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We prove an incidence result counting the k-rich $\delta $-tubes induced by a well-spaced set of $\delta $-atoms. Our result coincides with the bound that would be heuristically predicted by the Szemerédi–Trotter theorem and holds in all dimensions $d \geq 2$. We also prove an analogue of Beck’s theorem for $\delta $-atoms and $\delta $-tubes as an application of our result.
An experiment was conducted to investigate the incidence of travel sickness in pigs, specific hormone concentrations at exsanguination and subsequent meat quality. Fifty, 80kg slaughter pigs were transported on a lorry for 4.5h. During the journey, behavioural observations of the individually marked pigs were made by scanning every 8min to establish whether the pigs exhibited certain symptoms of travel sickness (foaming at the mouth and chomping) and incidences of retching and vomiting were noted as they occurred. Upon arrival at the slaughterhouse, pigs were unloaded, slaughtered immediately and a blood sample was taken at exsanguination for analysis of plasma Cortisol, beta-endorphin and lysine vasopressin concentrations. On the day following slaughter, the chilled carcase of each pig was assessed for meat quality (using pH, Fibre Optic Probe, and Tecpro Pork Quality Meter measurements) in the longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus and adductor muscles to determine the incidence of PSE (pale, soft, exudative) or DFD (dark, firm, dry) meat quality. Twenty-six per cent of the pigs (a total of 13 individuals) vomited or retched during the journey. There was no relationship between the incidence of travel sickness and either the concentrations of the hormones analysed at exsanguination or subsequent meat quality. Correlations revealed no significant relationship between concentrations of the hormones and meat quality measurements.
Each of two 20-sow groups consisted of gilts ie virgin sows (one third) and sows (parity 2-5, ie sows which had given birth 2-5 times). One group was housed indoors with a straw-covered lying area and dunging area. Another group was housed outdoors with a covered straw lying area and two rooting fields. Behavioural observations were made on both groups: indoor sows were observed for 4h day−1, for 10 days (40h); outdoor sows were observed for 6h day−1, for 21 days (126h). Social interactions were classified as threat, bite, knock and push. Continuous data on the type of interaction and the winner or loser were recorded. Four measures of social status, based on social behaviour, were calculated: i) displacement index; ii) level of interaction; iii) success in interactions; and iv) matrix dominance. Spearman rank correlation coefficients between different ranked measures of social status within each group (outdoor or indoor) were significant for displacement index, success in interaction and matrix dominance. The level of interaction did not correlate with other measures (except for matrix dominance in the indoor group). Measures of displacement, success in interaction and matrix dominance provide highly consistent and correlated measures of social status.
Childhood experiences of animals and current attitudes towards animals were assessed using a questionnaire, which was completed by 227 Japanese students and 174 British students. Pet ownership in childhood, as well as contact with other animals and negative experiences of pets, were used as the independent variables; current attitudes towards pets and other animals were the dependent variables. There were some differences between Japan and the UK: in childhood, the British students had had significantly more pets and more animal-related experiences, such as visiting animal shelters and livestock farms, than had the Japanese students. Their current attitudes were also more positive, and they showed a greater interest in animal welfare issues than did the Japanese students. In both countries there was a positive association between childhood pet-keeping and current favourable attitudes to pets, as measured by the Pet Attitude Scale. Open-ended responses also suggested that the roles of pets for children are perceived in similar ways in Japan and the UK. Adult attitudes to pets and interest in animal welfare seem to be greatly influenced in both countries by childhood experiences of animals, including pets, and may therefore be a general phenomenon.
Biotypes of Palmer amaranth that are resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor are becoming widespread in western Nebraska. There are limited effective postemergence (POST) herbicides labeled for ALS-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth control in dry edible bean. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dimethenamid-P in a sequential preemergence (PRE) fb followed by (fb) POST program at two POST application timings, the first and third trifoliate stages (V1 and V3, respectively), for controlling ALS-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth in dry edible bean. A field study was conducted in 2019, 2020, and 2021 in Scottsbluff, NE. PRE-alone applications of pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P provided inconsistent Palmer amaranth control. Dimethenamid-P applied POST following a PRE application of pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P provided effective (>90%) Palmer amaranth control at 4 wk after V3 only at the V1 application timing in 2019. In 2020 and 2021 dimethenamid-P applied POST at V1 and V3 following a PRE application of pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P provided 99% and 98% Palmer amaranth control at 4 wk after V3, and 98% and 94% Palmer amaranth control at harvest, respectively. Palmer amaranth biomass was reduced by 95% to 99% and by 96% to 98% compared with the -nontreated control when dimethenamid-P was applied POST at V1 and V3, respectively, following a PRE application of pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P in 2020 and 2021. Application of a mixture of dimethenamid-P with imazamox + bentazon POST provided similar results to those of the fomesafen-containing treatments and dimethenamid-P alone POST. Dimethenamid-P applied POST following a PRE application of pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P resulted in similar yield as the fomesafen-containing treatments. If fomesafen is not an option due to the crop rotation interval restriction, using dimethenamid-P in a sequential PRE fb POST program is the only effective alternative to control ALS-inhibitor–resistant Palmer amaranth in Nebraska. The use of dimethenamid-P in a sequential PRE fb POST program, alone or mixed with foliar-active herbicides should be considered by dry edible bean growers who are dealing with ALS-inhibitor-resistant Palmer amaranth.
Although Palmer amaranth is currently not widespread in most dry edible bean−producing states in the United States, it is widespread in western Nebraska, a major dry edible bean−producing region. There is currently a lack of research on management and biology of Palmer amaranth within dry edible bean production. The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of season-long Palmer amaranth interference on yield of dry edible bean and seed production of Palmer amaranth. A field study was conducted in Scottsbluff, NE, in 2020 and 2021. Palmer amaranth interference at densities of 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 1, and 2 plants m−1 row of dry edible bean was evaluated. Palmer amaranth interference reduced dry edible bean yield by 77% at a weed density of 2 plants m−1 row compared to the weed-free control, and a 5% yield reduction threshold was estimated to occur at a Palmer amaranth density of 0.02 plants m−1 row. Yield reduction occurred primarily through a reduction in the number of pods per plant as Palmer amaranth density increased. Palmer amaranth plants produced 91,000 to 376,000 seeds per plant depending on densities, and as many as 140,000 seeds m−2. Study results will help farmers and other stakeholders estimate Palmer amaranth interference within their fields, and may help justify the economic cost of incorporating additional Palmer amaranth management practices.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Garden loosestrife (Lysimachia vulgaris L.), is an invasive wetland plant that is subject to management in King County, WA, USA. Large-scale management efforts are generally conducted using herbicides. In this case study, we analyzed 17 yr of monitoring and treatment data in four riparian areas in King County to estimate the rate of spread of L. vulgaris and the efficacy of herbicidal treatments against L. vulgaris populations. In each area, herbicide treatments were applied annually. In three of the areas, the area infested with L. vulgaris did not change over time, while in the fourth area populations of L. vulgaris were spreading at a rate of 0.79 m2 yr−1. There were a greater number of sampled locations infested with L. vulgaris over the 17-yr period, and because populations were either not spreading or spreading slowly, it is possible that populations were becoming more fragmented. There was no relationship between the percentage of the infested area treated with herbicides and the area infested in the following year. However, there was a negative relationship between the area treated and the percent change in the invaded area; specifically, in years when <80% of the infested area was treated, there was an increase in the percent change of the invaded area between the year of treatment and the following year. The results of this study suggest that at the current level of management effort, the spatial extent of L. vulgaris did not retract over the 17-yr study period.
Gonorrhoea cases in women have been rising in Australia in the 2010s but the cause of the increase is not well understood. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the characteristics of genital gonorrhoea infection in women attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Australia. Gonorrhoea cases were diagnosed by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and/or culture. Genitourinary specimens were obtained in 12 869 clinic visits in women aged 16 years or above between August 2017 and August 2018. Genital gonorrhoea was detected in 142 (1.1%) of the visits. Almost half of the cases were asymptomatic, 47.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.8–56.1%]; yellow, green or pus-like vaginal discharge was present in 11.3% (95% CI 7.0–17.6%) and other genital symptoms in 40.8% (95% CI 33.1–49.1%) of the cases. The mean time between last sexual contact and onset of symptoms was 7.3 days and between the onset of symptoms to presentation to the clinic was 12.1 days. Half of the cases of genital gonorrhoea among women are asymptomatic and these cases would have been missed by testing of only symptomatic women. Further epidemiological and behavioural research is required to understand the temporal changes in sexual practices among women in Australia.
Building on prior work regarding the potential for peer contagion or deviance training in group delivered interventions (Dishion & Dodge, 2005, 2006; Dodge, Dishion, & Lansford, 2006), we leveraged data from a randomized trial, testing the integration of two preventive interventions (Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies and PAX Good Behavior Game), to explore the extent to which classroom contextual factors served as either a barrier to or a motivator for teachers to implement the evidence-based PAX Good Behavior Game with high frequency or dosage. We included students’ baseline levels of behavior, measured with regard to both positive (i.e., engagement and social emotional skills) and negative (i.e., hyperactive and aggressive-disruptive) behaviors. Data were collected from 204 teachers in 18 urban elementary schools. A series of multilevel structural equation models were fit to the data. The analyses indicated that classrooms with higher classroom levels of aggressive behavior, on average, at baseline had teachers with lower implementation dosage (i.e., played fewer games) across the school year. In addition, teachers who reported higher baseline levels of emotional exhaustion, regardless of student behavior, also reported lower implementation dosage. Taken together, the results indicated that negative, but not positive, contextual factors at baseline were related to lower implementation dosage; this, in turn, suggests that negative contextual factors may serve as a barrier, rather than a motivator, of teachers’ implementation dosage of classroom-based preventive interventions.