phase in all plots. Picloram provided complete control of rush skeletonweed through June at all three locations. Fall-applied clopyralid, clopyralid plus 2,4-D, and clopyralid followed by 2,4-D in summer reduced rush skeletonweed through June at the two LaCrosse sites but were ineffective at Hay. In August, just prior to WW seeding, the greatest reductions in rush skeletonweed density were achieved with picloram and fall-applied clopyralid at the two LaCrosse sites. No treatments provided effective control into August at Hay. Wheat yield in the next crop compared to the nontreated control was reduced only at one LaCrosse site by a spring-applied aminopyralid treatment, otherwise no other reductions were found. Long-term control of rush skeletonweed in WW/SF may be achieved by a combination of fall application of picloram, after wheat harvest, followed by an effective burn-down treatment in August prior to WW seeding.