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To assess dietary behaviours and related lifestyles according to the presence or absence of skipping breakfast.
We analysed the cross-sectional data from a baseline survey of a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan conducted in 2011–2016. Participants provided information on dietary behaviours and lifestyles through a self-administered questionnaire. Skipping breakfast was defined as not eating breakfast at least once a week and was classified according to the frequency of skipping breakfast as 1–2, 3–4 or ≥5 times/week.
Sixteen municipalities in seven prefectural areas across Japan under the Japan Public Health Centre-based prospective study for the Next Generation.
112 785 residents (51 952 males and 60 833 females) aged 40–74 years.
After adjustment for age, socio-demographic status, drinking status and smoking status, individuals who skipped breakfast at least once a week, compared with those who ate breakfast every day, were more likely to have adverse dietary behaviours such as frequent eating out (multivariable OR = 2·08, 95 % CI (1·96, 2·21) in males and 2·15, 95 % CI (1·99, 2·33) in females), frequent eating instant foods (1·89, 95 % CI (1·77, 2·01) in males and 1·72, 95 % CI (1·56, 1·89) in females). They had late bedtime (1·85, 95 % CI (1·75, 1·95) in males and 1·98, 95 % CI (1·86, 2·11) in females) and living alone (2·37, 95 % CI (2·17, 2·58) in males and 2·02, 95 % CI (1·83, 2·21) in females), using the logistic regression model.
Both adult males and females who skipped breakfast were likely to eat out, to have a dietary habit of eating instant foods and have lifestyles such as late bedtime and living alone than those who ate breakfast.
We show that high-efficiency and low-degradation hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n solar cells can be obtained by depositing absorber layers in a triode-type plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. Although the deposition rate is relatively low (0.01-0.03 nm/s) compared to the conventional diode-type PECVD process (∼0.2 nm/s), the light-induced degradation in conversion efficiency of single-junction solar cell is substantially reduced (Δη/ηini∼10%) due to the suppression of light-induced metastable defects in the a-Si:H absorber layer. So far, we have attained an independently-confirmed stabilized efficiency of 10.11% for a 220-nm-thick a-Si:H solar cell which was light soaked under 1 sun illumination for 1000 hours at cell temperature of 50°C. We further demonstrate that stabilized efficiencies as high as 10% can be maintained even when the solar cell is thickened to >300 nm.
The preparation of large scale monolayers of dodecanethiol coated nanoparticles on modified silicon substrates for use in storage media is reported. The formation of nanoparticle monolayers was accomplished by vertically pulling various modified silicon substrates at controlled speeds from nanoparticle solutions. The silicon substrates investigated had silanol and hydrogen terminated surfaces, surfaces chemically modified by (CH3) 3SiNHSi(CH3) 3 and (CH3O) 3Si(CH2)2(CF2) 7CF3 and a silicon substrate coated with amorphous carbon. All of these substrates have different surface polarities and a wide variation in monolayer coverage was obtained. The effect of the substrate pulling speed and solvent were also investigated.
We propose multi-layer near-field recording with using inner focus mode. The restricted conditions for multi-layer near-field recording are discussed from the viewpoint of both media structure and optical setup. One solution is presented for dual layer recording with a numerical aperture (NA) of 1.5 and a wavelength of 405 nm as a light source of GaN laser diode.
In the proposed layer structure, a Nb2O5 material has been adopted as the intermediate layer because of its high refractive index, n = 2.4, in order to prevent the decrease of beam propagation that corresponds to NA>1. Almost the same signal characteristics can be obtained from both recording layers at the air gap of 40 nm. The adjustment of focusing position and the compensation of spherical aberrations have been implemented by the combination of an expander lens unit and a liquid crystal (LC) panel in the optical setup.
Tracer oxygen diffusion coefficients, D*, in polycrystalline yttria doped with Ca have been determined by a gas–solid exchange technique and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Samples containing few pores were used to avoid their influences on diffusion profiles. The resulting profiles were assigned only to volume diffusion; no grain boundary diffusion was observed. According to the effects of Ca doping on D*, the Ca contents are divided into three regions. In a Ca content region of 0–0.17 mol%, D* changed a little with Ca doping and took a minimum experimentally at 0.02 mol%. D* increased significantly within a range of 0.17–0.54 mol% and saturated at 0.54 mol% or above because of a solubility limit. The activation energies of oxygen diffusion were estimated at 249–282 kJ/mol.
Epitaxial (001)-, (116)- and pseudo (103)-oriented Sr0.35Bi2.2Ta2O9 (SBT (0.35/2.2/2.0)) films were successfully grown on (001), (110) and (111) SrTiO3 substrates, respectively. High-resolution X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping (HRXRD-RSM) measurements and pole figure measurements clearly indicated that the (116)-oriented SBT (0.35/2.2/2.0) film consisted of two growth domains those c-axis are separated 180° apart in in-plane and pseudo (103)-oriented SBT film consisted of three growth domains those c-axis are separated 120° apart in in-plane. Moreover, lattice parameter measurements indicated that SBT films grew in fully relaxed state.
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