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This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration <50 nmol/l) is recognised as a public health problem globally. The present study details the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency in a nationally representative sample (n 3250) of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged ≥18 years. We used data from the 2012–2013 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (AATSIHS). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Survey-weighted logistic regression models were used to determine the independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency. Approximately 27 % of adult AATSIHS participants were vitamin D deficient. Vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in remote areas (39 %) than in non-remote areas (23 %). Independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency included assessment during winter (men, adjusted OR (aOR) 5·7; 95 % CI 2·2, 14·6; women, aOR 2·2; 95 % CI 1·3, 3·8) and spring (men, aOR 3·3; 95 % CI 1·4, 7·5; women, aOR 2·6; 95 % CI 1·5, 4·5) compared with summer, and obesity (men, aOR 2·6; 95 % CI 1·2, 5·4; women, aOR 4·3; 95 % CI 2·8, 6·8) compared with healthy weight. Statistically significant associations were evident for current smokers (men only, aOR 2·0; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·4), remote-dwelling women (aOR 2·0; 95 % CI 1·4, 2·9) and university-educated women (aOR 2·4; 95 % CI 1·2, 4·8). Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this population, strategies to maintain adequate vitamin D status through safe sun exposure and dietary approaches are needed.
The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
We performed a new series of measurements on samples that were part of early measurements on radiocarbon (14C) dating made in 1948–1949. Our results show generally good agreement to the data published in 1949–1951, despite vast changes in technology, with only two exceptions where there was a discrepancy in the original studies. Our new measurements give calibrated ages that overlap with the known ages. We dated several samples at four different laboratories, and so we were also able to make a small intercomparison at the same time. In addition, new measurements on samples from other Egyptian materials used by Libby and co-workers were made at UC Irvine. Samples of tree rings used in the original studies (from Broken Flute Cave and Centennial Stump) were obtained from the University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research archive and remeasured. New data were compared to the original studies and other records.
Our current knowledge of star formation and accretion luminosity at high redshift (z > 3–4), as well as the possible connections between them, relies mostly on observations in the rest-frame ultraviolet, which are strongly affected by dust obscuration. Due to the lack of sensitivity of past and current infrared instrumentation, so far it has not been possible to get a glimpse into the early phases of the dust-obscured Universe. Among the next generation of infrared observatories, SPICA, observing in the 12–350 µm range, will be the only facility that can enable us to trace the evolution of the obscured star-formation rate and black-hole accretion rate densities over cosmic time, from the peak of their activity back to the reionisation epoch (i.e., 3 < z ≲ 6–7), where its predecessors had severe limitations. Here, we discuss the potential of photometric surveys performed with the SPICA mid-infrared instrument, enabled by the very low level of impact of dust obscuration in a band centred at 34 µm. These unique unbiased photometric surveys that SPICA will perform will fully characterise the evolution of AGNs and star-forming galaxies after reionisation.
The Square Kilometre Array will be an amazing instrument for pulsar astronomy. While the full SKA will be sensitive enough to detect all pulsars in the Galaxy visible from Earth, already with SKA1, pulsar searches will discover enough pulsars to increase the currently known population by a factor of four, no doubt including a range of amazing unknown sources. Real time processing is needed to deal with the 60 PB of pulsar search data collected per day, using a signal processing pipeline required to perform more than 10 POps. Here we present the suggested design of the pulsar search engine for the SKA and discuss challenges and solutions to the pulsar search venture.
Elevated birth weight is linked to glucose intolerance and obesity health-related complications later in life. No studies have examined if infant birth weight is associated with gene expression markers of obesity and inflammation in a tissue that comes directly from the infant following birth. We evaluated the association between birth weight and gene expression on fetal programming of obesity. Foreskin samples were collected following circumcision, and gene expression analyzed comparing the 15% greatest birth weight infants (n=7) v. the remainder of the cohort (n=40). Multivariate linear regression models were fit to relate expression levels on differentially expressed genes to birth weight group with adjustment for variables selected from a list of maternal and infant characteristics. Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), leptin receptor (LEPR), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) were significantly upregulated and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and thioredoxin (TXN) downregulated in the larger birth weight neonates v. controls. Multivariate modeling revealed that the estimated adjusted birth weight group difference exceeded one standard deviation of the expression level for eight of the 10 genes. Between 25 and 50% of variation in expression level was explained by multivariate modeling for eight of the 10 genes. Gene expression related to glycemic control, appetite/energy balance, obesity and inflammation were altered in tissue from babies with elevated birth weight, and these genes may provide important information regarding fetal programming in macrosomic babies.
One of the difficulties in reporting accurate radiocarbon results from compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) is the lack of suitable process standard materials to correct for the amount and 14C content of carbon added during extensive sample processing. We evaluated the use of n-alkanes extracted from modern grass material (1.224±0.006 fraction modern) as process standards for CSRA. The n-alkanes were isolated using preparative capillary gas chromatography (PCGC) from two independent chemical extraction methods applied to the grass. Since this was our first assessment of the 14C content of the grass n-alkanes, we corrected for extraneous carbon derived from PCGC isolation using commercially available single compounds of modern and 14C-free content. Results were consistent across the two extraction methods showing that the C29n-alkane has a fraction modern value that is within 1σ of the bulk value of the grass while C31n-alkane and less abundant n-alkanes have values within 2σ of the bulk value of the grass. C29 and C31n-alkanes were the most abundant n-alkanes in the grass and, as such, the more feasible for collection of sufficient amounts of carbon for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) analysis. Our results suggest that choosing a grass n-alkane with an elution time closest to that of the unknowns may be advisable due to possibly greater effect from GC column bleed (14C-free) at later elution times. We conclude that C29 and C31n-alkanes in modern grass of known 14C content can be used as in-house standards to correct for the addition of 14C-free carbon during sample preparation for 14C analysis of n-alkanes.
Potato, dry bean, and sugar beet production have increased markedly in recent years on irrigated cropland in Alberta, Canada. Concerns exist about declining soil quality and increased soil erosion when these low-residue crops are grown in sequence in short-duration rotations. A 12-yr rotation study was conducted to determine the merits of adopting various conservation practices (reduced tillage, cover crops, composted manure) and longer-duration rotations to develop a more sustainable production system for these row crops. This article reports on weed density and weed seedbank data collected in the study. Weed densities recorded prior to applying postemergence herbicides indicated that conservation compared with conventional management treatments had greater weed densities in 30 to 45% of the cases in 3-, 4-, and 5-yr rotations. In contrast, a 6-yr conservation rotation that included 2 yr of timothy forage resulted in similar or lower weed densities than rotations with conventional management practices. Residual weed densities recorded 4 wk after applying postemergence herbicides were only greater in conservation than conventional rotations in 2 of 12 yr, regardless of rotation length. Weed seedbank densities at the conclusion of the 12-yr study were similar for 3- to 6-yr rotations under either conservation or conventional management. These findings indicate that implementing a suite of conservation practices poses little risk of increased weed populations in the long term. This knowledge will facilitate grower adoption of more sustainable agronomic practices for irrigated row crops in this region.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) differ in their biology and co-morbidities. We hypothesized that GAD but not PD symptoms at the age of 15 years are associated with depression diagnosis at 18 years.
Using longitudinal data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort we examined relationships of GAD and PD symptoms (measured by the Development and Well-Being Assessment) at 15 years with depression at 18 years (by the Clinical Interview Schedule – Revised) using logistic regression. We excluded adolescents already depressed at 15 years and adjusted for social class, maternal education, birth order, gender, alcohol intake and smoking. We repeated these analyses following multiple imputation for missing data.
In the sample with complete data (n = 2835), high and moderate GAD symptoms in adolescents not depressed at 15 years were associated with increased risk of depression at 18 years both in unadjusted analyses and adjusting for PD symptoms at 15 years and the above potential confounders. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for depression at 18 years in adolescents with high relative to low GAD scores was 5.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0–9.1, overall p < 0.0001]. There were no associations between PD symptoms and depression at 18 years in any model (high relative to low PD scores, adjusted OR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.3–4.8, overall p = 0.737). Missing data imputation strengthened the relationship of GAD symptoms with depression (high relative to low GAD scores, OR = 6.2, 95% CI 3.9–9.9) but those for PD became weaker.
Symptoms of GAD but not PD at 15 years are associated with depression at 18 years. Clinicians should be aware that adolescents with GAD symptoms may develop depression.
The Herschel Space Observatory was the fourth cornerstone mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme with excellent broad band imaging capabilities in the sub-mm and far-infrared part of the spectrum. Although the spacecraft finished its observations in 2013, it left a large legacy dataset that is far from having been fully scrutinised and still has a large potential for new scientific discoveries. This is specifically true for the photometric observations of the PACS and SPIRE instruments. Some source catalogues have already been produced by individual observing programs, but there are many observations that risk to remain unexplored. To maximise the science return of the SPIRE and PACS data sets, we are in the process of building the Herschel Point Source Catalogue (HPSC) from all primary and parallel mode observations. Our homogeneous source extraction enables a systematic and unbiased comparison of sensitivity across the different Herschel fields that single programs will generally not be able to provide. The catalogue will be made available online through archives like the Herschel Science Archive (HSA), the Infrared Science Archive (IRSA), and the Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center (CDS).
Since mid-2007 we have carried out a dedicated long-term monitoring programme at 15 GHz using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory 40 meter telescope (OVRO 40m). One of the main goals of this programme is to study the relation between the radio and gamma-ray emission in blazars and to use it as a tool to locate the site of high energy emission. Using this large sample of objects we are able to characterize the radio variability, and study the significance of correlations between the radio and gamma-ray bands. We find that the radio variability of many sources can be described using a simple power law power spectral density, and that when taking into account the red-noise characteristics of the light curves, cases with significant correlation are rare. We note that while significant correlations are found in few individual objects, radio variations are most often delayed with respect to the gamma-ray variations. This suggests that the gamma-ray emission originates upstream of the radio emission. Because strong flares in most known gamma-ray-loud blazars are infrequent, longer light curves are required to settle the issue of the strength of radio-gamma cross-correlations and establish confidently possible delays between the two. For this reason continuous multiwavelength monitoring over a longer time period is essential for statistical tests of jet emission models.
The Herschel Space Observatory carried out observations at far-infrared wavelengths, which significantly increased our knowledge of the interstellar medium and the star-formation process in the Milky Way and external galaxies, as well as our understanding of astrochemistry.
Absorption features, known, e.g., from observations at millimeter wavelengths, are more commonly observed in the far-infrared, in particular toward strong dust continuum sources. The lowest energy transitions are not only observed at LSR-velocities related to the source, but often also at velocities associated with diffuse molecular clouds along the line of sight toward the background source.
Unbiased spectral line surveys of the massive and very luminous Galactic Center sources Sagittarius B2(M) and (N) were carried out across the entire frequency range of the high-resolution Heterodyne Instrument for Far-Infrared Astronomy (HIFI). An absorption feature was detected toward both sources at about 617.531 GHz, corresponding to 20.599 cm−1, 485.47 μm, or 2.5539 meV. This feature is unique in its appearance at all velocity components associated with diffuse foreground molecular clouds, together with its conspicuous absence at velocities related to the sources themselves. The carriers of at least a substantial part of the DIBs are thought to reside in the diffuse interstellar medium. Therefore, we consider this absorption feature to be a far-infrared DIB analog.
Subsequent dedicated observations confirmed that the line is present only in the foreground clouds on the line of sight toward other massive star-forming regions in the Galactic disk. There is indication that the feature has substructure, possibly of fine or hyperfine nature. Attempts to assign the feature to atomic or molecular species have been unsuccessful so far.