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In clinical settings where airborne pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, are prevalent, they constitute an important threat to health workers and people accessing healthcare. We report key insights from a 3-year project conducted in primary healthcare clinics in South Africa, alongside other recent tuberculosis infection prevention and control (TB-IPC) research. We discuss the fragmentation of TB-IPC policies and budgets; the characteristics of individuals attending clinics with prevalent pulmonary tuberculosis; clinic congestion and patient flow; clinic design and natural ventilation; and the facility-level determinants of the implementation (or not) of TB-IPC interventions. We present modeling studies that describe the contribution of M. tuberculosis transmission in clinics to the community tuberculosis burden and economic evaluations showing that TB-IPC interventions are highly cost-effective. We argue for a set of changes to TB-IPC, including better coordination of policymaking, clinic decongestion, changes to clinic design and building regulations, and budgeting for enablers to sustain implementation of TB-IPC interventions. Additional research is needed to find the most effective means of improving the implementation of TB-IPC interventions; to develop approaches to screening for prevalent pulmonary tuberculosis that do not rely on symptoms; and to identify groups of patients that can be seen in clinic less frequently.
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a pest species complex that causes widespread damage to cassava, a staple food crop for millions of households in East Africa. Species in the complex cause direct feeding damage to cassava and are the vectors of multiple plant viruses. Whilst significant work has gone into developing virus-resistant cassava cultivars, there has been little research effort aimed at understanding the ecology of these insect vectors. Here we assess critically the knowledge base relating to factors that may lead to high population densities of sub-Saharan African (SSA) B. tabaci species in cassava production landscapes of East Africa. We focus first on empirical studies that have examined biotic or abiotic factors that may lead to high populations. We then identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled to deliver sustainable management solutions. We found that whilst many hypotheses have been put forward to explain the increases in abundance witnessed since the early 1990s, there are little published data and these tend to have been collected in a piecemeal manner. The most critical knowledge gaps identified were: (i) understanding how cassava cultivars and alternative host plants impact population dynamics and natural enemies; (ii) the impact of natural enemies in terms of reducing the frequency of outbreaks and (iii) the use and management of insecticides to delay the development of resistance. In addition, there are several fundamental methodologies that need to be developed and deployed in East Africa to address some of the more challenging knowledge gaps.
Over the past 30 years, the number of US doctoral anthropology graduates has increased by about 70%, but there has not been a corresponding increase in the availability of new faculty positions. Consequently, doctoral degree-holding archaeologists face more competition than ever before when applying for faculty positions. Here we examine where US and Canadian anthropological archaeology faculty originate and where they ultimately end up teaching. Using data derived from the 2014–2015 AnthroGuide, we rank doctoral programs whose graduates in archaeology have been most successful in the academic job market; identify long-term and ongoing trends in doctoral programs; and discuss gender division in academic archaeology in the US and Canada. We conclude that success in obtaining a faculty position upon graduation is predicated in large part on where one attends graduate school.
Objectives: Studies suggest that impairments in some of the same domains of cognition occur in different neuropsychiatric conditions, including those known to share genetic liability. Yet, direct, multi-disorder cognitive comparisons are limited, and it remains unclear whether overlapping deficits are due to comorbidity. We aimed to extend the literature by examining cognition across different neuropsychiatric conditions and addressing comorbidity. Methods: Subjects were 486 youth consecutively referred for neuropsychiatric evaluation and enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of Genetic Influences on Cognition. First, we assessed general ability, reaction time variability (RTV), and aspects of executive functions (EFs) in youth with non-comorbid forms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as in youth with psychosis. Second, we determined the impact of comorbid ADHD on cognition in youth with ASD and mood disorders. Results: For EFs (working memory, inhibition, and shifting/ flexibility), we observed weaknesses in all diagnostic groups when participants’ own ability was the referent. Decrements were subtle in relation to published normative data. For RTV, weaknesses emerged in youth with ADHD and mood disorders, but trend-level results could not rule out decrements in other conditions. Comorbidity with ADHD did not impact the pattern of weaknesses for youth with ASD or mood disorders but increased the magnitude of the decrement in those with mood disorders. Conclusions: Youth with ADHD, mood disorders, ASD, and psychosis show EF weaknesses that are not due to comorbidity. Whether such cognitive difficulties reflect genetic liability shared among these conditions requires further study. (JINS, 2018, 24, 91–103)
Three corn root bioassays were evaluated for detecting imazaquin in soil. Two techniques, one which utilized a cone-shaped tube as the growth container and another, a petri dish, were compared to a method that utilized a thin layer of soil between two 20 by 20 cm glass plates. Corn root growth responded logarithmically to imazaquin regardless of bioassay method. Corn was most sensitive to low imazaquin concentrations when grown using the glass plate apparatus. At a low concentration (0.5 ng/g) of imazaquin, corn root length was reduced 6% using the cone-tube, 2% using the petri dish, and 24% using the glass plate method. In contrast, the cone-tube method provided a better measure of high imazaquin concentration (200 ng/g) than the other methods.
Studies were conducted in Florida to evaluate interference of common cocklebur with peanut. Peanut yield reduction ranged from 0 to 88% for common cocklebur densities of 0–32 plants 8 m−1 of peanut row, and predicted loss was similar under normal moisture conditions. When moisture levels were above normal, the impact on yield was 9–24% less than when soil moisture was normal. Common cocklebur caused peanut yield loss if allowed to interfere for more than the first 2 wk after crop emergence, and peanut had to be common cocklebur free for at least 12 wk to prevent a yield reduction. These results show common cocklebur to be more competitive with peanut than other weeds evaluated previously.
In field experiments conducted near Marianna, Trenton, and Archer, FL in 1990 and 1991, nicosulfuron applied 55 weeks after planting (WAP) at 18, 27, 36, or 54 g ai/ha injured peanut initially. When applied 7 WAP, only the two higher nicosulfuron rates injured peanut more than 10%. By 6 wk after application, crop injury was less than 8% for all treatments, except the highest (54 g/ha) rate. Nicosulfuron applied 5 or 7 WAP at 54 g/ha reduced peanut yield and sound mature kernels.
Field experiments conducted in Marianna, Trenton, and Archer, FL in 1990 and 1991 investigated the effect of time of application of nicosulfuron and nicosulfuron mixtures on ‘Sunrunner’ peanut. Nicosulfuron was applied alone at 36 g ai/ha and in mixture with acifluorfen, bentazon, chlorimuron, chlorothalonil, fluazifop-P, imazethapyr, lactofen, or pyridate at 5, 7, or 9 weeks after planting (WAP). Applying nicosulfuron with chlorimuron, pyridate, or imazethapyr increased visible peanut injury and reduced yields more than nicosulfuron alone. Conversely, nicosulfuron applied with acifluorfen or lactofen was less injurious than nicosulfuron applied alone. Bentazon, chlorothalonil, and fluazifop-P generally did not influence phytotoxicity from nicosulfuron. Peanut tolerance to nicosulfuron increased with age.
Field experiments were conducted near Marianna, Trenton, and Archer, FL in 1990 and 1991 to investigate the effect of nicosulfuron mixtures and time of application on five peanut cultivars. Nicosulfuron at 54 g ai/ha was applied alone or in mixture with 2,4-DB at 280 g ai/ha 5 weeks after planting (WAP), 9 WAP, or 5 plus 9 WAP. Injury was greater from early and sequential nicosulfuron applications while a single application 9 WAP typically did not cause significant injury or reduce peanut yield. The 5 WAP and 5 plus 9 WAP applications often caused early visible injury and sometimes reduced peanut yield. When peanut yields were compared, ‘Florigiant’ was the most sensitive cultivar while ‘Southern Runner’ and ‘Valencia’ were more tolerant to nicosulfuron. ‘Sunrunner’ and ‘NC-7’ were intermediate in tolerance to nicosulfuron. In several instances, the addition of 2,4-DB to nicosulfuron reduced initial crop injury and ameliorated yield losses resulting from nicosulfuron applied alone.
In field studies effective dogfennel control was obtained with glyphosate, dicamba + 2,4-D, triclopyr + 2,4-D, and fluroxypyr at rates of 1.68, 0.44 + 1.25, 0.56 + 1.12, and 0.28 kg ai/ha, respectively, applied after dogfennel was 75 cm tall. Mowing alone reduced dogfennel regrowth by 81% and when combined with dicamba + 2,4-D or triclopyr + 2,4-D regrowth was reduced over 94%. Triclopyr, dichlorprop, and sulfometuron also controlled dogfennel greater than 90% but metsulfuron did not.
Field experiments were conducted at Jay and Marianna, FL in 1988 and 1989 to determine the effects of sicklepod, Florida beggarweed, and common cocklebur density on chlorothalonil deposition to peanut foliage, peanut foliar disease incidence, and peanut yield. At a density of four weed plants per 8 m of row, Florida beggarweed and sicklepod reduced chlorothalonil deposition on peanut foliage by 20%, while common cocklebur reduced fungicide deposition by 34%. At the same density, incidence of the foliar diseases early leaf spot and late leaf spot increased 10% with Florida beggarweed, 14% with sicklepod, and 20% with common cocklebur compared with weed-free peanut. The predicted peanut yield loss from a weed density of four plants per 8 m was 16 to 19% for Florida beggarweed, 23 to 25% for sicklepod, and 31 to 39% for common cocklebur. Weed biomass increased with increasing weed density.
Hexazinone (1.12 kg ai/ha), triclopyr (1.12 kg ai/ha), metsulfuron (0.008 kg ai/ha), dichlorprop + 2,4-D, glyphosate (2.8%), and triclopyr (2%) + diesel oil (98%), applied as a broadcast or spot (individual plant) treatment, were evaluated over two years in south Florida for tropical soda apple (TSA) control and their effects on grass ground cover. For broadcast treatments, triclopyr (98%) and hexazinone (93%), had significantly (P < 0.05) higher percent control of marked TSA plants 90 d after herbicide application. However, triclopyr (99%) had significantly higher grass ground cover than hexazinone (78%). Hexazinone severely damaged Pangola digitgrass, but had no effect on bahiagrass. For spot treatments, dichlorprop + 2,4-D (100%) had the highest percent total control of TSA and least effect on grass ground cover (96%) 90 d after herbicide application, followed by glyphosate (96% control) and triclopyr + diesel oil (95% control). Based on acceptable (>90%) TSA control and grass ground cover, triclopyr broadcast or dichlorprop + 2,4-D spot provided the greatest control. With either application method, repeated herbicide applications will be necessary to eliminate TSA because of rapid seedling emergence following control of existing plants.
The limited window of opportunity for glyphosate postemergence (POST) over-the-top applications in glyphosate-resistant cotton poses a problem for growers where a midseason salvage weed control remedy is necessary. The objectives of these experiments were to compare glyphosate and MSMA for midseason weed control and their subsequent effect on cotton fruiting characteristics and yield. Glyphosate at 0.85 kg ai/ha was more effective than MSMA at 1.7 kg ai/ha for POST control of sicklepod, redweed, and pitted morningglory. Single glyphosate treatments applied at the 8-, 10-, or 12-leaf cotton stage resulted in less-effective weed control than when applied at the four-leaf cotton stage. Glyphosate applied at the four-leaf cotton stage followed by a sequential POST-directed application at 6-, 8-, 10-, or 12-leaf cotton stage increased season-long weed control and yield compared with a single application at the four-leaf stage. Both glyphosate and MSMA controlled Florida beggarweed, regardless of POST application timing. Generally, cotton was more tolerant to glyphosate than MSMA when applied over-the-top. Glyphosate applied POST over-the-top to weed-free 12-leaf cotton resulted in a 19 and 14% yield loss compared with the weed-free nontreated cotton in 1997 and 1999. MSMA reduced yield by 58 and 36% in 1997 and 1999, respectively. Glyphosate did not affect weed-free cotton fruit development or yield when applied over-the-top to four-leaf cotton or when a POST-directed application was followed at the 12-leaf stage.
Field studies were conducted near Archer, FL, and Vienna, GA, in 1995 and 1996 to investigate the effects of pyridate formulation and adjuvants on broadleaf weed control in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Pyridate formulations SAN 319H 450EC 361LZ, SAN 319H 450EC 216LZ, and SAN 319H 600EC 418LZ were evaluated at two rates, 1.07 and 2.14 kg/ha. Pyridate at 1.07 kg/ha plus 2,4-DB at 0.23 kg/ha were evaluated alone and with five adjuvants. The adjuvants included a crop oil concentrate, a nonionic surfactant, a nonionic surfactant with organosilicone blend, urea ammonium nitrate plus a nonionic surfactant, and chlorothalonil (a fungicide) plus a nonionic surfactant. No pyridate treatment injured peanut. Pyridate formulation did not affect broadleaf weed control. Increasing pyridate rate increased weed control and yield. Mixing 2,4-DB with pyridate generally enhanced sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia) and common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) control. Florida beggarweed (Desmodium tortuosum), smallflower morningglory (Jacquemontia tamnifolia), hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), sicklepod, and common cocklebur control with pyridate was not enhanced by adjuvants. Adding chlorothalonil to pyridate plus 2,4-DB did not affect weed control or peanut injury.
Studies were conducted at the University of Florida, West Florida Research and Education Center to determine the effect of glyphosate on purple nutsedge control and nutsedge tuber production when glyphosate was applied to the same plots over 3 y in glyphosate-resistant soybean and cotton. Greater than 90% control of purple nutsedge foliage was achieved with a single POST application of glyphosate at 0.9 kg ai/ha in soybean or a sequential glyphosate application of 1.1 kg/ha POST followed by 0.6 kg/ha POST-directed in cotton. By the end of the third year of the study, these same treatments reduced purple nutsedge tuber density to less than 0.2% of the nontreated. In cotton, cultivation alone reduced tuber numbers by greater than 90%. Viability of tubers was also reduced by 80% in soybean and by 65% in cotton in the glyphosate-treated plots. Comparison treatments of imazaquin PRE followed by imazaquin POST in soybean or norflurazon PRE followed by cyanazine plus MSMA POST-directed in cotton also reduced purple nutsedge tuber density by ≥85% after three consecutive years of treatment.
Field studies were conducted near Archer, FL, and Vienna, GA, in 1995 and 1996 to investigate pyridate and SAN 582 for weed management in peanut. At Archer, pyridate plus 2,4-DB applied 3 wk after emergence resulted in 75, 72, 59, and 85% early-season control of yellow nutsedge, Florida beggarweed, hairy indigo, and sicklepod, respectively. In Vienna, pyridate plus 2,4-DB resulted in 87 and 55% early-season control of yellow nutsedge and Florida beggarweed, respectively. At both Archer and Vienna, SAN 582 applied preplant incorporated prior to pyridate postemergence (POST) increased control of yellow nutsedge, Florida beggarweed, and hairy indigo; however, peanut yield was not improved. In greenhouse studies, pyridate plus 2,4-DB controlled prickly sida, common cocklebur, and ivyleaf morningglory. Reduced weed control was observed in greenhouse studies when SAN 582 was added to the pyridate plus 2,4-DB POST tank mix.