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The 90-km long Stuoragurra Fault Complex, part of the approximately 4–5-km wide Precambrian Mierojávri–Sværholt Shear Zone, constitutes the Norwegian part of the larger Lapland province of postglacial faults. It consists of three separate fault systems being 6–12 km apart. The faults dip 30–75° to the SE and can be traced to about 500 m depth. Deep seismic profiling shows that the shear zone dips at an angle of about 43° to the southeast and can be traced to about 3 km depth. A total of approximately 80 earthquakes were registered here between 1991 and 2019. Most of them occurred to the southeast of the fault scarps. The maximum moment magnitude was 4.0. The formation of postglacial faults in northern Fennoscandia has previously been associated with the deglaciation of the last inland ice. Dating of fault reactivation reveals, however, a late Holocene age (between around 700 and 4000 a BP). The reverse displacement of around 9 m and fault system lengths of 14 and 21 km of the two southernmost fault systems indicate a moment magnitude of about 7. The results from this study indicate that the expected maximum magnitude of future earthquakes in Fennoscandia is about 7.
Antisociality across adolescence and young adulthood puts individuals at high risk of developing a variety of problems. Prior research has linked antisociality to autonomic nervous system and endocrinological functioning. However, there is large heterogeneity in antisocial behaviors, and these neurobiological measures are rarely studied conjointly, limited to small specific studies with narrow age ranges, and yield mixed findings due to the type of behavior examined.
We harmonized data from 1489 participants (9–27 years, 67% male), from six heterogeneous samples. In the resulting dataset, we tested relations between distinct dimensions of antisociality and heart rate, pre-ejection period (PEP), respiratory sinus arrhythmia, respiration rate, skin conductance levels, testosterone, basal cortisol, and the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and test the role of age throughout adolescence and young adulthood.
Three dimensions of antisociality were uncovered: ‘callous-unemotional (CU)/manipulative traits’, ‘intentional aggression/conduct’, and ‘reactivity/impulsivity/irritability’. Shorter PEPs and higher testosterone were related to CU/manipulative traits, and a higher CAR is related to both CU/manipulative traits and intentional aggression/conduct. These effects were stable across age.
Across a heterogeneous sample and consistent across development, the CAR may be a valuable measure to link to CU/manipulative traits and intentional aggression, while sympathetic arousal and testosterone are additionally valuable to understand CU/manipulative traits. Together, these findings deepen our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying different components of antisociality. Finally, we illustrate the potential of using current statistical techniques for combining multiple datasets to draw robust conclusions about biobehavioral associations.
Some psychiatric disorders have been associated with increased risk of miscarriage. However, there is a lack of studies considering a broader spectrum of psychiatric disorders to clarify the role of common as opposed to independent mechanisms.
To examine the risk of miscarriage among women diagnosed with psychiatric conditions.
We studied registered pregnancies in Norway between 2010 and 2016 (n = 593 009). The birth registry captures pregnancies ending in gestational week 12 or later, and the patient and general practitioner databases were used to identify miscarriages and induced abortions before 12 gestational weeks. Odds ratios of miscarriage according to 12 psychiatric diagnoses were calculated by logistic regression.
Miscarriage risk was increased among women with bipolar disorders (adjusted odds ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.26–1.44), personality disorders (adjusted odds ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.12–1.55), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (adjusted odds ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.21–1.33), conduct disorders (1.21, 95% CI 1.01, 1.46), anxiety disorders (adjusted odds ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.23–1.28), depressive disorders (adjusted odds ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.23–1.27), somatoform disorders (adjusted odds ratio 1.18, 95% CI 1.07–1.31) and eating disorders (adjusted odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.08–1.22). The miscarriage risk was further increased among women with more than one psychiatric diagnosis. Our findings were robust to adjustment for other psychiatric diagnoses, chronic somatic disorders and substance use disorders. After mutual adjustment for co-occurring psychiatric disorders, we also observed a modest increased risk among women with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (adjusted odds ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.03–1.44).
A wide range of psychiatric disorders were associated with increased risk of miscarriage. The heightened risk of miscarriage among women diagnosed with psychiatric disorders highlights the need for awareness and surveillance of this risk group in antenatal care.
Treatment with psychotropic medication may sometimes be jeopardised because of the COVID-19 pandemic. One underlying reason is the lack of COVID-19-specific psychopharmacology guidelines. Here, we discuss five considerations arising from our clinical experience and pharmacological background knowledge to enable safe and well-informed psychopharmacotherapy during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience persistent impairments in both affective and non-affective cognitive function, which is associated with a worse course of illness and poor functional outcomes. Nevertheless, the temporal progression of cognitive dysfunction in BD remains unclear and the identification of objective endophenotypes can inform the aetiology of BD.
The present study is a cross-sectional investigation of cognitive baseline data from the longitudinal Bipolar Illness Onset-study. One hundred seventy-two remitted patients newly diagnosed with BD, 52 of their unaffected relatives (UR), and 110 healthy controls (HC) were compared on a large battery of behavioural cognitive tasks tapping into non-affective (i.e. neurocognitive) and affective (i.e. emotion processing and regulation) cognition.
Relative to HCs, patients with BD exhibited global neurocognitive deficits (ps < 0.001), as well as aberrant emotion processing and regulation (ps ⩽ 0.011); including decreased emotional reactivity to positive social scenarios, impaired ability to down-regulate positive emotion, as well as a specific deficit in the ability to recognise surprised facial expressions. Their URs also showed a trend towards difficulties identifying surprised faces (p = 0.075). No other differences in cognitive function were found for URs compared to HCs.
Neurocognitive deficits and impairments within emotion processing and regulation may be illness-related deficits of BD that present after illness-onset, whereas processing of emotional faces may represent an early risk marker of BD. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine the association between cognitive impairments and illness progression in BD.
Prior evolutionary theory provided reason to suspect that measures of development and reproduction would be correlated with antisocial behaviours in human and non-human species. Behavioural genetics has revealed that most quantitative traits are heritable, suggesting that these phenotypic correlations may share genetic aetiologies. We use genome-wide association study data to estimate the genetic correlations between various measures of reproductive development (N = 52 776–318 863) and antisocial behaviour (N = 31 968). Our genetic correlation analyses demonstrate that alleles associated with higher reproductive output (number of children ever born, rg = 0.50, P = 0.0065) were positively correlated with alleles associated with antisocial behaviour, whereas alleles associated with more delayed reproductive onset (age at first birth, rg = −0.64, P = 0.0008) were negatively associated with alleles linked to antisocial behaviour. Ultimately, these findings coalesce with evolutionary theories suggesting that increased antisocial behaviours may partly represent a faster life history approach, which may be significantly calibrated by genes.
The aim of the study was to assess whether a simple substitution of carbohydrate in the conventionally recommended diet with protein and fat would result in a clinically meaningful reduction in postprandial hyperglycaemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In all, sixteen subjects with T2DM treated with metformin only, fourteen male, with a median age of 65 (43–70) years, HbA1c of 6·5 % (47 mmol/l) (5·5–8·3 % (37–67 mmol/l)) and a BMI of 30 (sd 4·4) kg/m2 participated in the randomised, cross-over study. A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) diet was compared with an iso-energetic conventional diabetes (CD) diet. Macronutrient contents of the CRHP/CD diets consisted of 31/54 % energy from carbohydrate, 29/16 % energy from protein and 40/30 % energy from fat, respectively. Each diet was consumed on 2 consecutive days in a randomised order. Postprandial glycaemia, pancreatic and gut hormones, as well as satiety, were evaluated at breakfast and lunch. Compared with the CD diet, the CRHP diet reduced postprandial AUC of glucose by 14 %, insulin by 22 % and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide by 17 % (all P<0·001), respectively. Correspondingly, glucagon AUC increased by 33 % (P<0·001), cholecystokinin by 24 % (P=0·004) and satiety scores by 7 % (P=0·035), respectively. A moderate reduction in carbohydrate with an increase in fat and protein in the diet, compared with an energy-matched CD diet, greatly reduced postprandial glucose excursions and resulted in increased satiety in patients with well-controlled T2DM.
We computationally investigate coupling of a nonlinear rotational dissipative element to a sprung circular cylinder allowed to undergo transverse vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in an incompressible flow. The dissipative element is a ‘nonlinear energy sink’ (NES), consisting of a mass rotating at fixed radius about the cylinder axis and a linear viscous damper that dissipates energy from the motion of the rotating mass. We consider the Reynolds number range $20\leqslant Re\leqslant 120$, with $Re$ based on cylinder diameter and free-stream velocity, and the cylinder restricted to rectilinear motion transverse to the mean flow. Interaction of this NES with the flow is mediated by the cylinder, whose rectilinear motion is mechanically linked to rotational motion of the NES mass through nonlinear inertial coupling. The rotational NES provides significant ‘passive’ suppression of VIV. Beyond suppression however, the rotational NES gives rise to a range of qualitatively new behaviours not found in transverse VIV of a sprung cylinder without an NES, or one with a ‘rectilinear NES’, considered previously. Specifically, the NES can either stabilize or destabilize the steady, symmetric, motionless-cylinder solution and can induce conditions under which suppression of VIV (and concomitant reduction in lift and drag) is accompanied by a greatly elongated region of attached vorticity in the wake, as well as conditions in which the cylinder motion and flow are temporally chaotic at relatively low $Re$.
The capability to perform liquid in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments provides an unprecedented opportunity to examine the real-time processes of physical and chemical/electrochemical reactions during the interaction between metal surfaces and liquid environments. This work describes the requisite steps to make the technique fully analytical, from sample preparation, through modifications of the electrodes, characterization of electrolytes, and finally to electrochemical corrosion experiments comparing in situ TEM to conventional bulk cell and microcell configurations.
The signature of a coherent system is a useful tool in the study and comparison of lifetimes of engineered systems. In order to compare two systems of different sizes with respect to their signatures, the smaller system needs to be represented by an equivalent system of the same size as the larger system. In the paper we show how to construct equivalent systems by adding irrelevant components to the smaller system. This leads to simpler proofs of some current key results, and throws new light on the interpretation of mixed systems. We also present a sufficient condition for equivalence of systems of different sizes when restricting to coherent systems. In cases where for a given system there is no equivalent system of smaller size, we characterize the class of lower-sized systems with a signature vector which stochastically dominates the signature of the larger system. This setup is applied to an optimization problem in reliability economics.
Adopting international legal agreements for every global health challenge is not a good idea. Such an enterprise would require unprecedented political mobilization and resources that are impossible to sustain, and it would lead to further fragmentation in global health governance. International legalization also has its costs and trade-offs, including potentially devastating dark sides that we have tallied elsewhere.
Yet we believe that calls for an international legal agreement on antibiotic resistance (ABR) are important and that such an agreement is in fact much needed for the future of global health. We came to this conclusion based on a reasoned assessment of the facts before us — the potential benefits, costs, and trade-offs of an ABR legal agreement — and consideration of four criteria we previously proposed for prospectively evaluating proposals for new global health treaties.3 We came to this conclusion despite previously expressing concerns about adopting new international legal agreements on global health issues.
Perspectives from 22 countries on aspects of the legal environment for selection are presented in this article. Issues addressed include (a) whether there are racial/ethnic/religious subgroups viewed as “disadvantaged,” (b) whether research documents mean differences between groups on individual difference measures relevant to job performance, (c) whether there are laws prohibiting discrimination against specific groups, (d) the evidence required to make and refute a claim of discrimination, (e) the consequences of violation of the laws, (f) whether particular selection methods are limited or banned, (g) whether preferential treatment of members of disadvantaged groups is permitted, and (h) whether the practice of industrial and organizational psychology has been affected by the legal environment.
Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed no differences in 24 h and postprandial EE or appetite regulation. However, lipid oxidation, estimated from the respiratory quotient (RQ), was found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC during daytime (P= 0·014) as well as during the time after the breakfast meal (P= 0·008) when the food was provided. Likewise, NEFA concentrations were found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC and IC (P< 0·01). However, there was no overall difference in the concentration of insulin or glucagon-like peptide 1. In conclusion, dietary treatments when served as high-protein mixed meals induced similar effects on EE and appetite regulation, except for lipid oxidation, where RQ values suggest that it is higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC.