Domestication is a condition in which the breeding, care and feeding of animals are, at least in part, controlled by humans. Information regarding the changes in the protein composition of eggs in response to domestication is very limited. Such data are prerequisite for improvements in the reproduction of domesticated fish. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of domestication on the proteome of pikeperch eggs using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis. We analysed high-quality eggs from domesticated and wild pikeperch fish to reveal proteins that were presumably only related to the domestication process and not to the quality of eggs. Here, we show that domestication has a profound impact on the protein profile of pikeperch eggs. We identified 66 differentially abundant protein spots, including 27 spots that were more abundant in wild-caught pikeperch eggs and 39 spots that were enriched in eggs collected from domesticated females. Eggs originating from wild-caught females showed higher expression levels of proteins involved in folding, apoptotic process, purine metabolism and immune response, whereas eggs of domesticated females showed higher expression levels of proteins that participated mainly in metabolism. The changes in metabolic proteins in eggs from domesticated females can reflect the adaptation of pikeperch to commercial diets, which have profoundly distinct compositions compared with natural diets. The decrease in the abundance of proteins related to immune response in eggs from the domesticated population suggests that domestication may lead to disturbances in defence mechanisms. In turn, the lower abundance of heat shock proteins in eggs of domesticated fish may indicate their adaptation to stable farming conditions and reduced environmental stressors or their better tolerance of stress from breeding. The proteins identified in this study can increase our knowledge concerning the mechanism of the pikeperch domestication process.