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Sleep apnea is one of the most common sleep disorders and it is related to multiple negative health consequences. Previous studies have shown that sleep apnea is influenced by genetic factors. However, studies have not investigated the genetic and environmental influences of symptoms of sleep apnea in young adults. Furthermore, the underpinnings of the relationship between apnea symptoms and internalizing/externalizing problems are unknown. The objectives of this study were to estimate the magnitude of: (1) genetic and environmental influences on self-reported apnea symptoms; (2) the relationship between self-reported apnea symptoms and internalizing/externalizing traits; (3) genetic and environmental influences on the associations between self-reported apnea symptoms, internalizing behaviors and externalizing behaviors.
In a twin/sibling study, univariate and multivariate models were fitted to estimate both individual variance and sources of covariance between symptoms of sleep apnea and internalizing/externalizing behaviors.
Our results show that genetic influences account for 40% of the variance in sleep apnea symptoms. Moreover, there are modest associations between depression, anxiety and externalizing behaviors with apnea symptoms (ranging from r = 0.22–0.29). However, the origins of these associations differ. For example, whereas most of the covariation between symptoms of depression and sleep apnea can be explained by genes (95%), there was a larger role for the environment (53%) in the association between symptoms of anxiety and sleep apnea.
Genetic factors explain a significant proportion of variance in symptoms of apnea and most of the covariance with depression.
Background: In 2016 The Fraser Health Authority's Emergency Network established a priority to standardize patient access and flow through their 13 emergency departments (ED). A Model of Care (MOC) was developed after an extensive review of the literature and current practices across BC. Aim Statement: The ED Model of Care (MOC) specifies best practice expectations with respect to emergency patient access and flow. Rather than a ‘top-down’ mandate of expected practices, the MOC provided the opportunity for site-based teams to promote solutions that were ‘locally actioned and regionally enabled’. Measures & Design: ED Quality Improvement (QI) teams were developed at all sites. The ED Network developed a “QI Bootcamp”, a one-day course focused on imparting tools to drive improvements, providing a baseline understanding of how to launch and sustain local QI initiatives. Using Prosci's change approach, an emphasis was placed on using local ingenuity to implement plans, analyze feedback and diagnose gaps. This approach measured utilization of the changes to tangibly link initiatives and change to specific outcomes. As part of this strategy, an online scorecard was created to measure local results against best practice outcomes. The scorecard tracked quantitative access metrics such as ED Length of Stay (EDLOS), Left Without Being Seen rate, and triage time. Measures such as forming a QI team, identifying a QI project and completing a PDSA cycle were included in the scorecard Evaluation/Results: The MOC change management strategy was launched in May of 2018. By December 2018 all 13 EDs had formed a local QI team and identified a project. Twelve sites had completed at least one PDSA cycle and 10 sites had at least 75% of their members attend the QI Bootcamp. The scorecard displayed improvements in flow metrics. Highlights include the average arrival to triage time decreasing by 36% at one site, EDLOS for moderately ill patients decreased from 4.8 to 3.4 hours at another, and a community hospital had low acuity patient EDLOS decrease from 3.52 to 2.37 hours. Discussion/Impact: A standardized approach to patient access and flow in the ED (MOC), combined with the engaging grass roots approach to inspiring local innovation, allied with a concrete change management approach demonstrated significant results for patients accessing and moving through EDs. This pattern that is more likely to sustain itself because the results are felt and locally owned.
The launch of NASA’s next exoplanet mission, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), took place successfully on 2018 April 18, and has now commenced science operations. TESS is specifically designed to search for exoplanets transiting the closest and brightest stars using high-cadence photometric measurements. The images employed for detecting those planets can also be used for a wide variety of time-domain astronomy, especially when considering the full-frame images that TESS takes every 30 minutes. This (pre-launch) workshop familiarised participants with the details of how TESS will operate, described the expected data products and how to access them, introduced the software suite PyKE, which can be used to analyse TESS data, and highlighted ways for participants to request additional TESS targets.
Children and youth have tended to be under-reported in the historical scholarship. This collection of essays recasts the historical narrative by populating premodern Scottish communities from the thirteenth to the late eighteenth centuries with their lively experiences and voices. By examining medieval and early modern Scottish communities through the lens of age, the collection counters traditional assumptions that young people are peripheral to our understanding of the political, economic, and social contexts of the premodern era. The topics addressed fall into three main sections: theexperience of being a child/adolescent; representations of the young; and the construction of the next generation. The individual essays examine the experience of the young at all levels of society, including princes and princesses, aristocratic and gentry youth, urban young people, rural children, and those who came to Scotland as slaves; they draw on evidence from art, personal correspondence, material culture, song, legal and government records, work and marriage contracts, and literature.
Janay Nugent is an Associate Professor of History and a founding member of the Institute for Child and Youth Studies at the University of Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada; Elizabeth Ewan is University Research Chair and Professor of History and Scottish Studies at the Centre for Scottish Studies, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
Contributors: Katie Barclay, Stuart Campbell, Mairi Cowan, Sarah Dunnigan, Elizabeth Ewan, Anne Frater, Dolly MacKinnon, Cynthia J. Neville, Janay Nugent, Heather Parker, Jamie Reid Baxter, Cathryn R. Spence, Laura E. Walkling, Nel Whiting.
An estimated 800 million people live within 100 km of an active volcano in 86 countries and additional overseas territories worldwide [see Chapter 4 and Appendix B]1. Volcanoes are compelling evidence that the Earth is a dynamic planet characterised by endless change and renewal. Humans have always found volcanic activity fascinating and have often chosen to live close to volcanoes, which commonly provide favourable environments for life. Volcanoes bring many benefits to society: eruptions fertilise soils; elevated topography provides good sites for infrastructure (e.g. telecommunications on elevated ground); water resources are commonly plentiful; volcano tourism can be lucrative; and volcanoes can acquire spiritual, aesthetic or religious significance. Some volcanoes are also associated with geothermal resources, making them a target for exploration and a potential energy resource.
Much of the time volcanoes are not a threat because they erupt very infrequently or because communities have become resilient to frequently erupting volcanoes. However, there is an everpresent danger of a long-dormant volcano re-awakening or of volcanoes producing anomalously large or unexpected eruptions. Volcanic eruptions can cause loss of life and livelihoods in exposed communities, damage or disrupt critical infrastructure and add stress to already fragile environments. Their impacts can be both short-term, e.g. physical damage, and long-term, e.g. sustained or permanent displacement of populations. The risk from volcanic eruptions and their attendant hazards is often underestimated beyond areas within the immediate proximity of a volcano. For example, volcanic ash hazards can have effects hundreds of kilometres away from the vent and have an adverse impact on human and animal health, infrastructure, transport, agriculture and horticulture, the environment and economies. The products of volcanism and their impacts can extend beyond country borders, to be regional and even global in scale.
Although known historical loss of life from volcanic eruptions (since 1600 AD about 280,000 fatalities are recorded, Auker et al. (2013)) is modest compared to other major natural hazards, volcanic eruptions can be catastrophic for exposed communities. In 1985 the town of Armero in Colombia was buried by lahars (volcanic mudflows) with more than 21,000 fatalities due to relatively small explosive eruptions at the summit of Nevado del Ruiz volcano that partially melted a glacier (Voight, 1990).
Long-lived episodic volcanic eruptions share the risk characteristics of other forms of extensive hazard (such as flood, drought or landslides). They also have the capacity for escalations to high intensity, high impact events. Volcán Tungurahua in the Ecuadorian Andes has been in eruption since 1999. The management of risk in areas surrounding the volcano has been facilitated by a network of community-based monitoring volunteers that has grown to fulfil multiple risk reduction roles in collaboration with the scientists and authorities.
Inception and evolution
Renewed activity from Tungurahua (1999) prompted the evacuation, via Presidential Order, of the large tourist town of Baños and surrounding communities. Social unrest associated with the displacement and attendant loss of livelihood culminated in a forcible civil re-occupation of the land, crossing and over-running military checkpoints (Le Pennec et al., 2012). This reoccupation prompted a radical re-think of management strategy around the volcanic hazard, shifting emphasis from enforcement to communication (Mothes et al., 2015). This enabled the community to continue their way of life alongside the volcano when it is relatively quiet and to prepare for and rapidly mobilise themselves during acute activity.
To do this, a network of volunteers, formed from people already living in the communities at risk, was created with two main goals in mind: (i) to facilitate timely evacuations as part of the Civil Defence communication network, including the management of sirens, and (ii) to communicate observations about the volcano to the scientists (Stone et al., 2014). These volunteers are collectively referred to as ‘vigías’ and their input provides a pragmatic solution to the need for better monitoring observations and improved early warning systems when communities are living in relative proximity to the hazard. As a part of the solution, the communities feel strong ownership and involvement with the network (Stone et al., 2014). The communication pathways, formal and informal are shown in Figure 26.1.
This study uses Swedish occupational register data to examine whether the proportion of men in administrative workplaces in the Swedish public service affects all-cause mortality risks amongst both males and females of working age. Using piecewise constant survival models to analyse occupational data from the Swedish administrative registers from 1995 to 2007, it was found that for males, a 1% increase in the proportion of males was associated with a 1.3% increase in mortality risk (hazard ratio, HR 1.013, 95% CI 1.007–1.020, p<0.001), but no association was found for females (HR 1.004, 95% CI 0.996–1.012, p=0.297). Adjustments were made for age, family status, education, occupational status, occupational segregation by sex, the total number of individuals in the workplace, level of government, region, period and variables reflecting the workplace structure by age, age by sex, occupation and education. A higher proportion of males may be related to (i) an increased exposure to risky health behaviours such as alcohol consumption and unhealthy dietary patterns, (ii) a tendency towards sickness presenteeism, and (iii) an increase in the levels of several well-established emotional stressors in the workplace, leading to an increased level of psychosocial stress. The findings and potential extensions of this research are discussed.