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Examine the association between trauma and daily stressors, post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSS), anxio-depressive disorders, and suicidal ideation in older adults.
A cross-sectional study.
Setting and Participants:
This study included 1446 older adults recruited in primary care practices (2011–2013) and participating in Quebec’s longitudinal study on health services in the elderly.
Lifetime trauma and PTSS was assessed using the validated PTSS scale for older adults based on scores from the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, number of lifetime traumatic events and interference with daily activities. The presence of an anxio-depressive disorder was based on physician diagnoses. Path analyses were conducted to determine the pathways between trauma, daily stressors, PTSS and anxio-depressive disorders and SI. Analyses were conducted on the overall sample and by sex.
Seven percent and 12% reported SI and PTSS. In males, traumas of sexual assault, violence/stalked, war/combat/imprisonment and daily hassles were directly associated with SI. In females, daily hassles were directly associated with SI. In males, a number of traumas were associated with SI through the mediating effect of PTSS and anxio-depressive disorders. In females, PTSS but not anxio-depressive disorders mediated the relationship between traumas and daily stressors, and suicidal ideation.
The effects of lifetime traumas persist well into older age. Traumas leading to SI differ between males and females as do the pathways and comorbidity with PTSS and anxio-depressive disorders. This highlights differences in etiologic patterns, which may be used in primary care practice to identify symptom profiles of older persons at risk of suicidal ideation.
To evaluate the knowledge of healthcare students after four curricula on infection control and to identify sources of information.
Four healthcare schools at Rouen University (Rouen, France).
Medical students, nursing students, assistant radiologist students, and physiotherapist students taking public health courses.
To measure students' knowledge of infection control and their sources of information, 6 multiple-choice questions were asked about 3 specific areas: standard precautions, hand hygiene, and nosocomial infection. Each questionnaire section had 10 possible points, for an overall perfect score of 30. The sources of information for these 3 areas were also recorded: self-learning, practice training in wards, formal training in wards, and teaching during the curriculum. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with acceptable level of knowledge.
Three hundred fifty students (107 medical students, 78 nursing students, 71 physiotherapist students, and 94 assistant radiologist students) were included in the study. The mean overall score (±SD) was 21.5 ± 2.84. Nursing students had a better mean overall score (23.2 ± 2.35) than did physiotherapist students (21.9 ± 2.36), medical students (21.1 ± 2.35), and assistant radiologist students (20.5 ± 3.04; P < .001). The mean scores (±SD) for the component sections of the questionnaire were 8.5 ±1.4 for standard precautions, 7.4 ± 1.26 for hand hygiene, and 5.7 ± 1.55 for nosocomial infections (P < .001). The main source of information was material taught during the curriculum. Results of multivariate analysis indicate that the probability of attaining acceptable knowledge in each area was smaller for medical students and assistant radiologist students than for nursing students.
The overall score for infection control indicated that instruction was effective; however, knowledge levels were different by area (the best scores were results of tests of standard precautions) and curriculum (nursing students achieved the best overall score). Ward training for daily infection control practice (ie, bedside instructions training and course work) could be improved for healthcare students.
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