Recognising the adverse outcomes that occur to obese adults over the age of 65 years with loss of muscle mass or strength, or sarcopenia is important. We will review the definitions of sarcopenic obesity, and attempt to link the epidemiological data with the molecular pathways. Upon understanding the model of sarcopenic obesity, we will discuss targeted interventions and further challenges to address this geriatric syndrome. As our understanding of this syndrome is growing, more data are emerging to help define sarcopenic obesity across different populations. We now have a better understanding of biological pathways in ageing such as changes in body composition, sex-specific hormones, pro-inflammatory markers and myocellular mechanisms. We will review a comprehensive model that shows the interactions between the different pathways leading to sarcopenic obesity. Such a model will explain the promising interventions in place and invite future ones. Sarcopenic obesity is an important geriatric syndrome with significant clinical and healthcare implications. Further research is needed to harmonise definitions, clarify mechanisms contributing to syndrome and use evidence-based interventions to target biological mechanisms in both research and clinical settings.