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The language teaching landscape in Ireland has changed considerably over the last 30 years as a result of substantial and sustained inward migration into the country during this period. These social and demographic developments have added to the country's already bilingual context and created a much more varied multilingual landscape than had existed in previous decades. They have also impacted various aspects of language teaching policy, provision and methods for both indigenous and foreign languages. This article reviews research on language teaching and learning in Ireland published during the period 2012–2021. We discuss relevant work disseminated primarily in peer-reviewed journals (national and international), as well as in books, commissioned reports and chapters in edited volumes. The research and policy documents presented concern the teaching and learning of Irish, English and Modern Foreign Languages as second and/or additional languages across all levels of education. They address language teacher training contexts as well. We believe that this review of research demonstrates the extent to which recent inquiries in these domains have advanced knowledge and practice in the Irish context, and have also informed the international research community more generally.
A 5 m long permineralized trunk from the Upper Kellwasser member
the first record of a large trunk of an identifiable species of
Callixylon, C. erianum, from Gondwana.
This occurrence constitutes the most reliable evidence based on plant megafossils
for a floral connection
between Laurussia and Gondwana in late Devonian times and for a proximity
these continents in Famennian times. The potential of this trunk for studies
architecture and growth patterns of the earliest
trees with a gymnospermous type of arborescent habit is discussed.
World maize production in 1992–94 oscillated between 470 and 569 million t produced on about 127–132 million ha. The average yields were in the range of 3.7–4.3 t/ha, which are the highest among the most important world cereal food crops: wheat, rice and maize (FAO 1995). Its production, however, is not evenly distributed. More than 40% of world maize production comes from the United States. Maize is widely adapted between 55°N and S latitudes (Guidry 1964) and at altitudes from sea level to 3600 m in cool tropical highlands of the Andes. Adapted maize germplasm is cultivated in tropical lowlands, tropical and subtropical mid-altitudes, temperate and cool tropical highland climates.
Hybrid maize was first introduced in the United States before World War II and further development of single-cross hybrids from the 1960s in most temperate maize-growing countries has been a significant factor in increasing maize production (Hallauer et al. 1988). Hybrid maize technology is being employed for the other maize types grown in tropical, mid-altitude and highland maize production regions where, however, an important part of maize production is the use of landraces (traditional local maize varieties) and improved varieties for food preparations of preferred grain texture and colour.
BOTANY AND DISTRIBUTION
Cultivated maize is Zea mays L. (Species Plantarum 971. 1753) or Zea mays L. subsp. mays Iltis (Iltis and Doebley 1980), and two of its relatives, Tripsacum and Teosinte, are described later in this volume.
Microwave multiport sensors have been shown to provide some unique capabilities to achieve real-time testing of products conveyed at high speed. In many applications, quantitative measurements of physical quantities such as moisture content, density, etc… are required, either to guarantee reliable production or to optimally control a fabrication/transformation process. In this paper, different ways of extracting such physical quantities from microwave measurements performed by multiport sensors are presented. Model approaches are used, based on polynomial expansions of the physical quantities to be measured as a function of the microwave amplitude and phase data. Calibration procedures have been investigated for both paper and wood material samples. Comparisons between in-situ, microwave and conventional, measurements are analysed.
Plant fossils are a common and important element in the East Kirkton biota of Brigantian (late Viséan age). The most important taxa are preserved as compressions or anatomically preserved as permineralisations. The basis of the quantitative study of the flora and the distribution of individual plant species was the trenched section excavated for the East Kirkton Project. The largest diversity of compressions have been recorded from loose blocks. In the trenched section, the uppermost ashes contain only lycopsid compressions including Stigmaria. Nodules in the underlying shales yield mainly lycopsid leaf and sporophyll compressions. The uppermost limestones (Units 39-52) contain drifted fragments of pteridosperm fronds mainly Sphenopteridium crassum, S. pachyrrhachis, Spathulopteris obovata and Adiantites antiquus. Permineralised Lyginorachis spp. occur at this level. Large permineralised woody gymnosperm axes have been found loose (including Pitus, 50 cm in diameter). Permineralised axes, mainly reworked, including the gymnosperms Bilignea, Eristophyton, Stanwoodia and possibly Protopitys, have been found in Units 72-88. Poorly preserved permineralised lycopsids are rare, but include Lepidophloios. Loose chert blocks contain root mats of permineralised Stigmaria, together with Lepidocarpon, the sphenopsid Archaeocalamites and the fern Botryopteris. Similar material is found in Unit 83 of the Limestone sequence. Unit 82, the black shale containing many of the articulated vertebrates, contains predominantly pteridosperm frond and pinnule material including Spathulopteris obovata. The distinctive changes in the flora from the base to the top of the trenched sequence reflect mainly ecological and taphonomic controls upon plant distribution and preservation. Evidence suggests a close relationship between climate, fire, erosion, deposition and vegetation type through the sequence and a climatic change, from a drier to a wetter environment, is suggested at the top of the East Kirkton Limestone sequence.
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