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Concurrent chemotherapy with radiotherapy is the standard treatment for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. Cetuximab can be used in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, the randomised studies that led to approval for its use in this setting excluded nasopharyngeal cancer. In the context of limited data for the use of cetuximab in nasopharyngeal cancer in the medical literature, this review aimed to summarise the current evidence for its use in both primary and recurrent or metastatic disease.
A literature search was performed using the keywords ‘nasopharyngeal neoplasm’, ‘cetuximab’ and ‘Erbitux’.
Twenty studies were included. There were no randomised phase III trials, but there were nine phase II trials. The use of cetuximab in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been tested in various settings, including in combination with induction chemotherapy and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and in the palliative setting.
There is no evidence of benefit from the addition of cetuximab to standard management protocols, and there is some evidence of increased toxicity. There is more promise for its use in metastatic or locally recurrent settings. This review draws together the existing evidence and could provide a focus for future studies.
We monitored the long-term residency of reef-associated ballan wrasse and sand-dwelling rays captured at the site of a potential future Marine Protected Area (MPA: Portelet Bay, Jersey) by implanting them with small transmitters and deploying underwater receivers inside the bay. Individual fish were detected at Portelet Bay for up to 618 days, but there were species-specific differences in residency and detection patterns. Ballan wrasse were year-round residents at the study site where they exhibited distinct, rhythmic, diel, tidal and seasonal patterns of behaviour, whereas rays were occasional visitors to Portelet Bay with no discernible pattern to their visits. Results indicate relatively small MPAs (<0.5 km2) that with suitable habitat could provide effective, long-term protection for ballan wrasse, but would likely be of little conservation benefit for rays. Our findings emphasize the importance of quantifying fish movements when planning MPAs which intend to protect multi-species assemblages of coastal fishes.
Temple University led a six-university effort that built a comprehensive public policy database for Pennsylvania, modeled on the national Policy Agendas Project created by Frank Baumgartner and Bryan Jones (1993). The Pennsylvania database (www.temple.edu/papolicy) enables users to integrate data from all three branches of government and the news media organized into 20 major and 249 minor policy topics since 1979. This article discusses the value of these data, their potential uses in state policy research, and the lessons learned over the four years invested in building the database. Our hope is that interested readers might undertake similar projects in their states to create a standardized national network of state policy databases.
The high magneto-viscous response of magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) comes from the large size (≈1 μm) of the magnetic particles dispersed in the carrier liquid. Unfortunately, in the absence of a magnetic field, this large size constitutes the origin of some problems facing the technological applications of MRFs. These problems are (i) the instability of the suspensions caused by the fast settling of the high density magnetic particles used, and (ii) the poor redispersibility due to an irreversible aggregation. In this work, we used an electromagnetic induction method to study the stability of MRFs containing micron-sized iron particles dispersed in ferrofluids composed by oleate-covered magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in kerosene. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the sedimentation rate in iron/ferrofluid suspensions can be significantly lower than in iron/kerosene MRFs.
Magnetization measurements were performed as a function of magnetic field H and temperature T on samples of nine different materials including clear fused quartz, cartridge brass, G-10 glass-reinforced epoxy, acetal homopolymer, glass-filled acetal, phenolic, and other plastics. A small yet distinct amount of ferromagnetic or paramagnetic impurities is observed in all the materials investigated in this study except quartz. In contrast, the magnetic response of quartz is typical of a diamagnet over the temperature range 5 K to 300 K. The volume susceptibility is equal to −4.4×10−7 (cgs) over the whole temperature range.
We have analyzed the shock wave propagation experiments performed at LULI and presented at ECLIM'94. The targets were aluminium foils with thickness from 5 to 25 μm. Simulations were performed with the SARA-1D multigroup radiation code. We have shown a small level of preheating caused by the absorption of X-rays with energies close to the K-edge of aluminum. Several sets of opacities were used in order to study this effect, including experimental values for cold aluminum. Simulations show a small level of visible emission induced by X-ray preheating before the arrival of the shock.
Omicron Andromedae is a multiple system of at least four stars: a B ↔Be star (component A), a spectroscopic binary (components B1–B2) and a close companion (component a). According to several studies (see Hill et al. 1988, 1989):
- the distance between A and the B1–B2 system decreased from 0.39″ in 1975 to 0.25″ in 1987 (McAlister and Hartkopf 1988)
- the few previous speckle measurements of component a have shown the possibility of a 3.7 years orbit around A, according to the 1975 to 1984 observations (mean distance 0.05″). The calculations with this 3.7 yr orbit lead to the prediction of a maximum distance of 0.77″ at 1992.738, i.e. at the end of september 1992, with a North-South orientation.
Light and scanning electron microscopy investigations were carried out to identify and count the chemoreceptors on the legs of the tsetse, Gbssina tachinoides Westwood, and topographical maps, considered of value in electrophysiological and behavioural research are presented. The candidate chemoreceptors are located on the femorae, the tibiae and the tarsi and are more abundant on the ventral zone of each segment. The study demonstrates that the prothoracic, mesothoracic and metathoracic legs have a similar number of chemoreceptors and male flies possess more than female (1033 and 570, respectively). The variability of the number of chemoreceptors on the prothoracic legs has been estimated in both sexes.
A general method for computing the hydrodynamic interactions among an infinite suspension of particles, under the condition of vanishingly small particle Reynolds number, is presented. The method follows the procedure developed by O'Brien (1979) for constructing absolutely convergent expressions for particle interactions. For use in dynamic simulation, the convergence of these expressions is accelerated by application of the Ewald summation technique. The resulting hydrodynamic mobility and/or resistance matrices correctly include all far-field non-convergent interactions. Near-field lubrication interactions are incorporated into the resistance matrix using the technique developed by Durlofsky, Brady & Bossis (1987). The method is rigorous, accurate and computationally efficient, and forms the basis of the Stokesian-dynamics simulation method. The method is completely general and allows such diverse suspension problems as self-diffusion, sedimentation, rheology and flow in porous media to be treated within the same formulation for any microstructural arrangement of particles. The accuracy of the Stokesian-dynamics method is illustrated by comparing with the known exact results for spatially periodic suspensions.
A general method for computing the hydrodynamic interactions among N suspended particles, under the condition of vanishingly small particle Reynolds number, is presented. The method accounts for both near-field lubrication effects and the dominant many-body interactions. The many-body hydrodynamic interactions reproduce the screening characteristic of porous media and the ‘effective viscosity’ of free suspensions. The method is accurate and computationally efficient, permitting the dynamic simulation of arbitrarily configured many-particle systems. The hydrodynamic interactions calculated are shown to agree well with available exact calculations for small numbers of particles and to reproduce slender-body theory for linear chains of particles. The method can be used to determine static (i.e. configuration specific) and dynamic properties of suspended particles that interact through both hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic forces, where the latter may be any type of Brownian. colloidal, interparticle or external force. The method is also readily extended to dynamically simulate both unbounded and bounded suspensions.
Some time in the winter or spring of 1576-7, Edward de Vere, Earl of Oxford, lately back from a tour of the continent, was introduced by his friend Charles Arundell to a seminary priest, Richard Stephens, and became a Catholic. Stephens, an Oxford man recently returned from Douai, had already reconciled, with Arundell, his friends and relatives Lord Henry Howard, the late Duke of Norfolk's brother, and Francis Southwell. As bright young courtiers, they scarcely fall into the category of depressed gentlemen attracted to Rome by economic discontent; but they had about them a certain sense of “outness”, and shared a resentment against the successful Elizabethan families which was at least partly responsible for their conversion. It was less than five years since Norfolk's execution; and Burghley's wardship of Oxford had ended in a marriage to his daughter which was now, like the relations of the two men, severely strained. This discontent led naturally to the idea of upsetting the established system, both in society and in religion; this, they agreed, was what they would work for.
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