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This volume traces the life journeys of a cohort of influential and transformative women in psychology, now in or nearing retirement, who have changed the discipline and the broader world of academia in significant ways. The 26 reflective essays record how these scholars thrived in an academic landscape that was often, at best, unwelcoming, and, at worst, hostile, toward them. They explicitly and implicitly acknowledge that their paths were inextricably linked with the evolution of women's roles in society; they highlight and celebrate their achievements as much as they acknowledge and recognize the obstacles, barriers, and hurdles they overcame. They tell their stories with candor and humor, resulting in a compilation of inspiring essays. The end result of these individual narratives is a volume that provides a unique resource for current and future academics to help them navigate through the crossroads, curves, and challenges of their own careers in academia.
The authors explain in this work a new approach to observing and controlling linear systems whose inputs and outputs are not fixed in advance. They cover a class of linear time-invariant state/signal system that is general enough to include most of the standard classes of linear time-invariant dynamical systems, but simple enough that it is easy to understand the fundamental principles. They begin by explaining the basic theory of finite-dimensional and bounded systems in a way suitable for graduate courses in systems theory and control. They then proceed to the more advanced infinite-dimensional setting, opening up new ways for researchers to study distributed parameter systems, including linear port-Hamiltonian systems and boundary triplets. They include the general non-passive part of the theory in continuous and discrete time, and provide a short introduction to the passive situation. Numerous examples from circuit theory are used to illustrate the theory.
Determining what has gone wrong in a malfunctioning body and proposing an effective treatment requires expertise. Since antiquity, philosophers and doctors have wondered what sort of knowledge this expertise involves, and whether and how it can warrant its conclusions. Few people were as qualified to deal with these questions as Galen of Pergamum (129–ca. 216). A practising doctor with a keen interest in logic and natural science, he devoted much of his enormous literary output to the task of putting medicine on firm methodological grounds. At the same time he reflected on philosophical issues entailed by this project, such as the nature of experience, its relation to reason, the criteria of truth, and the methods of justification. This volume explores Galen's contributions to (mainly scientific) epistemology, as they arise in the specific inquiries and polemics of his works, as well as their legacy in the Islamic world.
The fifth edition of Gender and Elections offers a lively, multi-faceted account of the role of gender in the electoral process through the 2020 elections. This timely yet enduring volume strikes a balance between highlighting the most important developments for women as voters and candidates in the 2020 elections and providing an in-depth analysis of the ways that gender has helped shape the contours and outcomes of electoral politics in the United States. Individual chapters demonstrate the importance of gender in understanding presidential, congressional, and state elections; voter participation, turnout, and choices; participation of African American women and Latinas; support of political parties and women's organizations; and candidate communication. New chapters explore the role of social movements in elections and introduce concepts of gendered and raced institutions, intersectionality, and identity politics applied to presidential elections from past to present. The resulting volume is the most comprehensive and reliable resource on the role of gender in electoral politics.
In this volume, Dialogical Self Theory is innovatively presented as a guide to help elucidate some of the most pressing problems of our time as they emerge at the interface of self and society. As a bridging framework at the interface of the social sciences and philosophy, Dialogical Self Theory provides a broad view of problem areas that place us in a field of tension between liberation and social imprisonment. With climate change and the coronavirus pandemic serving as wake-up calls, the book focuses on the experience of uncertainty, the disenchantment of the world, the pursuit of happiness, and the cultural limitations of the Western self-ideal. Now more than ever we need to rethink the relationship between self, other, and the natural environment, and this book uses Dialogical Self Theory to explore actual and potential responses of the self to these urgent challenges.
This introduction to the mathematics of incompressible fluid mechanics and its applications keeps prerequisites to a minimum – only a background knowledge in multivariable calculus and differential equations is required. Part One covers inviscid fluid mechanics, guiding readers from the very basics of how to represent fluid flows through to the incompressible Euler equations and many real-world applications. Part Two covers viscous fluid mechanics, from the stress/rate of strain relation to deriving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, through to Beltrami flows, the Reynolds number, Stokes flows, lubrication theory and boundary layers. Also included is a self-contained guide on the global existence of solutions to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Students can test their understanding on 100 progressively structured exercises and look beyond the scope of the text with carefully selected mini-projects. Based on the authors' extensive teaching experience, this is a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students across mathematics, science, and engineering.
Stress tests are the most innovative regulatory tool to prevent and fight financial crises. Their use has fundamentally changed the mathematical modeling of financial systems, financial risk management in the public and private sector, and the policies designed to prevent and mitigate financial crises. When financial crises hit, stress tests take center stage. Despite their centrality to public policy, the optimal design and use of stress tests remains highly contested. Written by an international team of leading thinkers from academia, the public sector and the private sector, this handbook comprehensively surveys and evaluates the state of play and charts the innovations that will determine the path ahead. It is a comprehensive and interdisciplinary resource that bridges theory and practice and places financial stress testing in its wider context. This guide is essential reading for researchers, practitioners and policymakers working on financial risk management and financial regulation.
In many systems consisting of interacting subsystems, the complex interactions between elements can be represented using multilayer networks. However percolation, key to understanding connectivity and robustness, is not trivially generalised to multiple layers. This Element describes a generalisation of percolation to multilayer networks: weak multiplex percolation. A node belongs to a connected component if at least one of its neighbours in each layer is in this component. The authors fully describe the critical phenomena of this process. In two layers with finite second moments of the degree distributions the authors observe an unusual continuous transition with quadratic growth above the threshold. When the second moments diverge, the singularity is determined by the asymptotics of the degree distributions, creating a rich set of critical behaviours. In three or more layers the authors find a discontinuous hybrid transition which persists even in highly heterogeneous degree distributions, becoming continuous only when the powerlaw exponent reaches $1+1/(M-1)$ for $M$ layers.
Video games can have many effects on players, some of which could be intentional effects (e.g., games designed to train health compliance behaviors), and most of which are unintentional (e.g., violent games, stereotypes, gaming disorder). Some of these areas of research have been seen as controversial, but many of the controversies can be at least partially resolved by considering the learning mechanisms underlying the effects. We describe the General Learning Model in greater detail than has been provided elsewhere, including short-term and long-term mechanisms, processes of learning and forgetting, and moderators of learning. Video games use many of the best practices to train for both mastery and for transfer of learning. The implications for re-interpreting the literature on violent video games and gaming disorder, as well as for applied social psychology broadly defined, are discussed.
Optimization techniques are at the core of data science, including data analysis and machine learning. An understanding of basic optimization techniques and their fundamental properties provides important grounding for students, researchers, and practitioners in these areas. This text covers the fundamentals of optimization algorithms in a compact, self-contained way, focusing on the techniques most relevant to data science. An introductory chapter demonstrates that many standard problems in data science can be formulated as optimization problems. Next, many fundamental methods in optimization are described and analyzed, including: gradient and accelerated gradient methods for unconstrained optimization of smooth (especially convex) functions; the stochastic gradient method, a workhorse algorithm in machine learning; the coordinate descent approach; several key algorithms for constrained optimization problems; algorithms for minimizing nonsmooth functions arising in data science; foundations of the analysis of nonsmooth functions and optimization duality; and the back-propagation approach, relevant to neural networks.
Building upon the award-winning second edition, this comprehensive textbook provides a fundamental understanding of the formative processes of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Encouraging a deeper comprehension of the subject by explaining the petrologic principles, and assuming knowledge of only introductory college-level courses in physics, chemistry, and calculus, it lucidly outlines mathematical derivations fully and at an elementary level, making this the ideal resource for intermediate and advanced courses in igneous and metamorphic petrology. With over 500 illustrations, many in color, this revised edition contains valuable new material and strengthened pedagogy, including boxed mathematical derivations allowing for a more accessible explanation of concepts, and more qualitative end-of-chapter questions to encourage discussion. With a new introductory chapter outlining the “bigger picture,” this fully updated resource will guide students to an even greater mastery of petrology.
Ancient iron formations - iron and silica-rich chemical sedimentary rocks that formed throughout the Precambrian eons - provide a significant part of the evidence for the modern scientific understanding of palaeoenvironmental conditions in Archaean (4.0–2.5 billion years ago) and Proterozoic (2.5–0.539 billion years ago) times. Despite controversies regarding their formation mechanisms, iron formations are a testament to the influence of the Precambrian biosphere on early ocean chemistry. As many iron formations are pure chemical sediments that reflect the composition of the waters from which they precipitated, they can also serve as nuanced geochemical archives for the study of ancient marine temperatures, redox states, and elemental cycling, if proper care is taken to understand their sedimentological context.
The Cambridge Companion to Literature and Psychoanalysis explains the link between literature and psychoanalysis for students, critics and teachers. It offers a twenty-first century resource for defining and analyzing the psychoanalytic dimensions of human creativity in contemporary society. Essays provide critical perspectives on selected canonical authors, such as William Shakespeare, Jane Austen, Virginia Woolf, Toni Morrison, and James Baldwin It also offers analysis of contemporary literature of social, sexual and political turmoil, as well as newer forms such as film, graphic narrative, and autofiction. Divided into five sections, each offering the reader different subject areas to explore, this volume shows how psychoanalytic approaches to literature can provide valuable methods of interpretation. It will be a key resource for students, teachers and researchers in the field of literature and psychoanalysis as well as literary theory.
Ethnic riots are a costly and all too common occurrence during political transitions in multi-ethnic settings. Why do ethnic riots occur in certain parts of a country and not others? How does violence eventually decline? Drawing on rich case studies and quantitative evidence from Indonesia between 1990 and 2012, this book argues that patterns of ethnic rioting are not inevitably driven by inter-group animosity, weakness of state capacity, or local demographic composition. Rather, local ethnic elites strategically use violence to leverage their demands for political inclusion during political transition and that violence eventually declines as these demands are accommodated. Toha breaks new ground in showing that particular political reforms—increased political competition, direct local elections, and local administrative units partitioning—in ethnically diverse contexts can ameliorate political exclusion and reduce overall levels of violence between groups.
Taking its lead from a famous scene in 2 Henry IV and drawing upon the latest historical scholarship, this chapter surveys the modernization of England’s military capacity during the reign of Elizabeth I. By contrast with the success of England’s naval revival, the parallel effort to overhaul the antiquated county militia system and to create armies for service abroad achieved only partial success. While bows and bills were gradually replaced by guns and pikes and a proportion of each county’s militia was formed into “trained bands,” the sheer scale of the effort meant that the modernization of England’s military capacity on land always remained a frustratingly incomplete endeavor. Even so, Elizabeth’s privy council and the lord lieutenants of the counties made greater progress in this effort than has typically been recognized and managed to sustain war on multiple fronts over a period of more than twenty years.
The second edition of this concise, affordable textbook is ideal for curious undergraduate majors and non-majors taking a first course in meteorology. The first two chapters introduce readers to the main concepts and tools used to analyze weather patterns. Chapters 3-8 provide a foundational understanding of the fundamental processes taking place in the atmosphere, and in Chapters 9-12 these physical concepts are applied to specific weather phenomena. Weather concepts are then used in Chapters 13-15 to explain weather forecasting, air pollution, and the impact of climate change on weather. Key concepts are illustrated through a running case study of a single mid-latitude cyclone, providing students with an opportunity to progressively develop their understanding of weather phenomena with a familiar example approached from multiple perspectives. This edition includes expanded and updated coverage of precipitation types and formation, satellite and radar technology, tornadoes, and more. It also features thought-provoking end-of-chapter review questions, new visual analysis exercises, an expanded test bank and nearly 100 new figures.
Bringing together fifty years' worth of cross-linguistic research, this pioneering monograph explores the complex interaction between tense, mood and aspect. It looks at the long way of combining elementary semantic units at the bottom of phrase structure up to and including the top of a sentence. Rejecting ternary tense as blocking compositionality, it introduces three levels obtained by binary tense oppositions. It also counters an outdated view on motion by assuming that change is not expressed as having an inherent goal but rather as dynamic interaction between different number systems that allows us to package information into countable and continuous units. It formally identifies the central role of a verb in a variety of argument structures and integrates adverbial modifiers into the compositional structure at different tense levels of phrase structure. This unique contribution to the field will be essential reading for advanced students and researchers in the syntax-semantics interface.
This book is a comprehensive manual for decision-makers and policy leaders addressing the issues around human caused climate change, which threatens communities with increasing extreme weather events, sea level rise, and declining habitability of some regions due to desertification or inundation. The book looks at both mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming and adaption to changing conditions as the climate changes. It encourages the early adoption of climate change measures, showing that rapid decarbonisation and improved resilience can be achieved while maintaining prosperity. The book takes a sector-by-sector approach, starting with energy and includes cities, industry, natural resources, and agriculture, enabling practitioners to focus on actions relevant to their field. It uses case studies across a range of countries, and various industries, to illustrate the opportunities available. Blending technological insights with economics and policy, the book presents the tools decision-makers need to achieve rapid decarbonisation, whilst unlocking and maintaining productivity, profit, and growth.