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Research suggests that increasing neighbourhood social cohesion can prevent mental health problems, including depression and anxiety. However, it is unknown whether this is the case for adolescents and young adults.
To investigate whether neighbourhood social cohesion can prevent depression and anxiety, and identify interventions that can increase neighbourhood cohesion in young people.
We conducted a rapid review for an overview of the available literature. PubMed, Campbell Collaboration, KSR Ltd and grey literature databases were searched from inception up to 10 July 2020. When synthesising the results, we applied a hierarchy of evidence, prioritising study designs that allowed for the most ability to infer causality. Risk of bias was assessed with the ROBIS tool and Joanna Briggs Institute risk-of-bias assessment. A narrative review and two workshops with young people were conducted to inform what future interventions may look like.
Forty-two peer-reviewed publications, including two systematic reviews, 13 longitudinal studies and 27 cross-sectional studies, were identified. Prospective longitudinal studies found that neighbourhood social cohesion factors (safety, trust, positive social connections, helping others and a lack of crime and violence) were associated with fewer depressive symptoms. Future interventions to increase neighbourhood cohesion should involve creating safe and attractive community centres, accessible and safe outdoor spaces, community activity groups and online communities.
Neighbourhood social cohesion has the potential to protect mental health. The next step is to conduct intervention studies to evaluate the effects on onset prevention. Clinicians should consider the impact cohesion can have on mental health, and signpost to community initiatives.
In recent years the association between sexual dysfunction (SD) and obesity in the general population has drawn major attention. Although sexual dysfunction is common in psychosis, its relationship with weight gain and obesity remains unclear.
To investigate the association between sexual dysfunction and obesity in a cohort of patients with first episode psychosis.
Sexual function was assessed in a cohort of patients with first episode psychosis using the Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ). Anthropometric measures, including weight, BMI, waist, waist–hip ratio were investigated. Additionally, leptin and testosterone were investigated in male patients.
A total of 116 patients (61 males and 55 females) were included. Of these 59% of males and 67.3% of females showed sexual dysfunction (SD) according to the SFQ. In males, higher SFQ scores were significantly correlated with higher BMI (Std. β = 0.36, P = 0.01), higher leptin levels (Std. β = 0.34, P = 0.02), higher waist–hip ratio (Std. β = 0.32, P = 0.04) and lower testosterone levels (Std. β = −0.44, P = 0.002). In contrast, in females, SFQ scores were not associated with any of these factors.
While sexual dysfunction is present in both female and male patients with their first episode of psychosis, only in males is sexual dysfunction associated with increased BMI and waist–hip ratio. The association between SD, BMI, low levels of testosterone and high levels of leptin suggest that policies that lead to healthier diets and more active lifestyles can be beneficial at least, to male patients.
Society is undergoing a shift in gender politics. Science and medicine are part of this conversation, not least as women's representation and pay continue to drop as one progresses through more senior academic and clinical levels. Naming and redressing these inequalities needs to be a priority for us all.
Declaration of interest
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