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This study aimed to investigate the association between consumption of ultra-processed foods, whole foods and breast cancer risk in black women from Soweto, South Africa. A population-based case (n 396)–control (n 396) study matched on age and residence, using data from the South African Breast Cancer study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated quantified FFQ. Food items were categorised using the NOVA system ((1) unprocessed/minimally processed foods, (2) culinary ingredients, (3) processed foods and (4) ultra-processed foods). Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate OR and 95 % CI of dietary contributions from each NOVA food group (as a percentage of total energy intake (EI)) and adjusting for potential confounders. Considering contributions to total EI per day, ultra-processed food consumption contributed to 44·8 % in cases and 47·9 % in controls, while unprocessed/minimally processed foods contributed to 38·8 % in cases and 35·2 % in controls. Unprocessed/minimally processed food consumption showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk overall (OR = 0·52, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·78), as well as in pre- and postmenopausal women separately (OR = 0·52, 95 % CI 0·27, 0·95 and OR = 0·55, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·89, respectively) and in women with progesterone positive breast cancer (OR = 0·23, 95 % CI 0·06, 0·86). There was no heterogeneity in association with breast cancer when analyses were stratified according to BMI. No significant associations were observed for the consumption of other NOVA food groups. Intake of unprocessed/minimally processed foods may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in black women from Soweto, South Africa.
To determine the level of adherence and to assess the association between higher adherence to the South African food based dietary guidelines (SAFBDG) and breast cancer risk.
Population-based, case–control study (the South African Breast Cancer study) matched on age and demographic settings. Validated questionnaires were used to collect dietary and epidemiological data. To assess adherence to the SAFBDG, a nine-point adherence score (out of eleven guidelines) was developed, using suggested adherence cut-points for scoring each recommendation (0 and 1). When the association between higher adherence to the SAFBDG and breast cancer risk was assessed, data-driven tertiles among controls were used as cut-points for scoring each recommendation (0, 0·5 and 1). OR and 95 % CI were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models.
Soweto, South Africa.
Black urban women, 396 breast cancer cases and 396 controls.
After adjusting for potential confounders, higher adherence (>5·0) to the SAFBDG v. lower adherence (<3·5) was statistically significantly inversely associated with breast cancer risk overall (OR = 0·56, 95 % CI 0·38, 0·85), among postmenopausal women (OR = 0·64, 95 % CI 0·40, 0·97) as well as for oestrogen-positive breast cancers (OR = 0·51, 95 % CI 0·32, 0·89). Only 32·3 % of cases and 39·1 % of controls adhered to at least half (a score >4·5) of the SAFBDG.
Higher adherence to the SAFBDG may reduce breast cancer risk in this population. The concerning low levels of adherence to the SAFBDG emphasise the need for education campaigns and to create healthy food environments in South Africa to increase adherence to the SAFBDG.
Breast cancer prevention is of great importance to reduce high incidence in South Africa. This study aimed to investigate adherence to the 2018 World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) Cancer Prevention Recommendations and the association with breast cancer risk in black urban women from Soweto, South Africa. A total of 396 breast cancer cases and 396 population-based controls from the South African Breast Cancer study (SABC) matched on age and demographic settings were included. Validated questionnaires were used to collect dietary and epidemiological data. To assess adherence to these recommendations, an eight-point adherence score was developed, using tertiles among controls for scoring each recommendation (0, 0·5 and 1) with zero indicating the lowest adherence to the recommendations. OR and 95 % CI were estimated using multivariate logistic regression models to analyse associations between the WCRF/AICR score and breast cancer risk. Greater adherence (>4·5 v. <3·25) to the 2018 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations was associated with a significant inverse association with breast cancer risk overall (OR = 0·54, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·91) and specifically in postmenopausal women (OR = 0·55, 95 % CI 0·34, 0·95), in cases with oestrogen positive and progesterone positive breast cancer subtypes (OR = 0·54, 95 % CI 0·39, 0·89 and OR = 0·68, 95 % CI 0·43, 0·89, respectively) and in obese women (OR = 0·52, 95 % CI 0·35, 0·81). No significant association with breast cancer risk was observed in premenopausal women. Greater adherence to the 2018 WCRF/AICR Cancer Prevention Recommendations may reduce breast cancer risk in this black urban population of Soweto. Adherence thereof should be encouraged and form a part of cost-effective breast cancer prevention guidelines.
High intakes of whole-grains and cereal fiber have been consistently associated with lower risk of cardiometabolic diseases in observational studies. Yet, improved understanding about the underlying mechanisms is needed. We hypothesized that cereal fiber and whole-grain are associated with beneficial metabolic marker profiles.
To investigate if cereal fiber intake, estimated by food frequency questionnaires and plasma total alkylresorcinols concentrations as well as the C17:0/C21:0-ratio in plasma as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake or the relative whole-grain rye to wheat intake, respectively, were associated with metabolic biomarkers.
A cross-sectional study conducted to investigate the associations between alkylresorcinols as biomarker of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, cereal fiber and selected metabolic biomarkers among 954 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Cereal fiber intake was assessed by FFQ and whole grain wheat and rye were reflected by biomarkers analyzed in plasma samples, i.e. total alkylresorcinol (AR). Moreover, the ratio of two of the five measured alkylresorcinols (AR C17:0/C21:0 ratio) was used as an indicator of whole-grain source (wheat or rye). Metabolic biomarkers (HbA1c, C-peptide, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and CRP) were measured in blood samples. All biomarkers were already measured for nested case-control studies of colorectal cancer matched based on sex, study center, age at blood collection, date and time of blood collection, fasting status. Women were further matched by menopausal status, phase of menstrual cycle, and use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy at time of blood collection. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between exposure variables metabolic biomarkers adjusted for case-control status and common confounders.
No associations were found between cereal fiber intake and the metabolic markers. However, whole-grain wheat and rye intake, reflected by total AR, was associated with a lower concentration of the inflammation marker CRP. The alkylresorcinol C17:0/C21:0 ratio was not associated with any of the measured metabolic markers in this cohort.
Overall, we found no support for an association between cereal fibre intake, whole grain wheat and rye intake reflected by biomarkers and metabolic markers in the present cohort. One exception was the finding of an inverse association between whole grain biomarkers and CRP. Prospective studies or RCTs are warranted to confirm our findings.
The consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) has been linked to an increased risk of cancer in western populations, particularly for breast cancer (BC). Although the consumption of UPF is increasing rapidly in Latin American (LA) populations too, there has been no evaluation of its association with BC among LA women, where 20% of the BC cases present at ages younger than 45 years. We therefore evaluated the role of UPF intake on BC risk in young women participating in the Latin American PRECAMA study.
The PRECAMA study is an ongoing study coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and involves scientific teams in four LA countries (Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica and Mexico); 406 incident BC cases and population based controls aged 20–45 years are recruited. Trained nurses administered a lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), conducted anthropometric measurements and collected biological samples. Tumour receptor status are determined in a centralized laboratory. UPF consumption was estimated by applying the NOVA classification to the dietary consumption data obtained via the FFQs. The association of the consumption of UPF and BC was determined using conditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for potential confounding factors.
The median age at recruitment was 40 years. The median percentage of calories from UPF was 24% (10th to 90th percentile: 9 to 43%). UPF intake was positively associated with BC risk (OR for tertiles 2 and 3 in comparison with tertile 1 were 1.84 (95% CI 1.21 -2.81) and 1.69 (95% CI 0.99 -2.89) respectively). Among the UPF most strongly associated with BC, we identified the intake of industrial bread, packaged sweet and savoury snacks, breakfast cereals, cakes and desserts, and ready-eat/fast food. Comparing the 3rd with the 1st tertile of energy intake from the UPF group “fast food” the OR for BC risk was 1.93 (95% CI 1.23–3.04).
Our results show positive associations between the consumption of UPF and BC risk in young women in LA. Therefore, global actions to decrease UPF intakes are urgently needed to address the cancer burden. In addition, further studies are needed to disentangle mechanisms relating UPF intake and carcinogenic processes in the breast. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a large-scale cohort including ~500,000 participants and 18,814 BC cases will be used to unravel the mechanistic pathways underlying these positive associations between the consumption of UPF and BC risk.
Incidence rates of breast cancer (BC) are increasing in South Africa. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary intake and BC risk in black South African women. The study population included 396 BC cases and 396 population-based controls matched on age and residence, participating in the South African Breast Cancer study. Diet was assessed using a validated quantified FFQ from which twelve energy-adjusted food groups were formed and analysed. OR were estimated using conditional logistic regressions, adjusted for confounding factors, comparing highest v. lowest median intake. Fresh fruit consumption showed an inverse association with BC risk (OR=0·3, 95 % CI 0·12, 0·80) in premenopausal women, whilst red and organ meat consumption showed an overall inverse association with BC risk (OR=0·6, 95 % CI 0·49, 0·94 and OR=0·6, 95 % CI 0·47, 0·91). Savoury food consumption (sauces, soups and snacks) were positively associated with BC risk in postmenopausal women (OR=2·1, 95 % CI 1·15, 4·07). Oestrogen receptor-positive stratification showed an inverse association with BC risk and consumption of nuts and seeds (OR=0·2, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·86). Based on these results, it is recommended that black South African women follow a diet with more fruit and vegetables together with a decreased consumption of less energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods such as savoury foods. More research is necessary to investigate the association between BC risk and red and organ meat consumption. Affordable and practical methods regarding these recommendations should be implemented within health intervention strategies.
Several descriptive studies on the intake of polyphenols, mostly flavonoids, have been published, especially in Europe and the USA, but insufficient data are still available in Latin-American countries, where different types of foods are consumed and different dietary habits are observed. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to estimate dietary intakes of polyphenols, including grand total, total per classes and subclasses and individual compounds, and to identify their main food sources in Mexican women. The Mexican Teachers’ Cohort includes 115 315 female teachers, 25 years and older, from twelve states of Mexico, including urban and rural areas. Dietary data were collected in the period 2008–2011 using a validated FFQ, and individual polyphenol intake was estimated using food composition data from the Phenol-Explorer database. Median total polyphenol intake was the highest in Baja California (750 mg/d) and the lowest in Yucatan (536 mg/d). The main polyphenols consumed were phenolic acids (56·3–68·5 % total polyphenols), followed by flavonoids (28·8–40·9 %). Intake of other polyphenol subclasses (stilbenes, lignans and others) was insignificant. Coffee and fruits were the most important food sources of phenolic acids and flavonoids, respectively. Intake of a total of 287 different individual polyphenols could be estimated, of which forty-two were consumed in an amount ≥1 mg/d. The most largely consumed polyphenols were several caffeoylquinic acids (ranging from 20 and 460 mg/d), ferulic acid, hesperidin and proanthocyanidins. This study shows a large heterogeneity in intakes of individual polyphenols among Mexican women, but a moderate heterogeneity across Mexican states. Main food sources were also similar in the different states.
In vitro studies have shown several beneficial properties of resveratrol. Epidemiological evidence is still scarce, probably because of the difficulty in estimating resveratrol exposure accurately. The current study aimed to assess the relationships between acute and habitual dietary resveratrol and wine intake and urinary resveratrol excretion in a European population. A stratified random subsample of 475 men and women from four countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study, who had provided 24-h urine samples and completed a 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) on the same day, were included. Acute and habitual dietary data were collected using standardised 24-HDR software and a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire, respectively. Phenol-Explorer was used to estimate the intake of resveratrol and other stilbenes. Urinary resveratrol was analysed using tandem MS. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between estimated dietary intakes of resveratrol and other stilbenes and consumption of wine, their main food source, were very high (r>0·9) when measured using dietary questionnaires and were slightly lower with 24-HDR (r>0·8). Partial Spearman’s correlations between urinary resveratrol excretion and intake of resveratrol, total stilbenes or wine were found to be higher when using the 24-HDR (R2partial approximately 0·6) than when using the dietary questionnaires (R2partial approximately 0·5). Moderate to high correlations between dietary resveratrol, total stilbenes and wine, and urinary resveratrol concentrations were observed. These support the earlier findings that 24-h urinary resveratrol is an effective biomarker of both resveratrol and wine intakes. These correlations also support the validity of the estimation of resveratrol intake using the dietary questionnaire and Phenol-Explorer.
It has been hypothesised that increased asthma prevalence in westernised countries is associated with changes in lifestyle factors, including a poorer diet. However, little is known regarding the association between diet quality and asthma. In the diet–asthma association, the role of BMI as a potential mediator needs clarification; moreover, potential effect modification by non-diet sources of oxidants, such as smoking, merits investigation. We investigated the association between diet quality and change in asthma symptoms, as well as assessed effect modification by smoking, while accounting for BMI as a potential mediator. Using data from the French prospective Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma study, we assessed diet quality using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010) at baseline and change in asthma symptoms (stable (reference), worsening, improved; mean follow-up time: 7 years). Mediation analysis was used to disentangle total and direct effects and the indirect effect mediated by BMI. The analyses included 969 adults (mean age 43 years; 49 % men; 42 % ever asthma). We observed a significant interaction between smoking and AHEI-2010 on change in asthma symptoms (Pfor interaction=0·04). Among never smokers (n 499), we observed a positive total effect (multivariable OR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·80) and a positive direct effect (OR 1·41; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·80) of the AHEI-2010 (per ten-point increment) on improved symptoms. No indirect effect mediated through BMI was observed (OR 0·99; 95 % CI 0·91, 1·07). Among former and current smokers, all effects were statistically non-significant. Better diet quality was associated with improved asthma symptoms over time in never smokers, independently of BMI.
We investigated the association between adherence to the recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and breast cancer (BC) risk in the Cancer de Màma (CAMA) study in a Mexican population.
Population-based case–control study.
Incident BC cases (n 1000) and controls (n 1074) matched on age, region and health-care system were recruited.
In-person interviews were conducted to assess BC risk factors and habitual diet was assessed with an FFQ. Conformity to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was evaluated through a score incorporating seven WCRF/AICR components (body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and breast-feeding), with high scores indicating adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations.
No statistically significant associations between WCRF/AICR score and risk of BC were observed. After excluding BMI from the WCRF/AICR score, the top quartile was associated with a decreased BC risk overall, with ORQ4–Q1=0·68 (95 % CI 0·49, 0·92, Ptrend=0·03), and among postmenopausal women, with ORQ4–Q1=0·60 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·94, Ptrend=0·03). Inverse associations were observed between BMI and risk of BC overall and among premenopausal women, with OR=0·57 (95 % CI 0·42, 0·76, Ptrend<0·01) and 0·48 (95 % CI 0·31, 0·73, Ptrend<0·01), respectively. Physical activity level was inversely associated with BC risk.
The WCRF/AICR index was not related with BC risk in the CAMA study. A combination of six components excluding BMI showed strong protective associations, particularly in postmenopausal women. Further prospective studies are required to clarify the role of adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations, particularly with respect to BMI, in the Mexican population.
Pattern analysis has emerged as a tool to depict the role of multiple nutrients/foods in relation to health outcomes. The present study aimed at extracting nutrient patterns with respect to breast cancer (BC) aetiology.
Nutrient patterns were derived with treelet transform (TT) and related to BC risk. TT was applied to twenty-three log-transformed nutrient densities from dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals computed using Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between quintiles of nutrient pattern scores and risk of overall BC, and by hormonal receptor and menopausal status. Principal component analysis was applied for comparison.
The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Women (n 334 850) from the EPIC study.
The first TT component (TC1) highlighted a pattern rich in nutrients found in animal foods loading on cholesterol, protein, retinol, vitamins B12 and D, while the second TT component (TC2) reflected a diet rich in β-carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins C and B6, fibre, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, P and folate. While TC1 was not associated with BC risk, TC2 was inversely associated with BC risk overall (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·89, 95 % CI 0·83, 0·95, Ptrend<0·01) and showed a significantly lower risk in oestrogen receptor-positive (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·89, 95 % CI 0·81, 0·98, Ptrend=0·02) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours (HRQ5 v. Q1=0·87, 95 % CI 0·77, 0·98, Ptrend<0·01).
TT produces readily interpretable sparse components explaining similar amounts of variation as principal component analysis. Our results suggest that participants with a nutrient pattern high in micronutrients found in vegetables, fruits and cereals had a lower risk of BC.
Phenolic acids are secondary plant metabolites that may have protective effects against oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer in experimental studies. To date, limited data exist on the quantitative intake of phenolic acids. We estimated the intake of phenolic acids and their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Phenolic acid intakes were estimated for 36 037 subjects aged 35–74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000 in ten European countries using a standardised 24 h recall software (EPIC-Soft), and their food sources were identified. Dietary data were linked to the Phenol-Explorer database, which contains data on forty-five aglycones of phenolic acids in 452 foods. The total phenolic acid intake was highest in Aarhus, Denmark (1265·5 and 980·7 mg/d in men and women, respectively), while the intake was lowest in Greece (213·2 and 158·6 mg/d in men and women, respectively). The hydroxycinnamic acid subclass was the main contributor to the total phenolic acid intake, accounting for 84·6–95·3 % of intake depending on the region. Hydroxybenzoic acids accounted for 4·6–14·4 %, hydroxyphenylacetic acids 0·1–0·8 % and hydroxyphenylpropanoic acids ≤ 0·1 % for all regions. An increasing south–north gradient of consumption was also found. Coffee was the main food source of phenolic acids and accounted for 55·3–80·7 % of the total phenolic acid intake, followed by fruits, vegetables and nuts. A high heterogeneity in phenolic acid intake was observed across the European countries in the EPIC cohort, which will allow further exploration of the associations with the risk of diseases.
A greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean (MED) diet is associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. This dietary pattern is based on higher consumption of plant products that are rich in flavonoids. We compared the total flavonoid dietary intakes, their food sources and various lifestyle factors between MED and non-MED countries participating in the EPIC study. Flavonoid intakes and their food sources for 35 628 subjects, aged 35–74 years and recruited between 1992 and 2000, in twenty-six study centres were estimated using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-Soft®). An ad hoc food composition database on flavonoids was compiled using analytical data from the United States Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases. Moreover, it was expanded to include using recipes, estimations of missing values and flavonoid retention factors. No significant differences in total flavonoid mean intake between non-MED countries (373·7 mg/d) and MED countries (370·2 mg/d) were observed. In the non-MED region, the main contributors were proanthocyanidins (48·2 %) and flavan-3-ol monomers (24·9 %) and the principal food sources were tea (25·7 %) and fruits (32·8 %). In the MED region, proanthocyanidins (59·0 %) were by far the most abundant contributor and fruits (55·1 %), wines (16·7 %) and tea (6·8 %) were the main food sources. The present study shows similar results for total dietary flavonoid intakes, but significant differences in flavonoid class intakes, food sources and some characteristics between MED and non-MED countries. These differences should be considered in studies about the relationships between flavonoid intake and chronic diseases.
Breast cancer incidence is rising worldwide with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Possible factors involved include lifestyle changes, notably diet that is known to make an impact on gene transcription. However, among dietary factors, there is sufficient support for only greater body weight and alcohol consumption whereas numerous studies revealing an impact of specific diets and nutrients on breast cancer risk show conflicting results. Also, little information is available from middle- and low-income countries. The diversity of gene expression profiles found in breast cancers indicates that transcription control is critical for the outcome of the disease. This suggests the need for studies on nutrients that affect epigenetic mechanisms of transcription, such as DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones. In the present review, a new examination of the relationship between diet and breast cancer based on transcription control is proposed in light of epidemiological, animal and clinical studies. The mechanisms underlying the impact of diets on breast cancer development and factors that impede reaching clear conclusions are discussed. Understanding the interaction between nutrition and epigenetics (gene expression control via chromatin structure) is critical in light of the influence of diet during early stages of mammary gland development on breast cancer risk, suggesting a persistent effect on gene expression as shown by the influence of certain nutrients on DNA methylation. Successful development of breast cancer prevention strategies will require appropriate models, identification of biological markers for rapid assessment of preventive interventions, and coordinated worldwide research to discern the effects of diet.
Epidemiological studies suggest health-protective effects of flavan-3-ols and their derived compounds on chronic diseases. The present study aimed to estimate dietary flavan-3-ol, proanthocyanidin (PA) and theaflavin intakes, their food sources and potential determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration cohort. Dietary data were collected using a standardised 24 h dietary recall software administered to 36 037 subjects aged 35–74 years. Dietary data were linked with a flavanoid food composition database compiled from the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and expanded to include recipes, estimations and retention factors. Total flavan-3-ol intake was the highest in UK Health-conscious men (453·6 mg/d) and women of UK General population (377·6 mg/d), while the intake was the lowest in Greece (men: 160·5 mg/d; women: 124·8 mg/d). Monomer intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 213·5 mg/d; women: 178·6 mg/d) and the lowest in Greece (men: 26·6 mg/d in men; women: 20·7 mg/d). Theaflavin intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 29·3 mg/d; women: 25·3 mg/d) and close to zero in Greece and Spain. PA intake was the highest in Asturias (men: 455·2 mg/d) and San Sebastian (women: 253 mg/d), while being the lowest in Greece (men: 134·6 mg/d; women: 101·0 mg/d). Except for the UK, non-citrus fruits (apples/pears) were the highest contributors to the total flavan-3-ol intake. Tea was the main contributor of total flavan-3-ols in the UK. Flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intakes were significantly different among all assessed groups. This study showed heterogeneity in flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intake throughout the EPIC countries.
Folate plays an important role in the synthesis and methylation of DNA as a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. Inadequate folate intake has been linked to adverse health events. However, comparable information on dietary folate intake across European countries has never been reported. The objective of the present study was to describe the dietary folate intake and its food sources in ten countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 36 034 participants (aged 35–74 years) who completed a single 24 h dietary recall using a computerised interview software program, EPIC-Soft® (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon). Dietary folate intake was estimated using the standardised EPIC Nutrient DataBase, adjusted for age, energy intake, weight and height and weighted by season and day of recall. Adjusted mean dietary folate intake in most centres ranged from 250 to 350 μg/d in men and 200 to 300 μg/d in women. Folate intake tended to be lower among current smokers and heavier alcohol drinkers and to increase with educational level, especially in women. Supplement users (any types) were likely to report higher dietary folate intake in most centres. Vegetables, cereals and fruits, nuts and seeds were the main contributors to folate intake. Nonetheless, the type and pattern of consumption of these main food items varied across the centres. These first comparisons of standardised dietary folate intakes across different European populations show moderate regional differences (except the UK health conscious group), and variation by sex, educational level, smoking and alcohol-drinking status, and supplement use.
To investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and self-perceived body shape silhouette and BMI in a sample of Mexican women.
A cross-sectional analysis of dietary habits from baseline data of a large cohort study (EsMaestra) conducted in 2006–2008.
The state of Veracruz, Mexico.
Mexican teachers (n 20 330) provided information on body shape silhouette at baseline, changes in body shape silhouette and BMI, as well as information on sociodemographic variables and lifestyle.
The median BMI was 26·8 kg/m2; 43 % of women were overweight and 24 % were obese. The carbohydrates, sweet drinks and refined foods pattern was associated with a greater risk of having a large silhouette and a large BMI (BMI ≥ 30·0 kg/m2v. BMI < 25·0 kg/m2; ORT1−3 = 1·86, 95 % CI 1·56, 2·22 and 1·47, 95 % CI 1·28, 1·69, respectively) with a significant trend when comparing the first and third tertiles of intake. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with a lower risk of having a large silhouette and a large BMI (ORT1−3 = 0·68, 95 % CI 0·57, 0·82 and ORT1−3 = 0·77, 95 % CI 0·67, 0·88, respectively) with a significant decreasing trend. Similar results were observed when change in silhouette (from 18 years of age to current silhouette) was considered.
High intakes of carbohydrates, sweet drinks and refined foods are related to larger silhouettes. Public health intervention improving access to healthy dietary guidelines, healthy food choice in the work place, promotion of physical activity and regulation of beverages with a high sugar content and of refined foods should be considered.
Flavonols, flavanones and flavones (FLAV) are sub-classes of flavonoids that exert cardioprotective and anti-carcinogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. We aimed to estimate the FLAV dietary intake, their food sources and associated lifestyle factors in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. FLAV intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven study centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on FLAV was compiled using data from US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded using recipes, estimations and flavonoid retention factors in order to increase its correspondence with the 24 h dietary recall. Our results showed that the highest FLAV-consuming centre was the UK health-conscious group, with 130·9 and 97·0 mg/d for men and women, respectively. The lowest FLAV intakes were 36·8 mg/d in men from Umeå and 37·2 mg/d in women from Malmö (Sweden). The flavanone sub-class was the main contributor to the total FLAV intake ranging from 46·6 to 52·9 % depending on the region. Flavonols ranged from 38·5 to 47·3 % and flavones from 5·8 to 8·6 %. FLAV intake was higher in women, non-smokers, increased with level of education and physical activity. The major food sources were citrus fruits and citrus-based juices (especially for flavanones), tea, wine, other fruits and some vegetables. We concluded that the present study shows heterogeneity in intake of these three sub-classes of flavonoids across European regions and highlights differences by sex and other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
Anthocyanidins are bioactive flavonoids with potential health-promoting effects. These may vary among single anthocyanidins considering differences in their bioavailability and some of the mechanisms involved. The aim of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of anthocyanidins, their food sources and the lifestyle factors (sex, age, BMI, smoking status, educational level and physisical activity) involved among twenty-seven centres in ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Anthocyanidin intake and their food sources for 36 037 subjects, aged between 35 and 74 years, in twenty-seven redefined centres were obtained using standardised 24 h dietary recall software (EPIC-SOFT). An ad hoc food composition database on anthocyanidins (cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin) was compiled using data from the US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and was expanded by adding recipes, estimated values and cooking factors. For men, the total anthocyanidin mean intake ranged from 19·83 (se 1·53) mg/d (Bilthoven, The Netherlands) to 64·88 (se 1·86) mg/d (Turin, Italy), whereas for women the range was 18·73 (se 2·80) mg/d (Granada, Spain) to 44·08 (se 2·45) mg/d (Turin, Italy). A clear south to north gradient intake was observed. Cyanidins and malvidins were the main anthocynidin contributors depending on the region and sex. Anthocyanidin intake was higher in non-obese older females, non-smokers, and increased with educational level and physical activity. The major food sources were fruits, wine, non-alcoholic beverages and some vegetables. The present study shows differences in both total and individual anthocyanidin intakes and various lifestyle factors throughout Europe, with some geographical variability in their food sources.
Numerous mechanisms for the effects of coffee, tea and caffeine on the risk of breast cancer have been suggested. Caffeine intake has already been associated with high plasma levels of female hormones, but associations have not been clearly demonstrated in epidemiological studies.
We examined prospectively the association of coffee, tea and caffeine consumption with breast cancer risk in a French cohort study.
Dietary information was obtained from a 208-item diet history questionnaire self-administered in 1993–1995. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazards ratios and 95 % confidence intervals.
The study was conducted on 67 703 women with available dietary information. During a median follow-up of 11 years, 2868 breast cancer cases were diagnosed.
Median intake was 280 ml/d (2·2 cups/d) for coffee and 214 ml/d (1·7 cups/d) for tea. Median caffeine intake was 164 mg/d. No association was found between consumption of coffee, tea or caffeine and breast cancer risk. Sub-analyses by tumour receptor status, menopausal status, type of coffee (regular or decaffeinated) and meals at which beverages were drunk led to the same conclusion.
Results from this prospective study showed no relationship between coffee, tea or caffeine intake and breast cancer risk overall or by hormone receptor status.