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One factor greatly influencing the prognosis and progression of the Schizophrenia is compliance and it is essential to find new drugs which carry minimal side effects.
To identify the profile of patients who are treated with aAripiprazole and to assess the effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence.
Patients and Methods:
This was a multicentre, observational, retrospective study with participation of 200 psychiatrists. Data from the medical records of patients treated with aAripiprazole with at least two months were collected between October and December 2005.
A total of 997 patients were included. 95% of patients had been treated with another drug prior to receiving aAripiprazole. The pattern for switching from the previous treatment was substitution in 75% of cases and addition in 25%. Reasons for switching were: 56,6% lack of efficacy and 35,6% adverse reactions. The investigator's assessment of aAripiprazole's effectiveness and tolerability showed these was very good or good in 76% and 90% of cases respectively. Around 87.6% showed good treatment compliance. Efficacy of treatment was correlated with duration of the disease: the proportion of patients with good efficacy is greater in patients who had suffered the disease for less than ten years (78.7 vs. 73.8%) (p=0.01).
aAripiprazole was considered to have a good effectiveness and tolerability in most patients. Effectiveness was greater in the acute phase of the disease, in patients with shorter duration of the disease and in those only taking full dose aAripiprazole
We aimed to study the relationship between impulsivity and the addiction severity in 3 groups of outpatients attending our clinic, through the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and the standarized, semistructured interview EuropAsi.
174 outpatients were analized (82.6% men, 113 cocaine-dependent as main drug (mean age 32.71 y.o. (31.45–33.96)), 43 cocaine and heroin-dependent (mean age 36.68 y.o. (33.52–39.85)) and 18 heroin dependent (mean age 37.94 (32.71–41.50)). 26.3% were cannabis-dependent and 10.9% abused of Cannabis. Statistical analysis used was the Kruskal-Wallis Test.
Differences in motor impulsivity were found between the 2 groups with cocaine dependency and the only heroin-dependent (mean = 20.59, ST ± 7.7 and mean = 17.11, ST ± 7.3, respectively; W: .019). EuropASI, showed intergroup differences in the medical, use of alcohol and legal areas. In the medical area the most affected were the heroin dependent group (mean score = .40), followed by cocaine and heroin group (mean score = .27) and the cocaine-dependent (Mean = .10). In the use of alcohol area the most affected were the cocaine group (Mean = .16) followed by the cocaine and heroin-dependent (mean = .11) and heroin dependent (Mean = .06). In the legal area the most affected were the the cocaine and heroin-dependent (Mean =.22) followed by heroin-dependent (Mean = .09) and cocaine-dependent (Mean = .07).
Patients suffering from stimulant dependency alone or together with heroin dependency show different impulsivity levels. The addiction severity varies depending on the substance of abuse. Treatment programs should be designed attending patients’ needs.
After the commercialization of Aripiprazole in Spain, two observational studies were proposed, one was conducted when the drug was first launched, and the other when the starting dose of Aripiprazole was modified, in order to understand the switching strategies, the effectiveness, tolerability and adherence to treatment in standard use conditions.
Patients and Methods:
Two multicenter, retrospective, observational studies were carried out involving 200 psychiatrists throughout Spain with approximate 1000 patients treated with Aripiprazole during the previous four months in each one of the studies during 2005 and 2006 respectively.
Both groups of patients had a very similar demographic profile that matches with the general schizophrenic population. In the first study, the main reasons for switching medication were low efficacy (56% of cases) and intolerance (35%), and 44% and 43% respectively in the second study. Despite the poor response to previous treatment, clinical evaluation of effectiveness and tolerability with Aripiprazole was very positive: In the first study, 76% of patients had very good or good effectiveness and tolerability was very good or good in 90%. In the second study, these values were 75% and 93%, respectively. Patterns of change from the previous treatment were switching in 75% of cases in the first study and in 60% in the second study.
Effectiveness of treatment with Aripiprazole is good in patients who had a poor response to their previous antipsychotic treatments. The most frequent and effective pattern for change patients to Aripiprazole treatments is switching.
Cocaine dependence disorder has been widely described. However, differences due to gender remain unknown.
To compare clinical gender differences in a large sample of cocaine-dependent patients.
We performed a cross-sectional, observational study in 902 patients (35.47 yo, 21.3% women) with a cocaine dependence according DSM-IV criteria, seeking treatment during 2005 to 2013. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected The SCID-I, SCID–II, BIS and a structured interview about cocaine-induced psychosis were performed. Simple descriptive statistics were carried out for demographic and clinical data. Bivariate analysis was made to compare the main variables by sex using SPSSvs18.0.
No differences in age of dependence onset, other clinical variables or cocaine-induced psychosis were detected. However, less cocaine used in the last month (2.12 vs 3.37g) (p < 0.009), more impulsivity (67.2 vs 63.03) (p < 0.040), and more sedative dependence (21.2% % vs 8.3%)(p< 0.00) were detected in women than in men. Affective disorders lifetime were the most prevalent (57,4%) in women. More comorbidity with anxiety disorders (p< 0.025) eating disorders (p< 0.000) and personality disorders (p< 0.039) were detected in women than in men.
Sedative dependence and anxiety disorders should be investigated in cocaine-dependent women in order to treat these conditions. Surprisingly high impulsivity level was detected and could moderate cocaine consumption. However, no difference have been found previously in studies about gender differences in cocaine-dependent patients, so this finding should be confirm in new studies.
The objective of our study is to describe the prevalence of insomnia during active consumption and hospitalisation for detoxification, and its influence on relapses at 3 and 6 months in drug-dependent patients.
We conducted a prospective study of drug-dependence inpatients admitted to the hospital detoxification unit between June 2008 and November 2012, and performed psychiatric follow-up on an outpatient basis over the six months following discharge. Insomnia prior to admission was measured by clinical interview from the patient concerning sleep habits, and during hospital stay using a sleep log filled out by nurse team. Demographic, clinical and diagnostic variables were recorded and a structured clinical interview (SCID) was conducted to assess psychiatric diagnoses. Relapse was deemed to be renewed use of the substance that brought about admission, which was assessed by alcohol testing and/or urinalysis.
We included 434 patients. Insomnia during consumption was reported by 64.3% of patients and 66.1% reported insomnia during hospital stay. Of the patients with preadmission insomnia, 68.3% relapsed at 3 months from discharge, as did 71% of patients with insomnia during hospital stay. Patients who relapsed at 3 months of follow-up showed significantly greater sleep initiation dysfunction prior to and during hospitalisation. Of the patients with preadmission insomnia, 69.2% had relapsed at 6 months from discharge. Patients who relapsed at 6 months of follow-up showed significantly greater sleep initiation dysfunction and global insomnia prior to and during hospitalisation.
Sleep disorders should be study as a prognostic factor in drugdependent patients.
Drug use among medical students is partially unknown. However, consumption among medical students may have a similar role if compared with the rest of population.
To study drugs use among medical students comparing gender and evolution on drugs use.
Students enrolled in the fifth year of the medical studies at the Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, from the course 2008-2009 to 2014-2015, were offered the chance to participate voluntarily in the study.
The students agreed to participate anonymously in a survey filled in during the beginning days of the psychiatry classes. They were asked about their drug consumption, including legal drugs (alcohol and tobacco) and illegal drugs. During the seven study years, 469 questionnaires were collected (74.1% of women) and mean age was 22.77 (20-35) yearsold.
The students reported consuming alcohol (66.7%; 65.5% women, 70.4% men), tobacco (18.6%; 18.1% women, 20% men) and illegal drugs (15.1%; 12.4% women, 22.8% men). The female students consumed fewer illegal drugs than the men (p 0.008) as showed above. Comparing 2008/2009 and 2014/2015 courses, the consumption was: alcohol 75.5% and 65.7%, tobacco 24.5% and 13.2% and illegal drugs 22.4% and 14.7%.
Drug consumption is an important problem among medicalstudents who will becomeprescribing doctors in a few months after the survey. There is a decreased tendency to use illegal drugs. Due to the gender differences on illegal drug use a special focus must be placed on the male group.
The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of caffeine with or without biperiden in the treatment of cocaine dependent patients.
A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial has been carried out in an inpatient regime during up to 13 days. Eligible patients were randomized to caffeine plus biperiden or caffeine plus biperiden placebo or caffeine placebo plus biperiden placebo.
Eighty five treatment-seeking patients were enrolled in this study. Patients were stabilized with a mean caffeine dose up to 15 mg/Kg. Results show that all three treatments are well tolerated and a clear reduction in cocaine withdrawal and craving was observed. Nevertheless, no statistically significant differences were found between groups in any outcome.
This study shows that inpatient cocaine detoxification with high caffeine doses, with or without biperiden, is well tolerated and allows further research on the usefulness of caffeine in the treatment of cocaine withdrawal and craving. Nevertheless, the selection of an inpatient hospital regime hampered the demonstration of the superiority of caffeine treatment versus placebo.
Cocaine consumption can induce transient psychotic symptoms. Cocaine induced psychosis (CIP) is common but not developed in all cases. However, prevalence and clinical features are not well known. In psychiatry settings different studies have reported prevalence ranging between 29%–86.5%.There are few samples including more than 150 patients for studding this topic.
The objective of this study is to determinate the CIP prevalence and the most prevalent psychotic symptoms.
We study presence of psychotic symptoms using a clinical interview for psychotic symptoms in a large sample of 287 cocaine-dependent patients.
We study the presence of psychotic symptoms using a clinical interview for psychotic symptoms in a large sample of cocainedependent patients. Patients suffering from schizophrenia or bipolar disorders were excluded. Finally we included 287 patients in the study. (80.8% men and 35.77 yo).
A structured interview were systematically conducted. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I and Axis II disorders were used in order to identify the comorbidity.
Psychotic symptoms were detected in 59.9% of the sample. The most frequent symptoms reported lifetime was suspiciousness 38.6% and paranoid beliefs 27.2% Auditory hallucinations were reported by 23.6%, visual hallucinations by 13.3%, and kinesthetic hallucinations by 7.8%. Motor alterations were not evaluated.
Our dates confirm previous study. CIP prevalence is high. Motor alterations were not evaluated, so symptoms could be underestimated. Identifying this kind of symptoms can be useful in order to minimize risks of psychotic states for the patients or others.
Legal and illegal drugs can cause psychotic symptoms, in cocaine-dependent patients the prevalence of these symptoms may reach 86% (Vorspan, 2012). It is estimated that 13–32% of cocaine-dependent patients have kinaesthetic hallucinations (Siegel, 1978; Mahoney, 2008; Roncero, 2012).
To compare the prevalence of substance-induced psychotic symptoms and compare the use of welfare/social resources and social adjustment among cocaine-dependent patients (CD) and other substances dependences (OtherD).
Two hundred and six patients seeking treatment at the Addictions and Dual Diagnosis Unit of the Vall d’Hebron. Patients were assessed by ad hoc questionnaire designed to collect demographic data and psychotic symptoms associated with consumption, a record of the care/social resources used by the patient and the scale of social adaptation (SASS). A descriptive and bivariate analysis of the data was performed.
CD were 47.1% vs. 52.9% OtherD (66.1% alcohol, 17.4% cannabis, 8.3% opioid, 8.3% benzodiazepines/other drugs). Of cocaine dependent-patients, 65.6% present psychotic symptoms vs. 32.1% for the OtherD. Different exhibiting psychotic symptoms are: self-referential (69.7% vs. 30.7%), delusions of persecution (43.4% vs. 12.2%), hallucinations (49.4% vs. 14.3%), auditory hallucinations (43.5% vs. 11.4%), visual hallucinations (30.4% vs. 5.7%) and kinaesthetic hallucinations (7.2% vs. 2.9%).
Cocaine-dependent patients significantly use more health care resources in reference addiction unit (76.3% vs. 62.4%, P:.035) and infectious diseases (22.7% vs. 5.5%, P:.000) and justice-related (50.5% vs. 26 resources 0.6%; P:1.001) and less resources and mental health (25.8% vs. 43.1%; P:.013).
Regarding social adaptation, no differences were found in the SASS. Kinaesthetic hallucinations do not appear to be related to a greater use of resources and in social adaptation.
References not available.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Accident rate have a high social cost. Cocaine consumption increases the risk of traffic crashes (Monras, 2011; Fierro, 2011). However, there is not extensively studies in addicts.
Compare and analyze the history of accidents and risk behaviors while driving in cocaine dependent patients (DC) and of other substances (OtherD).
One hundred and eighty-two patients seeking treatment since January 2014 to September 2015. Sociodemographic and accident-related variables were collected, also administered the MDBQ. Descriptive analysis and bivariate analysis using Chi-square test for categorical variables and Student t test was performed for quantitative.
Of women, 30.3%, and 69.7% men, mean age 43.67 years (SD = 13). 65.6% currently driving or above. 45.2% DC vs. 54.8 DOther (35.6% alcohol, cannabis 8.3%, 5.8% opioid and 5.1% other drugs).
Comparing accident rate on the DC is a tendency to have suffered more accidents (χ2: 2.62 P=.072). Patients addicted to cocaine referred further potentially dangerous activities both under the influence of consumption (65.9% vs. 33.3%) and abstinence (41.7% vs. 12%).
As for the results of MDBQ, it has been detected that cocaine addicts show more errors and traffic violations. No differences in the lapses identified by patients of different groups.
Patients with cocaine dependence have more accidents, reduced risk perception and recognize more mistakes and traffic violations. Cocaine implies a high risk of road accidents and exposure to high-risk situations compared to the use of other substances.
References not available.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Dietary fatty acid (FA) composition has an impact on human health. There is an increasing request from consumers for healthier food and pork industry must respond to it without worsening performance and the technological properties of pork products. The inclusion of genetic markers for carcass FA composition in pig selection schemes could be a useful tool to reach the right balance between unsaturated and saturated FAs to satisfy market demands. With the aim of finding genomic regions associated with porcine backfat FA composition, a genome-wide association study was performed on 798 Italian Large White pigs genotyped using Illumina PorcineSNP60 k. The strongest associations with backfat contents of palmitic, palmitoleic, oleic, medium-chain and long-chain FAs were found for the Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 8 region located at 119 to 122 Mb, where the gene ELOVL FA elongase 6 is mapped. Palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic and oleic acid contents were also found associated with SSC14, in particular with the genomic region at 121 to 124 Mb, where stearoyl-CoA desaturase Δ9 gene lies. On the other hand, the genomic regions associated with backfat contents of arachidic, arachidonic, n-6 and n-3 FAs showed to harbour mainly genes involved in dietary lipids and carbohydrates digestion, absorption and utilisation. To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in Large White pigs identifying markers and genomic regions associated with backfat FA composition. The results validate in Large White some associations previously detected in other pig breeds and indicate the involvement of distinct metabolic pathways in the deposition pattern of essential and non-essential FAs.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
New closed-form analytical equations for volume fractions and surface-area-to-volume ratios for architected lattice cellular materials are derived. Prior approximate equations which erroneously over count overlapping volumes and the associated surface area are commonly used in the literature. These equations are found to have up to 184% error for volume fraction calculations for hollow lattices and 211% error for surface-area-to-volume ratio calculations, thus necessitating computational methods to arrive at accurate geometric properties for cellular lattice materials. This work derives new equations which are accurate to better than 1% for both volume fraction and surface-area-to-volume ratio as compared to the computational models. These new equations for cellular lattice materials are applicable to both pyramidal and tetrahedral unit cells as well as to both hollow and solid lattice members. By eliminating the need for numerical models to compute accurate volume fractions and surface-area-to-volume ratios of architected cellular materials, these new analytical equations will enable accurate yet computationally efficient optimization of the physical properties of architected cellular materials.
Stonehenge is a site that continues to yield surprises. Excavation in 2009 added a new and unexpected feature: a smaller, dismantled stone circle on the banks of the River Avon, connected to Stonehenge itself by the Avenue. This new structure has been labelled ‘Bluestonehenge’ from the evidence that it once held a circle of bluestones that were later removed to Stonehenge. Investigation of the Avenue closer to Stonehenge revealed deep periglacial fissures within it. Their alignment on Stonehenge's solstitial axis (midwinter sunset–midsummer sunrise) raises questions about the early origins of this ritual landscape.
We present recent observation results of Sgr A* at millimeter obtained with VLBI arrays in Korea and Japan.
7 mm monitoring of Sgr A* is part of our AGN large project. The results at 7 epochs during 2013-2014, including high resolution maps, flux density and two-dimensional size measurements are presented. The source shows no significant variation in flux and structure related to the G2 encounter in 2014. According to recent MHD simulations by kawashima et al., flux and magnetic field energy can be expected to increase several years after the encounter; We will keep our monitoring in order to test this prediction.
Astrometric observations of Sgr A* were performed in 2015 at 7 and 3.5 millimeter simultaneously. Source-frequency phase referencing was applied and a combined ”core-shift” of Sgr A* and a nearby calibrator was measured. Future observations and analysis are necessary to determine the core-shift in each source.
The compact radio and near-infrared (NIR) source Sagittarius A* has been observed in the context of two NIR triggered global VLT and VLBA campaigns at 43 GHz (7 mm) on May 16-18 2012 and October 4 2014. While on October 4 2014 Sgr A* remained in a quiescent state, a NIR flare on May 17 2012 is accompanied by an increase in flux density of 0.22 Jy at 7 mm delayed by 4.5±0.5 h. Additionally, Sgr A* seems to develop a weak secondary radio off-core component of 0.02 Jy at a position angle of 140° and an angular distance of 1.5 mas shortly before the peak of the flare. This spatial extension and the time delay are in the range of expected values for events casually connected by adiabatic expansion.
The reminiscence functions scale (RFS) is a 43-item self-report instrument designed to assess the use of reminiscence for different functions. This study aims, on one hand, to analyze the factorial structure and the psychometric properties of the RFS and, on the other, to examine the relationship between the functions of reminiscence and mental health.
RFS scale and measures of depressive symptomology, despair, and life satisfaction were administered to a sample of persons over the age of sixty (n = 364).
After eliminating three conflictive items from the original scale, the confirmatory factor analysis results present a factorial structure comprising eight traditional factors and adequate reliability scores (from 0.73 to 0.87). Using structural equation modeling, we find that these reminiscence factors are organized in three second-order factors (self-positive, self-negative, and prosocial). Results show that the self-positive factor relates negatively and the self-negative factor relates positively with symptoms of mental health problems.
These results, on one hand, confirm that the RFS scale is a useful instrument to assess reminiscence functions in a sample of Spanish older adults and, on the other, that the three-factor model of reminiscence is a better predictor of mental health than the alternative four-factor model.
Precise determination of dynamical masses of pre-main-sequence stars is essential for calibrating stellar evolution models, that are widely used to derive theoretical masses of young low-mass objects. We have determined the individual masses of the pair AB Dor Ba/Bb using Australian Long Baseline Array observations and archive infrared data, as part of a larger program directed to monitor binary systems in the AB Doradus moving group. We have detected, for the first time, compact radio emission from both stars. This has allowed us to determine the orbital parameters of both the relative and absolute orbits and, consequently, their individual dynamical masses: 0.28±0.05 M⊙ and 0.25±0.05 M⊙. Comparisons of the dynamical masses with the prediction of pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary models show that the models underpredict the dynamical masses of the binary components Ba and Bb by 10–30% and 10–40%, respectively.
The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95 % CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60 % (95 % CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04 % (95 % CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms.