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To analyze the evacuation preparedness of hospitals within the European Union (EU).
This study consisted of 2 steps. In the first step, a systematic review of the subject matter, according to the PRISMA flow diagram, was performed. Using Scopus (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands), PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD), and Gothenburg University´s search engine, 11 questions were extracted from the review and were sent to representatives from 15 European Union (EU)- and non-EU countries.
The findings indicate that there is neither a full preparedness nor a standard guideline for evacuation within the EU or other non-EU countries in this study. A major shortcoming revealed by this study is the lack of awareness of the untoward consequences of medical decision-making during an evacuation. Some countries did not respond to the questions due to the lack of relevant guidelines, instructions, or time.
Hospitals are exposed to internal and external incidents and require an adequate evacuation plan. Despite many publications, reports, and conclusions on successful and unsuccessful evacuation, there is still no common guide for evacuation, and many hospitals lack the proper preparedness. There is a need for a multinational collaboration, specifically within the EU, to establish such an evacuation planning or guideline to be used mutually within the union and the international community.
Two major astronomical experiments are underway at the US Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The first is the South Pole Telescope, a 10m sub-millimetre telescope designed to measure primary and secondary anisotropies in the CMBR, with the aim of placing constraints on the equation of state for dark energy. The second is the IceCube neutrino observatory, which will be a cubic kilometre array designed to image sources of high energy neutrinos.
We describe the design and current status of the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), a compact cm-wave interferometer operating at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station. With 20-cm diameter primary antenna elements operating over the frequency range 26 − 36 GHz, DASI is optimized to measure the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) over the multipole range 140 − 920, (corresponding to scales of 25′ − 2°.6), as well as make high-sensitivity maps of the microwave sky. The telescope was built at the University of Chicago and deployed at the South Pole during the 1999-2000 austral summer.
We estimate the gas mass fractions for a sample of 39 high-$z$ galaxy clusters using a combination of three different data sets: Chandra X-ray data, OVRO/BIMA centimeter-wave Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect (SZE) data, and published weak gravitational lensing data. The gas mass fraction $f_g$ is calculated in three different ways. The X-ray surface brightness and SZE decrement are used independently to determine the number of baryons in the intracluster gas and subsequently the gas mass; the total mass follows assuming spherical symmetry and hydrostatic equilibrium (HSE). The third, less model-dependent approach is to calculate the projected SZE gas mass along a cylinder and divide by the total mass derived from the lensing data. The goal of this study is to compare the $f_g$ results from the three different methods to investigate systematic uncertainties associated with clumping of the intracluster medium, cluster elongation, and the HSE assumption.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
A linked submillimeter-wave interferometer using the CSO 10.4 m and the JCMT 15 m telescopes located on Mauna Kea at an elevation of 4200 m, has been built and tested successfully. The capabilities of the instrument and an outline of the type of observations that can be made with a single, fixed-baseline interferometer are given. In particular, an experiment to detect gas infalling onto low-mass protostellar sources is proposed. The design of the instrument is described briefly and the successful results of the first tests are summarized.
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