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Mate preferences and mating-related behaviours are hypothesised to change over the menstrual cycle to increase reproductive fitness. Recent large-scale studies suggest that previously reported hormone-linked behavioural changes are not robust. The proposal that women's preference for associating with male kin is down-regulated during the ovulatory (high-fertility) phase of the menstrual cycle to reduce inbreeding has not been tested in large samples. Consequently, we investigated the relationship between longitudinal changes in women's steroid hormone levels and their perceptions of faces experimentally manipulated to possess kinship cues (Study 1). Women viewed faces displaying kinship cues as more attractive and trustworthy, but this effect was not related to hormonal proxies of conception risk. Study 2 employed a daily diary approach and found no evidence that women spent less time with kin generally or with male kin specifically during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. Thus, neither study found evidence that inbreeding avoidance is up-regulated during the ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle.
Several clinical procedures utilize duodenoscopes, which are processed for reuse after the procedures are completed. However, infection outbreaks due to improper duodenoscope processing occur frequently. To address this, we aimed to assess the contamination rates of duodenoscopes after reprocessing in nonoutbreak settings.
Design and setting:
Prospective study in 16 clinical sites in the United States.
We sampled and cultured reprocessed duodenoscopes following the FDA/CDC/ASM guideline; “Duodenoscope Surveillance Sampling and Culturing – Reducing the Risks of Infection.” High-concern (HC) organisms were those highly associated with disease, including gram-negative rods, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, β-hemolytic Streptococcus, Enterococcus spp, and yeasts. We evaluated duodenoscopes with ≥1 CFU of organisms after reprocessing. The reprocessing environments were also sampled and cultured.
We assessed 859 newer-model (NM) duodenoscopes (TJF-Q180V) and 850 older-model (OM) duodenoscopes (TJF-160F/VF); of these, 35 NM samples (4.1%) and 56 OM samples (6.6%) were contaminated with HC organisms. We detected and classified the HC organisms as gastrointestinal (45.4%), human origin (16.7%), environmental (24.1%), waterborne (13.0%), and unidentified (0.9%).
We detected an overall HC contamination rate of 5.3% in nonoutbreak settings. Although the relationship between endoscopic contamination and the occurrence of infections remains unclear, attempts should continue to be made to further reduce contamination rates. Additional improvements to the manufacturer’s instructions for use, human factors during the reprocessing procedure, ongoing training programs, cleanliness of reprocessing environments, and the design of the distal end of the duodenoscope should be considered.
Fast ice flow is associated with the deformation of subglacial sediment. Seismic shear velocities, Vs, increase with the rigidity of material and hence can be used to distinguish soft sediment from hard bedrock substrates. Depth profiles of Vs can be obtained from inversions of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves, from passive or active-sources, but these can be highly ambiguous and lack depth sensitivity. Our novel Bayesian transdimensional algorithm, MuLTI, circumvents these issues by adding independent depth constraints to the inversion, also allowing comprehensive uncertainty analysis. We apply MuLTI to the inversion of a Rayleigh wave dataset, acquired using active-source (Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves) techniques, to characterise sediment distribution beneath the frontal margin of Midtdalsbreen, an outlet of Norway's Hardangerjøkulen ice cap. Ice thickness (0–20 m) is constrained using co-located GPR data. Outputs from MuLTI suggest that partly-frozen sediment (Vs 500–1000 m s−1), overlying bedrock (Vs 2000–2500 m s−1), is present in patches with a thickness of ~4 m, although this approaches the resolvable limit of our Rayleigh wave frequencies (14–100 Hz). Uncertainties immediately beneath the glacier bed are <280 m s−1, implying that MuLTI cannot only distinguish bedrock and sediment substrates but does so with an accuracy sufficient for resolving variations in sediment properties.
Understanding endemic infectious disease risk factors through traditional epidemiological tools is challenging. Population-based case–control studies are costly and time-consuming. A case–case analyses using surveillance data addresses these limitations by using resources more efficiently. We conducted a case–case analyses using routine surveillance data reported by 16 U.S. states (2005–2015), wherein reported cases of salmonellosis were used as a comparison group to identify exposure associations with reported cases of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis. Odds ratios adjusted for age and reporting state (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A total of 10 704 cryptosporidiosis cases, 17 544 giardiasis cases, and 106 351 salmonellosis cases were included in this analyses. When compared with cases of salmonellosis, exposure to treated recreational water (aOR 4.7, 95% CI 4.3–5.0) and livestock (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.9–3.5) were significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis and exposure to untreated drinking (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 3.6–4.7) and recreational water (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 3.7–4.5) were associated with giardiasis. Our analyses shows that routine surveillance data with standardised exposure information can be used to identify associations of interest for cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite associated with diarrheal illness. In the USA, foodborne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have been documented almost every year since the mid-1990s. The typical approach used to identify this parasite in human stools is an examination of acid-fast-stained smears under bright-field microscopy. UV fluorescence microscopy of wet mounts is more sensitive and specific than acid-fast staining but requires a fluorescence microscope with a special filter not commonly available in diagnostic laboratories. In this study, we evaluated a new DNA extraction method based on the Universal Nucleic Acid Extraction (UNEX) buffer and compared the performances of four published real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the specific detection of C. cayetanensis in stool. The UNEX-based method had an improved capability to recover DNA from oocysts compared with the FastDNA stool extraction method. The best-performing real-time PCR assay was a C. cayetanensis-specific TaqMan PCR that targets the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. This new testing algorithm should be useful for detection of C. cayetanensis in human stool samples.
Seabird bycatch is widely regarded as the greatest threat globally to procellariiform seabirds. Although measures to reduce seabird–fishery interactions have been in existence for many years, uptake in fleets with high risk profiles remains variable. We recorded seabird bycatch and other interactions in the Namibian demersal longline fishery. Interaction rates were estimated for seasonal and spatial strata and scaled up to fishing effort data. Bycatch rates were 0.77 (95% CI 0.24–1.39) and 0.37 (95% CI 0.11–0.72) birds per 1,000 hooks in winter and summer, respectively. Scaling up to 2010, the most recent year for which complete data are available, suggests 20,567 (95% CI 6,328–37,935) birds were killed in this fishery that year. We compared bycatch rates to those from experimental fishing sets using mitigation measures (one or two bird-scaring lines and the replacement of standard concrete weights with 5 kg steel weights). All mitigation measures significantly reduced the bycatch rate. This study confirms the Namibian longline fishery has some of the highest known impacts on seabirds globally, but implementing simple measures could rapidly reduce those impacts. In November 2015 the Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources introduced regulations requiring the use of bird-scaring lines, line weighting and night setting in this fishery. A collaborative approach between NGOs, industry and government was important in achieving wide understanding and acceptance of the proposed mitigation measures in the lead up to the introduction of new fishery regulations.
In 1952, the African National Congress (ANC) initiated its Defiance Campaign, opposing apartheid laws through organized civil disobedience and African nationalism. On Sunday 9 November, the city of East London became a site of political mobilization when 1,500 Xhosa-speaking ANC sympathizers peacefully protested in Bantu Square, the hub of a township named Duncan Village. Police arrived and fired on the crowd, igniting ‘spontaneous riots’. An Afrikaner salesman and an Irish nun were killed in the ensuing unrest. Rumours circulated that a mob ate the white woman; troop reinforcements then fanned into the township to wage a retaliatory war, shooting and bayoneting their victims. Upwards of 200 Africans may have died but only nine fatalities were recorded. If the revised toll is credible, the bloodshed exceeds that of Sharpeville, the worst one-day massacre in apartheid South Africa. Oral sources explain why the slaughter in Duncan Village is not widely known. Township residents secretly carted the dead to rural graves, fearing to report their losses as people mourned the tragic slaying of the nun named Sister Aidan. Today, ANC rulers of East London seem content to silence the memory of a mass killing reputedly spawned by chaos and cannibalism. At the centre of this incident is Sr Aidan's mutilation for the purpose of making muthi, a shocking incident that dominates the story of violence on Black Sunday. Using archival documents and oral histories, and incorporating the methodologies of Jennifer Cole, Donald Donham and Veena Das, this article reconstructs a narrative of ‘critical events’ surrounding the nun's muthi murder. The scrutinized witness testimonies relay how township residents framed their fierce encounters with a symbolic (white person) and ubiquitous (militarized police) enemy. Oral sources reject the notion that an aimless ‘riot’ occurred on 9 November. Instead, they reflect on cultural enactments of purposeful violence through scripted assaults and muthi ritual. Ultimately, they view the fatal attack on Sr Aidan as an evolving customary act of defensive retribution and symbolic warning, submerging truths in apartheid and hindering reconciliations in democracy.
Reducing the global treatment gap for mental disorders requires treatments that are economical, effective and culturally appropriate.
To describe a systematic approach to the development of a brief psychological treatment for patients with severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary healthcare.
The treatment was developed in three stages using a variety of methods: (a) identifying potential strategies; (b) developing a theoretical framework; and (c) evaluating the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of the psychological treatment.
The Healthy Activity Program (HAP) is delivered over 6–8 sessions and consists of behavioral activation as the core psychological framework with added emphasis on strategies such as problem-solving and activation of social networks. Key elements to improve acceptability and feasibility are also included. In an intention-to-treat analysis of a pilot randomised controlled trial (55 participants), the prevalence of depression (Beck Depression Inventory II ⩾19) after 2 months was lower in the HAP than the control arm (adjusted risk ratio = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32–0.94, P = 0.01).
Our systematic approach to the development of psychological treatments could be extended to other mental disorders. HAP is an acceptable and effective brief psychological treatment for severe depression delivered by lay counsellors in primary care.
We experimentally study the cavities forming in the wake of rigid spheres when submerging into a stratified, two-layer system of immiscible, quiescent liquids comprising a thin layer of oil above a deep pool of water. The results obtained for our two-layer system are compared with data from the literature for the corresponding type of cavities formed when spheres enter a homogeneous liquid that is not covered by an oil layer. The discussion and the data analysis reveal that the oil coating acquired by the spheres while propagating through the thin oil layer, before entering the pool of water underneath, substantially affects qualitative and quantitative aspects of the dynamics associated with the cavity formation. In particular, we observe the formation of a ripple-like pattern on the cavity walls which is not known to exist when spheres enter a homogeneous liquid. The data analysis suggests that the ripple patterns form as a consequence of a two-dimensional instability arising due to the shear between the oil layer coating the spheres and the ambient water.
A number of sophisticated modelling approaches are available to investigate potential associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in animal health settings. All have their advantages and disadvantages, making it unclear as to which model is most appropriate. We used advanced regression modelling to investigate AMU-AMR associations in faecal non-type-specific Escherichia coli (NTSEC) isolates recovered from 275 pens of feedlot cattle. Ten modelling strategies were employed to investigate AMU associations with resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline and streptomycin. Goodness-of-fit statistics did not show a consistent advantage for any one model type. Three AMU-AMR associations were significant in all models. Recent parenteral tetracycline use increased the odds of finding tetracycline-resistant NTSEC [odds ratios (OR) 1·1–3·2]; recent parenteral sulfonamide use increased the odds of finding sulfisoxazole-resistant NTSEC (OR 1·4–2·5); and recent parenteral macrolide use decreased the odds of recovering ampicillin-resistant NTSEC (OR 0·03–0·2). Other results varied markedly depending on the modelling approach, emphasizing the importance of exploring and reporting multiple modelling methods based on a balanced consideration of important factors such as study design, mathematical appropriateness, research question and target audience.
The study objective was to use Bayesian latent class analysis to evaluate the accuracy of susceptibility test results obtained from disk diffusion and broth microdilution using bacteria recovered from beef feedlot cattle. Isolates of Escherichia coli and Mannheimia haemolytica were tested for susceptibility to ampicillin, ceftiofur, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Results showed that neither testing method was always or even generally superior to the other. Specificity (ability to correctly classify non-resistant isolates) was extremely high for both testing methods, but sensitivity (ability to correctly classify resistant isolates) was lower, variable in the drugs evaluated, and variable between the two bacterial species. Predictive values estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo models showed that the ability to predict true susceptibility status was equivalent for test results obtained with the two testing methods for some drugs, but for others there were marked differences between results obtained from disk diffusion and broth microdilution tests.
Recent research indicates that cognitive reserve mitigates the clinical expression of neuropsychological impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS). This literature primarily uses premorbid intelligence and lifetime experiences as indicators. However, changes in current recreational activities may also contribute to the maintenance of neural function despite brain atrophy. We examined the moderation effects of current changes in recreational activity on the relationship between brain atrophy and information processing speed in 57 relapsing-remitting MS patients. Current enrichment was assessed using the Recreation and Pastimes subscale from the Sickness Impact Profile. In patients reporting current declines in recreational activities, brain atrophy was negatively associated with cognition, but there was no such association in participants reporting stable participation. The MRI metric-by-recreational activity interaction was significant in separate hierarchical regression analyses conducted using third ventricle width, neocortical volume, T2 lesion volume, and thalamic volume as brain measures. Results suggest that recreational activities protect against brain atrophy's detrimental influence on cognition. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–6)
Our team was awarded 108 orbits of Hubble Space Telescope time to obtain parallaxes and photometry of nine metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < −1.5 dex. The parallaxes are obtained from observations with the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS 1r; 11 orbits per star) and photometry was obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (one orbit per star). The first data were obtained in October 2008, and the data collection is ongoing. It is anticipated that the observations will be complete in June 2013. Preliminary data reduction has been completed for five of our target stars. The parallax errors vary from 0.12 to 0.16 milli-arcseconds, and the parallaxes are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than existing Hipparcos parallaxes for these stars. The errors in the true distance modulus range from 0.02 to 0.03 mag. Ground-based high-resolution spectra have been analyzed to obtain accurate abundances for three stars. The properties of the two stars with accurate abundances and parallaxes are in excellent agreement with those predicted by stellar evolution models.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are chronic immunologic diseases that can cause cognitive dysfunction. MS is a central nervous system (CNS) disease characterized by demyelination and progressive brain atrophy. SLE is an autoimmune disease capable of damaging multiple organ systems, including the CNS. Cognitive disturbances are seen in both SLE and MS. The present study is concerned with understanding the similarities and differences between the cognitive profiles of SLE and MS as well as the relationship between cognitive impairment and vocational disability in these patients. We examined 47 SLE patients, 47 MS patients, and 44 healthy controls. The groups were well matched on demographics and the patient groups were also matched on disease duration and severity. Group comparisons revealed that generative verbal fluency and visual-spatial memory are more profoundly affected in MS than SLE; whereas depression, fatigue, and working memory deficits are similarly involved in both diseases. Logistic regression analysis revealed that executive function, in particular, was predictive of vocational outcomes in SLE and MS patients. (JINS, 2012, 18, 530–540)
Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be detrimental for the developing fetus. The effects of active and passive maternal smoking on umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E were examined. Secondary measures included anthropometric parameters in the newborn. Maternal and umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E were measured at delivery. The mothers were assigned to three groups: non-smoking (n 12); passive smoking (n 13); active smoking (n 18). Based on multivariate linear regressions, active smoking during pregnancy was associated with increased umbilical cord serum levels of vitamin A and vitamin E. While enhanced circulating levels of vitamin A in cord blood were also found in non-smoking mothers exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy, those of vitamin E were not influenced. Further, an inverse association between smoking behaviour during pregnancy and birth length was observed, with shortest length in active smokers followed by passive smoking mothers. Active and passive maternal smoking behaviour during pregnancy increases the fetal demand for antioxidant compounds in order to counteract the oxidative burden by cigarette smoke. Against this background, the observed increase in umbilical cord serum levels of vitamins A and E may subserve antioxidative processes in response to tobacco smoke-induced oxidative stress. This would reduce the availability of vitamins A and E for fetal maturation, which is critical inasmuch as both compounds are indispensable for the developing fetus. However, due to the cross-sectional nature of our observation, this line of reasoning definitely requires validation in cause–effect experiments in the future.
Since the mid-1990s public protests in Vietnam have been increasing compared to the 1976–1995 period. Particularly numerous have been demonstrations by peasants and workers. This article examines protests by urban workers in private and state-owned factories and other types of workplaces.
Most of these workers' public protests have taken the form of strikes, the primary focus of my analysis. I address two sets of questions. One set concerns the protests themselves. What are workers pressing for, and why? What happens during strikes? Where do they occur, and are they peaceful, disruptive, or violent? How are they organized? And how do they occur, given that thus far they have all been illegal? The other set of questions concerns the consequences of these protests. What are the outcomes? What happens to the workers involved? How do employers respond? What are the reactions of state authorities, including those in the official labour confederation, and what do those reactions reveal about Vietnam's political system?
Although labour protests in contemporary Vietnam are my main concern, I compare them, insofar as available sources allow, to similar phenomena in the southern part of Vietnam (then the Republic of Vietnam [RVN]) during 1954–75, prior to the country's reunification. Because many of the strikes today occur in the southern half of Vietnam, a comparison between current and past protests reveals some differences between labour protests today and those of some fifty years earlier. Another goal of this study is to compare the forms and consequences of labour unrest in the two political settings — the anticommunist, semi-democratic/semi-authoritarian RVN that together with the United States was fighting internal wars, and the current, largely authoritarian, Communist Party-governed Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV). The analysis shows some similarities in what workers sought and the consequences of their protests. The contrasts, however, are more remarkable and help to highlight the significance of today's labour unrest for the present political system.